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of a teinpest, in the “ Nauplius” of Timotheus, I first waking in the morning; and it is said of Dorion said, “he had seen a better in a boiling / good Bishop Ken that, immediately on rising cauldron.” Having lost a large shoe at a ban- | from his bed, he seized his guitar, and played quet, which he wore on account of his foot being some sprightly strain for this purpose.” violently swelled by the gout, “the only harm I Lasus, Aristoxenus, Euclid, and Ptolemy, were wish the thief,” said he, “is, that my shoe may | all notable musical theorists; but space will not fit him.” These little lively stories are, it is be- permit us to speak of them as they deserve, or lieved, perfectly genuine, and are curious, as ex. I to advert at all to the Scolia, or songs of the hibiting the humour of an individual more than ancient Greeks. two thousand years ago.
We pass on to say a few rapid words about Immense prices were given for flutes. We are Greek music. Though a fiercely disputed point told that Ismenias, a celebrated musician of among learned writers of the last century, it is Thebes, gave three talents, or £581. 58., for one now a pretty well established fact that the at Corinth; and that Theodorus, a flute-maker | Greeks were ignorant of harmony, or the effects of Athens, made so much wealth by his pro- | arising from the combination of musical sounds fession as to be enabled to bear one of the hea- | simultaneously heard. The word “harmony" viest burdens to which a citizen of that city was it is true, frequently occurs in their writings; liable, that of furnishing a choir or chorus for but it meant what we understand by the term bis tribe or ward, at festivals and religious cere- , melody, viz., “a well ordered succession of monies. With respect to the salaries of great sounds." The oldest musical scale of the Greeks performers, a circumstance quoted from Athe- | Dr. Burney considers to be nearly identical with næus, shows that the profusion and extravagance the Scottish scale; and the latter Mr. Nathan of the present age, in gratifying the ministers of proves to be closely siinilar to the Chinese scale. our pleasures, is inferior to that of the Athenians A large volume, however, would be necessary during the period now under consideration; for I to elucidate the subject of national music in it is asserted that Amæbæus, the harper, when- a comprehensive and satisfactory manner. The ever he appeared on the stage, was paid an | musical scale of the Greeks never reached, at its Attic talent, or £193. 15s. a day, for his per- greatest extent, beyond two octaves : narrow formance; though he lived, it is added, close to limits, truly, in comparison with our modern the theatre.
compass of eight octaves! It resembled the The most celebrated female flute-player of present scale in the disposition of its intervals, antiquity was Lamia. She was regarded as a l and consequently in the kind of melody which prodigy of excellence; her abilities in her pro- l it was calculated to produce. In place of being fession, united with wit and beauty, rendered her arranged in octaves, it was disposed into tetrathe wonder of her age.
chords, or groups of four notes each. The Before the conquest of Greece by the Romans, Greek Music too, like the modern, had its three and the total separation of Music and Poetry, I genera--the diatonic, or natural scale; the chrothe distinguished names of Anacreon, Æschylus, | matic, and the enharmonic. There was a variety Sophocles, and Euripides, appear in history; of modes, similar to the variety of keys in modern but of these well-known poet-musicians it is un- | music: these were distinguished by the names necessary to say anything
| of different districts, as the Dorian, Lydian, There were several eminent musical theorists | Phrygian, &c., and are described as acting dit: amongst the ancient Greek writers. Pythagoras, ferently on the feelings; the Lydian being solt the Samian philosopher, was the first who at- and soothing, the Phrygian bold and warlike, tempted to give a theory of sounds; he was also and so with the others. These differences could the inventor of the monochord, an instrument not have arisen from the difference in the pitch for measuring and adjusting musical intervals ; | merely—the only dissimilarity of modern keys as well as a profound musical mathematician. The —there must have been some diversity of rhythm, sublime idea of the “ Harmony of the Spheres' or some peculiarity in the manner of perform
ed to him, as also the addition of a ance belonging to each mode, of which we have string to the lyre and the invention of Greek no explanation. notation. Pythagoras is said, by the writers of It is generally supposed that the Greeks had his life, to have regarded Music as something | no musical rhythm, except that which regulateu celestial and divine, and to have had such an their poetry, so that the length of the notes and opinion of its power over the human affections, | the different kinds of musical feet in the airs, that he ordered his disciples to be waked every were regulated entirely by the quantities of the morning, and lulled to sleep every night by syllables, and the feet of the poetry to which sweet sounds. He likewise considered it as they were united. The Greek system of notation greatly conducive to health, and made use of it was excessively complicated; and, consequently, in disorders of the body as well as in those of imperfectly understood. The letters of the alpada the mind. That this practice of rousing and in- / bet formed the basis of this notation, and were vigorating the mind in the early morning by | multiplied by distortions and mutilations of the music, was followed by one whose memory is forms, producing above 1,600 signs or charac. revered in our own country, appears from the ters; to learn and acquire the use of which, following passage in one of Bishop Horne's are informed by the Greek writers, cost the sermons:---“Music was used by the Pythago- labour of several years! reans to dissipate the dulness of the mind at A few fragments of ancient Greek Music are
A Sketch of the History of Music, from the Earliesi Times.
still in existence. Three hymns-to Apollo, | in a barbarous state. It has been already said Calliope, and Nemesis-have been discovered in that the elements of Music exist originally in the three different ancient manuscripts, and in cir- human mind; all mankind being not only gifted cumstances which leave no doubt of their being with a sensibility to musical sounds, but so genuine. Dr. Burney has given them, with an formed as to be pleased with sounds belonging interpretation in modern rotes : the result, how-to a scale or series, which is found in every part ever, does not repay the labour which has been of the world. The Greeks, therefore, must have bestowed on these relics of antiquity; for the had a national music, corresponding in its qualimusic, as thus rendered by him, is a mere jargon, ties to the character of the people and their lanbarbarous and rude as the attempts of savages : guage; and this species of music-understood we cannot believe it to be such as afforded plea- and enjoyed by the great mass of the population sure to the most elegant and refined people of ---must have been that on which the more artiantiquity; and are the more ready to withhold | ficial music was founded. our belief when we consider how uncertain it for all that is known concerning the Music is whether the ancient notes are properly inter- of Greece, let us refer those who have no inclipreted.
nation to read the dry works of the Greeks These fragments, therefore, cannot in the least themselves, to a little tract of the learned Wallis, assist us in forming an idea of the character which he printed as an appendix to the “ Harof Grecian Music; for, even supposing them monies of Ptolemy;" to the “ Dictionary of all to be not only genuine, but correctly rendered Music,” by Rousseau, “whose pen,” says Sir into modern notes, there may have been con- | William Jones, “ formed to elucidate all the ventional rules and methods of performance (as Arts, had the property of spreading light before is the case among ourselves) not expressed by it on the darkest subjects, as if he had written the notation, of which we cannot have any con with phosphorus on the sides of a cavern;" and, ception, and which may have rendered the effect lastly, to the dissertation of Dr. Burney, “who of the music totally different from that which is passing slightly over all that is obscure," says conveyed to us by the translation. The power- | the same writer, “ explains with perspicuity ful influence of this Music on the passions and whatever is explicable, and gives dignity to the feelings argues nothing in favour of its intrinsic character of a modern Musician by uniting it excellence. We find that a Highland pibroch, with that of a Scholar and Philosopher.” played on the bagpipe, is as strong an incite | It may well be believed that in Music, as in the ment to courage in the day of battle as the other Arts, the genius of Greece had left little strains of Tyrtæus !
for the Romans to do but admire and imitate. The great moral agency of the songs of Dib- | Yet we must not forget that another element din, in inspiring our sailors, not only with cou
had been introduced into the Arts of Rome, as rage, but with manly and generous sentiments, I well as into her language and government; one must be ascribed much more to the verses than which was derived from Etruria, and partook to the airs; and the political influence of Music of an Oriental character. Every species of is of the same kind.
musical instrument found on Greek works of As to the effect of music merely instrumental, art is found also on Etruscan. No doubt the in battle, it must be ascribed, partly at least, to early Roman Music was rude and coarse, still some direct influence which seems to be pos- from the most ancient times mention is made of sessed by certain sounds. The clangour of the hymns and flutes in their triumphal processions. trumpet has, in itself, something rousing and The Twelve Tables, or code of laws, allowed at warlike; and the “spirit-stirring" quality of the funerals ten players on the flute, and enjoined drum, especially when combined with
that “the praises of great men should be sung “ The pomp and circumstance of glorious war,”
| in mournful songs, accompanied by the flute."
The year B. C. 365 marks an era in Roman is universally felt.
Music by its adaptation to theatrical amusements. While we do not believe that the effects of the It is in this year we find mention of the cereMusic of Greece were produced by any peculiar | mony of placing images of the gods on couches, qualities unknown to the Art in modern times, and offering sacrifices to them, as though present neither are we inclined to agree with those who, in person; at which actors were first brought forming an estimate of it from the fragments from Etruria, who, without verses, danced in which survive, and arguing from its want of dumb show to the sound of the Aute. Some harmony, suppose it to have been rude and in time later, Livy mentions a curious tale of the artificial. These surviving fragments, as we have desertion of certain Roman flute-players, who remarked, hardly afford room for conclusions of were only brought back by an amusing strataany kind; and there can be no doubt that the gem. We learn from Valerius Maximus that practice of melody might be carried to a high these flute-players were incorporated into a colpitch of refinement without any aid from har- lege, and Ovid speaks of their ancient impormony. Even in modern times the sweet and tance. expressive tones of a melodious voice, without We are told that Nero played on the flute, and any accompaniment, afford the utmost delight. came in a sort of triumphal procession through It is impossible to believe that an Art, cultivated Italy, bearing the spoils he had won in eighteen for a series of ages among a people so ingenious hundred musical contests. To preserve his voice, and refined as the Greeks, could have remained the emperor used to lie on his back with a thin
plate of lead on his stomach; he took frequent / THE LANE AND THE GRAVEYARD. emetics and cathartice, and at last tra: sacted all |
BY ADA TREVANION. business in writing. After all, he was, most probably, an execrable performer; and it was by the influence of compulsion and terror that he procured attention and applause. lle is said to
It is the first warm day, Alieehave kept up an establishment of five thousand
The first sweet spring-like day; singers and players on instruments. When about The snow-flakes froin the grey hill-tops to put himself to death, he cried, “What a pity
llave melted all away; it is to kill so good a musician!"
The brightening sky is clear and blue, There does not appear to be any trace of a
The gnat is on the wing, Roman musical systein distinct from the Greek. And from the fragrant lilae spiay The Roman musical writers, all of whom fiou
The building robins sing. rished between the fourth and sixth centuries of
The beechen tree is budding green the Christian era, did nothing to improve the
Before our cottage door ; Science of Music, and were little more than
The breezes waft us, as they sigh, copyists of their Greek predecessors. The great
Low murmurs from the shore; improvement which the Romans introduced The fields send up a cheerful tunc, (rather a practical than a theoretical one) was
The lark is soaring high; a simplification of the musical nomenclature, And 'neath the blackthorn in the glade eflected by rejecting the arbitrary signs in use The nestling violets lie. among the Greeks, and substituting for them the first fifteen letters of the Roman alphabet.
Oh! sweet is the young violet,
Which shrinks with modest mien; This simplification they were enabled to make
And fair the fields whereon the corn by a reduction of the modes; indeed it seems
In springing strong and green ; very probable that the complicated system had
And beauteous the half-opened leaves in practice entirely fallen into disuse, as we With gem-like dew-drops wet; know that the diatonic genus had usurped the But they want you, my Alice dear, place of the two other genera. Of all Latin To make them lovelier yet. authors Boëthius gives the most profound account of the subject. His work is a carrying
Do you remember the old lane out of the old Pythagorean system, and is a
Where we sat side by side, mere abstract speculation on the nature of Music,
On a spring morn, long months a o, which, viewed as one of the four mathematical
Before you were my bride?
"Tis there we'll go to-day, Alice, Sciences, has its foundation in number and pro
And, 'inongst the birds and flowers, portion. There is no proof that the Romans,
Forget all things save our young loves any more than the Greeks, had any notation
Aud hope-framed future hours. with reference to time. Where vocal Music was united with instrumental, the time was marked We'll choose us out the scil-same bank by the metre of the song: the want of a notation
Beneath the tall elm tree; of time would make us doubt whether auy but Where first, with blushing cheek, Alice, a very simple style of merely instrumental Music You owned your love to me. prevailed among them. Notwithstanding all the
The buttercups will blossom round, assistance which the Romans received in the
The soft winds stir our hair,
And we shall feel as light of heart polite Arts, they never advanced so far in them
As when we last sat there. as the modern Italians have done; who, without any foreign help, have greatly surpassed not
The blessed sun is shining bright, only their forefathers, the ancient Romans, but
The white clouds are at play ; even the Greeks themselves, in several of the The tiny brouk with gleesome flow arts, and in no one so much as that of Music, Goes rippling on its way; in which every people of Europe hare, at And sweetly from the laughing vale, different times, consented to become their
With undulating swell, scholars.
Sounds o’er the echo-giving hills
The silvery village bell. (To be continued.)
The od’rons lime-boughs scent the gale,
The wrens their chirp renew;
Where hazles trickle dew.
From cliffs where wild flowers cling; Strange! that we all lament, Time flies too fast
And glen and lea are joyous with Death's final goal too quickly we attain;
The spirit of the spring. Yet hourly wish days, weeks, months, ycars were past,
But nought is half so freshly fair Some lesser goals of fancied bliss to gain.
As the old quiet lane,
Where the pale priinrose lifts its head, J.J. REYNOLDS.
And the stock-doves complain.
The time is gone and over
When I could sue to thee,
Bend down the willing knce;
And sullied thy bright wings,
Thy sweet imaginings.
When humble taith and lowly,
And slept in slumber holy.
I stood beside your bed, Alice,
And heard your gentle sighs,
And tear-drops dimmed your eyes.
I could not break your rest,
Our baby to your breast.
For in this world so wide
And had no friend beside.
Your warm breath on my cheek; And yainly hearken for the words
Your hushed voice may not speak.
What time I knew thee noble,
My simple heart was thine; And never wandering pilgrim
Knelt at a dearer shrine : I fancied thee an angel,
My wayward steps to guide; And I laughed at dark-browed sorrow
If she found me by thy side.
The childhood of the day,
And my free trust worn away!
Through the long bitter winter, love,
You never would repine, Though every gentle hope we nursed
But blossomed to decline.
Beneath a smiling brow;
You cannot feel them now!
But when I'm miles away,
As pale and still you lay.
What hope have I, save heaven ?
What joy have I for eartha ? Now all my silver blossoms
Have perished in their birth. There is a place of shelter,
Beyond the stormiest wave, And a whisper from my spirit
Is sighing forth-The Grave. For the time is gone and over,
When huinble faith and lowly Built for itself a resting-place,
And slept in slumber holy !
A. E. S.
A MARRIAGE FOR THE OTHER WORLD.
(From the French.)
BY MISS M. S. WATSON.
(Continued from page 86.)
have heard that they were to embark on board
the “ Emerald” for their transportation to the When Mauricette Fauvel recovered her New World. The thought brought certitude, senses, she unclosed her eyes, and looked and certitude agony. She pressed her face wonderingly around her. The poor girl had | against the miserable pallet she reclined on, and suffered so intensely, that the power of emo- | groaned in anguish of spirit. She was immetion seemed deadened: but the sort of repose diately responded to by some one knocking she had obtained during her long fainting fit against the partition; and not taking any noappeared to bring back her sense of anguish tice, a voice interrogated ber—“Tell us what with returning strength. Mauricette had lost is the matter with you, Madame Sauvegrain! all recollection of her trouble, in the midst of Madame Sauvegrain! speak, then, if you are a circle of men—who had iooked, to her, as so alive!” many demons, rejoicing in her agony-and in At this name another cry escaped her, and the the broad light of day; now she was alone, and unhappy girl murmured to herself, “Madame twilight scarcely shewed the objects surround- Sauvegrain! Madame Sauvegrain !” and letting ing her. She did not dare to speak, for she ex- her eyes fall on her left hand, she saw the ringpected no sympathy: she rose with difficulty, undeniable sign of her marriage! With a bound for her footing was not sure, and lent an at- she sprung from the berth, and staggering tentive ear to the strange sounds over her head through the cabin-door, she made her way to -steps which seemed heavy and uncertain; then the ladder, which she was doing her utmost to the falling of heavy chains, and on all sides a climb, when a man descended, and seizing her cracking and creaking, as if the place she was in roughly by the shoulder, demanded where she was about to break in pieces, under the pressure I was going. of some enormous weight. Not understanding “Ön deck." what could occasion the incessant continuation “ You cannot go: you are not allowed.” of these frightful sounds, she knelt on the
But as Mauricette still persisted in forcing couch where she had been lying, and supporting herself on, he again reiterated, “What are you herself as best she might, gazed through the guing up for what do you want on deck ?" aperture, placed in guise of window. The sight appalled her; and when she saw the ocean
“Let me pass, sir; I am going to look” (and below, and the sky above, the remembrance of
the words burnt her tongue) "for my husband.” all that had passed rushed in a torrent on her
“ Your husband,” said the man;" what is brain. Ohi how she then regretted the con
his name?” vent, where all was so still and tranquil ! and
"Dominick Sauvegrain." her father's house, where at least she was safe. 1. “Then you need not go any further ; I am But for her all was gone-all was lost! The he!” only sense of thankfulness she felt was at being A cry of horror responded to these words, alone, after the contact she had been compelled and as an arrow from a how, Mauricette rent to, with the wretched companions of her impri- herself from his grasp, rushed on deck, and besonment. She had an indistinct remembrance fore the men of the watch had time to see her of the priest, and the words he had addressed to l pass, she reached the fore-part of the vessel, her, when she was brought more than half-dead and precipitated herself into the boiling waves, before him, as he stooped to give her help-- exclaiming, “ Pardon, oh Lord ! pardon, “Take courage, daughter,” he said; "confide in Father!" At the same instant Sauvegrain, who heaven. The Lord remembers those who trust in had followed as quick as she fled, without a him: he will have pity on you !” and a tear word, without giving the alarm, jumped overdropped on the hand of the robber's wife. What board to save her. The splash occasioned by happened afterwards she could not recollect-or the double action attracted the attention of those who had brought her where she was : but she on deck, and the cry of “A man overboard !" knew she had fainted on firm ground, and she set all the crew in movement: the Captain was was now on the wide ocean! She held her head in furious at such an audacious attempt, and gave her hands, and tried to impose upon herself that his order in a voice of thunder. it was all a horrid dream; but still the stern reality “'Tis that cut-throat Sauvegrain !” said the made itself to be understood, though in a vague, sailors. “He thinks to escape;" and, as if atconfused manner. She remembered, now, to testing their words, they espied at some dis