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and want of refinement in every use- That the manners of the times I ful art.
write of may be shewn in a fuller While the parents were both alive, light, I shall give Mr Barclay's relathe mother could give little attention tion of the most memorable things to her girls,--domestick affuirs, and that passed in his father's house, amusing her husband, was the busi- from the beginning of the century ness of a good wife. Those who to the year 14, in which his father could afford governesses for their chil. died. My brother,” says he, dren, had them, but all they could married in the year 4, at the age learn from them was to read English, of 21 ; few men were unmarried afand plain work: the chief thing re- ter this tiine of life. I myself was quireil was to hear them repeat psalms, married by my friends at 18, which and long catechisms, in which they was thought a proper age. Sir James were employed an hour or more every Stuart's marriage with President Dalday, and almost the whole day on rymple's second daughter brought toSunday. If there was no governess gether a number of people related to to perform this, it was done by the both families. At the signing of the chaplain, of which there were one in eldest Miss Dalrymple's contract the every family. No attention was given year before, there was an entire hogsto what we call accomplishments; head of wine drank that night, and reading or writing well, or even spel- the number of people at Sir James ling, were never thought of; musick, Stuart's was little less. The marriage drawing, or French, were seldom was in the President's house, with as taught the girls. They were allowed many of the relations as it would hold. to run about, and amuse themselves The bride's favours were all sewed on in the way they chose, even to wo- her gown, from top to bottom, and manhood, at which time they were round the neck and sleeves. The generally sent to Edinburgh a win- moment the ceremony was performed, ter or two to learn to dress themselves, the whole company ran to her, and to dance, and to see a little of the pulled off the favours; in an instant world. This world was only to be she was stript of them all. The next seen at church, at marriages, burials, ceremony was the garter, which the and baptisms. These were the only bridegroom's man attempted to pull public places where the ladies went from her leg, but she dropt it on the in full dress, and as they walked the floor; it was a white and silver ribstreets, they were seen by every bo- bon, which was cut in small morsels dy; but it was the fashion in undress to every one in company. The bride's always to be masked. When in the mother then came in with a basket of country, their employment was in co- favours belonging to the bridegroom ; loured work, beds, tapestry, and other those and the bride's were the same pieces of furniture, imitations of fruits with the bearings of their families ; and flowers, with very little taste. If her's pink and white, his blue and they read any, it was either books of gold colour.” devotion, or long romances, and sometimes both. They never ate a full meal at table, it was thought very in
The indelicate custom of seizing the delicate ; but they took care to have bride's garter is thus commemorated in something before dinner, that they noble, illustrious, and excellent Princesse,
“ The Bridals, a play written by the thrice might behave with propriety in com
the Duchess of Newcastle," and printed pany.
1668. From the accounts given by old people who lived in this time, we have [Enter the Brides and Bridegrooms, and reason to believe there was as little
all the Bridal Guests, Sir Mercury Poet,
one of the Bride-men, and the Lady care taken of the young men's education as that of women, excepting those
Fancy, one of the Bride-maids, that
helps to lead one of the Brides to the who were intended for learned profes- church.) sions, who got a regular education at
Adviscr. Gentlemen bridegrooms, we schools and colleges ; but the gene- must rifle your brides of their bride-gar. rality of country gentlemen, and even noblemen, were contented with the Sir J. Amorous. If it be the custom, I instruction given by the chaplain to submit. their sons.
Sage. But I will not agree to such ap
The company dined and supped to mçats at the sides. When they had gether, and had a ball in the evening; finished their supper, the meat was the same next day at Sir James Stu- removed, and in an instant every one art's. On Sunday there went from flies to the sweetmeats to pocket them, the President's house to church three on which a scramble ensued, chairs and twenty couple, all in high dress; overturned, and every thing on the Mr Barclay, then a boy, led the table, --wrestling and pulling at one youngest Miss Dalrymple, who was another with the utmost noise and the last of them. They filled the violence. When all was quiet, they galereys of the church from the King's went to the stoups, (for there was no seat to the wing loft. The feasting bottles for wine,) of which the women continued till they had gone through had a good share ; for, though it was all the friends of the family, with a a disgrace to be scen drunk, yet it was ball every night.
none to be a little intoxicated in good As the baptisms was another pub- company. * A few days after this, lic place, he goes on to describe it the same company were asked to the thus :
christening, which was always in the On the fourth week after the church, all in high dress, a number of lady's delivery, she was set on her them young ladies, who were called bed, on a low footstool, the bed co- maiden cimmers; one of them prevered with some neat piece of sewed sented the child to the father. After work, or white satin, with three pile the ceremony, they dined and supped lows at her back, covered with the together, and the night often concludsame, she in full dress, with a lappit ed by a hall.” head-dress, and a fan in her hand. The burials are the only solemHaving informed her acquaintance nities now to be taken notice of. It what day she is to see company, they was always on foot. The magistrates all come and pay their respects to her, and town-council were always invited standing or walking a little through to that of every person of any conthe room, for there are no chairs; sideration. “ 1500 burial-letters were they drink a glass of wine, and eat à wrote,” says Mr Barclay, at my fapiece of cake, and then give place to ther’sdeath; the General Assembly was others. Towards the end of the week sitting at the time, and all the clergy all the friends were asked to what were asked; and so great was the was called the Cummerfalls ; this crowd, that the magistrates were at was a supper where every gentleman the grave in the Grey Friars churchbrought a pint of wine to be drunk yard, before the corpse was taken out by him and his wife. The supper of the house in the foot of the Advowas, a ham at the head, and a pyra- cates' Close. A few years before this, mid of fowls at the bottom, hens and it had ceased to be the fashion for ducks below, partridges at top; there ladies to walk behind the corpse, in was an eating posset in the middle of full dress, with coloured clothes ; but the table, with dried fruits and sweet- formerly the chesting was at the same
time, and all the female relations askuncivil custom, for no man shall pull off ed, which made part of the proces
sion.” my wife's garters, unless it be myself. Vertue. We have pulled off our garters
At this time acts of devotion emalready, and therefore if these batchellor- ployed much of their time; see the gentlemen will have them, we will send same gentleman's accounts of a Sunfor them.
day past at his father's house. PrayFacil. Pray ladies let us have them, for ers by the chaplain at nine o'clock, — the bride-garters are the young batchellors' all went regularly to church at ten, fees.
the women in high dress; he himself Courtly. Since we must not rifle for their was employed to give the collection, garters, let us cast dice for them.
Madam Mediator. The bridegroom's * If we ought to yield any credit to a points being our fees, therefore we must French author, the English ladies, during rifle for the points.
the reign of King Charles the First, went Sir W. Sage. If you please, ladies, we a step beyond this in the liberal use of are ready to be rifled.
wine.--La Courtisanne Dechifrée, dediće [The women offer to take off the points, aux Dames Vertueuses de ce temps. à Pa but Lady Vertue hinders them.]
ris, 1642. 8vo.
for the family, which consisted of a of Britain towards America, at the crown,-half after twelve they came outset of his career, or merely availhome,-at one had prayers again by ed himself of the opportunities in the chaplain, after which they had a which revolutionary warfare so greatbit of cold meat or eggs, and returned ly abounds to rise from his original obto church at two. At four every one scurity, it is now perhaps impossible retired to their private devotions, ex- to determine, and unnecessary to incept the children and servants, who guire. But it will be seen from the were convened by the chaplain, and letters we are going to lay before our examined ;—this continued till five, readers, that, in the progress of his when supper was served up, or rather adventurous life, he well knew how to dinner; a few male friends generally employ the language of men inspired partook of this meal, and sat till eight, with the love of liberty; and that he after which psalm-singing, reading, was honoured by some of its warmest and prayers, was performed by the friends in both hemispheres. It is old gentleman himself, after which far from our intention to offer any they all retired.
thing in justification of the very conWhether the genius of a people spicuous párt he acted against this, forms their religious sentiments, or if his native country; yet it is impossible religion forms, in come measure, the not to admire the gentle and kindly manners of a people, I shall leave the feelings which directed his conduct wise to decide. I shall only observe, towards Lady Selkirk, so opposite to that while that reverence remained in the character of a pirate as he was the minds of men for masters, fathers, represented to be, and the very handand heads of clans, it was then that some manner in which he repaired the the dread of Deity was most powerful; injury which policy perhaps compelthis will appear from the superstitious led him to inflict. There are probably writings of the times. The fear of few instances, especially among adhell, and deceitful power of the devil, venturers who have risen from the was at the bottom of all their religious condition in which Paul Jones was sentiments. The established belief in originally placed,-of more enlarged witchcraft, for which many suffered, views,-more generous feelings, -and prevailed much at this time; ghosts more disinterested conduct, than the too, and apparitions of various kinds ; following letters exhibit, combined few old houses were without a ghost- as these are with sentiments of relentchamber, that few had courage to sleep less hostility towards the claims of his in; omens and dreams were much native country. Such a picture, of regarded even by people of the best which the view is at all times refresheducation. These were the manners ing, ought to be held up to the eyes of the last century, and remained in of those who are now engaged in sipart for thirty years in this.
milar struggles in another quarter of (To be concluded in our next.) the world. Good policy, in the ab
sence of higher motives, may induce those who direct and regulate the movements of revolutionary warfare,
as well as those who are impelled by All our readers must have heard the storm, to atone, in some measure, of this daring naval adventurer, and by acts of forbearance and generosity, many of them are old enough to re- for the injuries to which the helpless collect the alarm and terror which the and the innocent are peculiarly exname of Paul Jones spread along our posed in the infuriate contests between coasts during the war with America. a people and their rulers. This listinguished person was the son In the progress of the revolutionary of a small farmer a few miles from war, Paul Jones obtained the command Dumfries, and, impelled by that love of a squadron, with which, in 1778, he of enterprise which is so frequently undertook to annoy the coasts of Great to be met with among the peasantry Britain. On the 2d December 1777, of Scotland, seems to have eagerly he arrived at Nantes, and in January embarked in the cause of the co- repaired to Paris, with the view of lonies against the mother country. making arrangements with the AmeWhether he was actuated in any rican ministers and the French godegree by a sense of the injustice verument. In February he conveyed
some American vessels to the Bay of When I was informed by some men Quiberon ; and, on his return to Brest, whom I met at landing, that his lordcommunicated his plan to Admiral ship was absent, I walked back to my D'Aruilliers, who afforded him every boat, deterinined to leave the island. means of forwarding it. He accord- By the way, however, some officers ingly left Brest, and sailed through who were with me could not forbear the Bristol Channel, without giving expressing their discontent, observing, any alarm. Early in the morning of that, in America, no delicacy was the 230 April he made an attack on shewn by the English, who took away the harbour of Whitehaven, in which all sorts of moveable property, setting there were about 400 sail. He suc- fire not only to towns, and to the ceeded in setting fire to several ves- houses of the rich without distinction, sels, but was not able to effect any but not even sparing the wretched thing decisive before day-light, when hamlets and milch cows of the poor he was obliged to retire.
and helpless, at the approach of an The next exploit, which took place inclement winter. That party had on the same day, was the plunder of been with me as volunteers the same Lord Selkirk's house, in St Mary's morning at Whitehaven; some comIsle, near the town of Kirkcudbright plaisance, therefore, was their due. I The particulars of this event, and of had but a moment to think how I the action which succeeded, as well might gratify them, and at the same as the motives upon which Jones acte time do your ladyship the least ined, are well given in the following let. jury.. I charged the two officers to ter, * which he addressed to Lady Sel- permit none of the seamen to enter kirk:
the house, or to hurt any thing about Ranger, Brest, 8th May 1778. it ; to treat you, Madam, with the Madam,-It cannot be too much utmost respect; to accept of the plate lamented, that, in the profession of which was offered ; and to come away arms, the officer of fine feeling, and of without making a search, or demand real sensibility, should be under the ing any thing else. I am induced to necessity of winking at any action of believe that I was punctually obeyed, persons under his command which his since I am informel that the plate heart cannot approve; but the reflec- which they brought away is far short tion is doubly severe, when he finds of the quantity expressed in the inhimself obliged, in appearance, to
ventory which accompanied it. I have countenance such action by his au- gratified my men; and, when the plate thority.
is sold, I shall become the purchaser, This hard case was mine, when, on and will gratify my own feelings, by the 23d of April last, I landed on St restoring it to you by such conveyance Mary's Isle. Knowing Lord Selkirk's as you shall please to direct. interest with his king, and esteeming,
Had the earl been on board the Ranas I do, his private character, I wish- ger the following evening, he would ed to make him the happy instrument have seen the awful pomp and dreadof alleviating the horrors of hopelessful carnage of a sea engagement; both captivity, when the brave are over- affording ample subject for the penpowered and made prisoners of war. cil, as well as melancholy reflection It was, perhaps, fortunate for you, for the contemplative mind. HumaMadam, that he was from home, fornity starts back at such scenes of horit was my intention to have taken him ror, and cannot but execrate the vile on board the Ranger, and to have de- promoters of this detested war, tained him until, through his means, For they, 'twas they, unsheathed the a general and fair exchange of prison- ruthless blade, ers, as well in Europe as in America, And heaven shall ask the havock it has had been effected.
T'he British ship of war Drake, * This, and perhaps the following letter, have been already printed, but not in mounting 20 guns, with more than any durable or accessible repository ; none
her full complement of officers and of the other letters, in so far as we know, men, besides a number of volunteers, have eyer been printed. The original lct- came out from Carrickfergus, in order ters of Franklin and Kosciuszko are now to attack and take the American conbefore us, written, as well as addressed, tinental ship of war Ranger, of 18 with their own hands.Editor.
guns, and short of her complement of officers and men. The ships met, be closed,—but, should it continue, and the advantage was disputed with - I wage no war with the fair !--I acgreat fortitude on each side for an knowledge their power, and bend beIvour and five minutes, when the gal- fore it with profound submission! Let lant communder of the Drake fell, and not, therefore, the amiable Countess victory declared in favour of the of Selkirk regard me as an enemy, I Ranger. His amiable lieutenant lay am ambitious of her esteem and friendmortally wounded, besides near forty ship, and would do any thing consistof the inf rior officers and crew killed ent with my duty to merit it. and wounded.
The honour of a line from your A melancholy demonstration of the hand, in answer to this, will lay me uncertainty of human prospects,-! under a very singular obligation; and buried them in a spacious grave, with if I can render you any acceptable the honours due to the meinory of the service, in France or elsewhere, I hope brave.
you see into my character so far, as to Though I have drawn my sword in command me without the least grain. the present generous struggle for the of reserve. I wish to know exactly rights of men, yet I am not in arms the behaviour of my people, as I demerely as an American, nor am I in termine to punish them if they have pursuit of riches. My fortune is li- exceeded their liberty. beral enough, having no wife nor fa- I have the honour to be, with mily, and having lived long enough much esteem, and with profound reto know that riches cannot ensure spect,' Madam, your most obedient, happiness. I profess myself a citizen and most humble servant, of the world, totally unfettered by the (Signed) Paul Jones. little mean distinctions of climate or of country, which diminish the bene
To the Right Honourable volence of the heart, and set bounds
the Countess of Sele
kirk, St Mary's Isle, to philanthropy. Before this war be
Scotland. gan, I had, at an early time of life, withdrawn from the sea-service, in The correctness of the facts here favour of " calm contemplation and stated is confirmed by the following poetic ease." I have sacrificed, not account given at the time in the Scots only my favourite scheme of life, but Magazine: the softer affections of the heart, and “ Between ten and eleven, a sermy prospects of domestic happiness; vant brought word, that a press-gang and I am ready to sacrifice my lité had landed near the house. This the also with cheerfulness, if that forfei- party from the privateer had given ture would restore peace and good- out, in order, as was supposed, to get will among mankind.
out of the way all the servants and As the feelings of your gentle bo- others who might oppose them. Presom cannot, in that respect, but be sently between thirty and forty armed congenial with mine, let me intreat men came up; all of whom planted you, Madam, to use your soft persua- themselves round the house, except sive arts with your husband, to en- three, who entered, each with two deavour to stop this cruel and de- horse-pistols at his side ; and, with structive war, in which Britain never bayonets fixed, they demanded to see can succeed. Heaven can never coun- the lady of the house ; anil, upon her tenance the barbarous and unmanly appearing, told her, with a mixture practices of the Britons in America, of rudeness and civility, who they which savages would blush at, and were, and that all the plate must be which, if not discontinued, will soon delivered to them. Lady Selkirk bem. be retaliated in Britain by a justly haved with great composure and preenraged people. Should you fail in sence of inind. She soon directed her this, (for I am persuaded that you plate to be delivered ; with which, will attempt it, and who can resist the without doing any other damage, or power of such an advocate ?) your en- asking for watches, jewels, or any deavours to effect a general exchange thing else, (which is odd,) the genof prisoners will be an act of humani- tlemen made off. There is reason to ty, which will afford you golden feel- think that there were some people aings on a death-bed.
mong them acquainted with persons I hope this cruel contest will soon · and places, and, in particular, one fel