Exercise 102

Death, the Leveller, Continued

Some men in swords may reap the field
And plant fresh laurels where they kill;
But their strong nerves at last must yield;
They tame but one another still.
Early or late,

They stoop to fate,

And must give up their murmuring breath,
While they, pale captives, stoop to death.

HINTS. I. (1) What if the warrior (line 3) reaps the rugged field with the sword, (2) and sows the laurel widely in blood? (3, 4) The conqueror has not strength that lives (vivax) forever, about-to-endure (stanza II, line 1) his master (domans).

II. (1) ("About to endure " comes in this line.) All sooner or later (cf. Horace, II, 3, 26), (2) a lifeless throng, not without complaints, (3) giving up their lives (sing.), in triumph (4) funereal, death (Libitina) shall lead.

Exercise 103

Death, the Leveller, Continued

The garlands wither on your brow;
They boast no more your mighty deeds:
Upon Death's purple altar now,

See where yon victor-victim bleeds.

All heads must come

To the cold tomb;

Only the actions of the just

Smell sweet and blossom in the dust.

HINTS. I. (1) Lay aside that swelling pride, (2) on whose (cui) brow the laurel has withered (defluo). Behold where (3, 4) the same conqueror, lately rejoicing, stains cruel death's bloody (pl.)

II. (1) Altars, now a victim (nom.). Every head in truth, (2) at some-future-time (olim) shall come (fut. perf.) to the cold (pl.) of the tomb; (3, 4) but the mindful dust (caespes) crowns the just deeds alone with fragrant flowers (sing.).

Exercise 104

May Morning, Milton

Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,
Comes dancing from the East and leads with her
The flowery May, who from her green lap strows
The yellow cowslip and the pale primrose.

Hail bounteous May, that dost inspire
Mirth and Youth and warm Desire:
Woods and groves are of thy dressing;
Hill and dale doth boast thy blessing.
Thus we salute thee with our early song,
And welcome thee and wish thee long.

HINTS. I. (1) Already Lucifer, the herald (praevius) star of day (2) resplendent leaps forth from the East (pars Eoa, pl.) (3) and as a companion flowery (florens) May (4) leadsin-his-train (duco). The yellow cowslip, also, ("Him"

also comes in this line).

II. Thou mayest see him (stanza I, 1. 4) scatter (perf. inf.) from his green lap and (2) the first rose that pales in the early (novus) spring. (3, 4) We bid thee hail (salvere), generous

(facilis) giver of alluring pleasure.

III. (We bid) thee (hail), O May, with thy fervent desires (gen. of description) and (2) overflowing (plenus) with youth. Thou with leaves the wood (3) and grove dost clothe, and with thy (4) cult rejoices the vale refreshed

IV. and the happy hill. So to thee we (line 2) sing (dico) (2) our songs in the early (primus) morn, so to thee (3) we bid welcome (grator) and we desire that (omit ut) thou mayest long (4) distribute thy gifts to the world.

Exercise 105

An Elegy, Byron

Oh! snatched away in beauty's bloom,
On thee shall press no ponderous tomb;
But on thy turf shall roses rear

Their leaves, the earliest of the year;

And the wild cypress wave in tender gloom.

HINTS. I. (1) Oh (thou) whom in thy youth (virens) Venus could not (2) prevent (iuvare quin) quick Death from bearing away, (3, 4) may no tomb (pl.) and vain marble with its weight oppress thee in thy rest (sopitus).

II. (1) But on thy sod, flowers in due time, the first (line 2) gifts (2) of the new-born year shall the rose bear; (3) and the mournful, gloomy cypress (4) shall wave with its dismal (funereus) shade.

Exercise 106

An Elegy, Continued

And oft by yon blue gushing stream
Shall sorrow lean her drooping head,
And feed deep thought with many a dream;

And lingering, pause and lightly tread,

Fond wretch! as if her step disturbed!

HINTS. I. (1) Even (quin) Sorrow (masc., line 2) herself by the stream where gushes forth the crystal (2) water, returning often, shall lean (line 3) her drooping (line 3) head, (3, 4) as she thinks of many things (simulacrum) within (sub) her inmost mind;

II. (1) And quietly (i.e. with no noise) her gentle step (2) halting, will lightly press thy ashes (sing.) (3) as if her step, alas in vain the effort (laborans), (4) would disturb thy lifeless remains (cinis, sing.).

Exercise 107

An Elegy, Continued

Away! we know that tears are vain,
That Death nor heeds nor hears distress:
Will this unteach us to complain,
Or make one mourner weep the less?
And thou-who tell'st me to forget,
Thy looks are wan, thine eyes are wet.

HINTS. I. (1) Away (actum est)! sorrows forsooth (are) vain, (2) nor does the stern necessity of Orcus care (3) to listen! Wouldst thou unlearn thy grief (4) and how to repeat thy excessive woes?

II. (1) But the tears (sing.) alas flow none the less; (2) and thou, thyself, who tell'st the thoughtful grief (3, 4) to cease, art wasting away in cheek and tender countenance (acc.) with recent tears (imber, sing.).

Exercise 108

Ode to Adversity, Gray

Daughter of Jove, relentless power,
Thou tamer of the human breast,
Whose iron scourge and torturing hour

The bad affright, afflict the best!
Bound in thy adamantine chain,

The proud are taught to taste of pain,
And purple tyrants vainly groan

With pangs unfelt before, unpitied and alone.

HINTS. I. (1) Thou cruel (one) who rulest with relentless (line 2) power the minds (2) of men, goddess daughter of Jove, (3, 4) thou dost terrify the bad with thy torturing (vindex) hour, and, with thy lash (pl.) the good —

II. (1, 2) Thou temptest: whence the proud in adamantine chains bound fast thou dost teach (what) sadness (tristia, pl.) (is) (3, 4) and kings as they struggle alone in vain sorrow unfelt-before (mirificus).

Exercise 109

Ode to Adversity, Continued

When first thy sire to send on earth
Virtue, his darling child, designed,
To thee he gave the heavenly birth,
And bade to form her infant mind.
Stern rugged nurse! thy rigid lore
With patience many a year she bore;

What sorrow was, thou bad'st her know,

And from her own she learned to melt at others' woe.

HINTS. I. (1) When thy sire wished to present to mortals (terrigenae) his dear (comparative) daughter (progenies), Virtue, he gave (to thee) this blessed offspring to be taught (gerundive).

II. 1. That under thy command she might mould her thoughts (pectus, pl.). (2) With what great patience through the years, (3) oh stern and rugged teacher, (4) did she (illa) endure thy rigid (acerbus) counsels !

III. 1. She learned of the sorrows which the miserable race (2) of mortals (adj.) endure; she felt (them) and in her (3, 4) (sorrow) taught, with thee as a stern mistress, she was touched by the grief of another.

Exercise 110

To a Skylark, Shelley

Hail to thee, blithe spirit!

Bird thou never wert,

That from heaven or near it

Pourest thy full heart

In profuse strains of unpremeditated art.

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