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Death, the Leveller, Continued
Some men in swords may reap the field
They stoop to fate,
And must give up their murmuring breath,
HINTS. I. (1) What if the warrior (line 3) reaps the rugged field with the sword, (2) and sows the laurel widely in blood? (3, 4) The conqueror has not strength that lives (vivax) forever, about-to-endure (stanza II, line 1) his master (domans).
II. (1) ("About to endure " comes in this line.) All sooner or later (cf. Horace, II, 3, 26), (2) a lifeless throng, not without complaints, (3) giving up their lives (sing.), in triumph (4) funereal, death (Libitina) shall lead.
Death, the Leveller, Continued
The garlands wither on your brow;
See where yon victor-victim bleeds.
All heads must come
To the cold tomb;
Only the actions of the just
Smell sweet and blossom in the dust.
HINTS. I. (1) Lay aside that swelling pride, (2) on whose (cui) brow the laurel has withered (defluo). Behold where (3, 4) the same conqueror, lately rejoicing, stains cruel death's bloody (pl.)
II. (1) Altars, now a victim (nom.). Every head in truth, (2) at some-future-time (olim) shall come (fut. perf.) to the cold (pl.) of the tomb; (3, 4) but the mindful dust (caespes) crowns the just deeds alone with fragrant flowers (sing.).
May Morning, Milton
Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,
Hail bounteous May, that dost inspire
HINTS. I. (1) Already Lucifer, the herald (praevius) star of day (2) resplendent leaps forth from the East (pars Eoa, pl.) (3) and as a companion flowery (florens) May (4) leadsin-his-train (duco). The yellow cowslip, also, ("Him"
also comes in this line).
II. Thou mayest see him (stanza I, 1. 4) scatter (perf. inf.) from his green lap and (2) the first rose that pales in the early (novus) spring. (3, 4) We bid thee hail (salvere), generous
(facilis) giver of alluring pleasure.
III. (We bid) thee (hail), O May, with thy fervent desires (gen. of description) and (2) overflowing (plenus) with youth. Thou with leaves the wood (3) and grove dost clothe, and with thy (4) cult rejoices the vale refreshed
IV. and the happy hill. So to thee we (line 2) sing (dico) (2) our songs in the early (primus) morn, so to thee (3) we bid welcome (grator) and we desire that (omit ut) thou mayest long (4) distribute thy gifts to the world.
An Elegy, Byron
Oh! snatched away in beauty's bloom,
Their leaves, the earliest of the year;
And the wild cypress wave in tender gloom.
HINTS. I. (1) Oh (thou) whom in thy youth (virens) Venus could not (2) prevent (iuvare quin) quick Death from bearing away, (3, 4) may no tomb (pl.) and vain marble with its weight oppress thee in thy rest (sopitus).
II. (1) But on thy sod, flowers in due time, the first (line 2) gifts (2) of the new-born year shall the rose bear; (3) and the mournful, gloomy cypress (4) shall wave with its dismal (funereus) shade.
An Elegy, Continued
And oft by yon blue gushing stream
And lingering, pause and lightly tread,
Fond wretch! as if her step disturbed!
HINTS. I. (1) Even (quin) Sorrow (masc., line 2) herself by the stream where gushes forth the crystal (2) water, returning often, shall lean (line 3) her drooping (line 3) head, (3, 4) as she thinks of many things (simulacrum) within (sub) her inmost mind;
II. (1) And quietly (i.e. with no noise) her gentle step (2) halting, will lightly press thy ashes (sing.) (3) as if her step, alas in vain the effort (laborans), (4) would disturb thy lifeless remains (cinis, sing.).
An Elegy, Continued
Away! we know that tears are vain,
HINTS. I. (1) Away (actum est)! sorrows forsooth (are) vain, (2) nor does the stern necessity of Orcus care (3) to listen! Wouldst thou unlearn thy grief (4) and how to repeat thy excessive woes?
II. (1) But the tears (sing.) alas flow none the less; (2) and thou, thyself, who tell'st the thoughtful grief (3, 4) to cease, art wasting away in cheek and tender countenance (acc.) with recent tears (imber, sing.).
Ode to Adversity, Gray
Daughter of Jove, relentless power,
The bad affright, afflict the best!
The proud are taught to taste of pain,
With pangs unfelt before, unpitied and alone.
HINTS. I. (1) Thou cruel (one) who rulest with relentless (line 2) power the minds (2) of men, goddess daughter of Jove, (3, 4) thou dost terrify the bad with thy torturing (vindex) hour, and, with thy lash (pl.) the good —
II. (1, 2) Thou temptest: whence the proud in adamantine chains bound fast thou dost teach (what) sadness (tristia, pl.) (is) (3, 4) and kings as they struggle alone in vain sorrow unfelt-before (mirificus).
Ode to Adversity, Continued
When first thy sire to send on earth
What sorrow was, thou bad'st her know,
And from her own she learned to melt at others' woe.
HINTS. I. (1) When thy sire wished to present to mortals (terrigenae) his dear (comparative) daughter (progenies), Virtue, he gave (to thee) this blessed offspring to be taught (gerundive).
II. 1. That under thy command she might mould her thoughts (pectus, pl.). (2) With what great patience through the years, (3) oh stern and rugged teacher, (4) did she (illa) endure thy rigid (acerbus) counsels !
III. 1. She learned of the sorrows which the miserable race (2) of mortals (adj.) endure; she felt (them) and in her (3, 4) (sorrow) taught, with thee as a stern mistress, she was touched by the grief of another.
To a Skylark, Shelley
Hail to thee, blithe spirit!
Bird thou never wert,
That from heaven or near it
Pourest thy full heart
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art.