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BROWNIAN MOVEMENTS. The motion of non-living particles as seen through the microscope, often mistaken for motions of living matter. The cause of the movements has not been satisfactorily shown, but it has been surmised that heat is the motive power.
BROW NIE, a domestic spirit of the fairy order in the old popular superstitions of Scotland. The common tradition respecting the B. is, that he was a good-humored drudging goblin, who attached himself to farmhouses and other dwellings in the country, and occupied himself during night, when the family were in bed, in performing any humble kind of work that required to be attended to, such as churning, thrashing corn, etc.—a spirit not seen or spoken to, and only known by the obliging performance of his voluntarily undertaken labors—a most valuable adjunct to the domestic establishment, and unfortunately no longer obtainable by good housewives. In Cornwall, a goblin known as Browny is evoked to assist at the swarming of bees (Borlace's Antiquities of Cornwall). The resemblance of the Scotch B. to the Robin Goodfellovo (q.v.) of the Ènglish, and the Kobold of the Germans, is also so conspicuous that we must necessarily refer the different fragmentary legends on the subject to one of the old superstitions generally prevalent in Europe.
BROWNING, ELIZABETH BARRETT, England's greatest poetess, was b. in Durham about the year 1806. Her maiden name was Barrett. The culture which she received in her youth was of a kind far transcending the ordinary education even of “ladies intellectual.” Classics, philosophy, and science were studied with enthusiasm and success. At a comparatively early period, she became a contributor to periodicals, and a series of articles on the Greek Christian poets indicated that she possessed both recondite learning and keen poetic insight. Her first important essay in authorship was a translation of the Prometheus of Eschylus in 1833. In 1838, appeared the Seraphim, and Other Poems, the external peculiarity of which was its endeavor to embody the ideas and sentiments of a Christian mystery in the artistic form of a Greek tragedy. Delicate health, arising from a rupture of a blood-vessel in the lungs, and the death by drowning of a favorite brother in the following year, compelled her to live in seclusion for a long time. At length her health was restored, and in 1846 she married Robert Browning (q. v.), himself a great poet. After their marriage, they resided chiefly in Italy, in whose welfare they were passionately interested. In 1850, Mrs. B. published her collected works, together with several new poems, among which was Lady Geraldine's Courtship. In 1851, appeared the Casa Guidi Windows, a poem whose theme was the struggle made by the Tuscans for freedom in 1849. Aurora Leigh, her longest production, was published in 1836. Poems before Congress appeared in 1860. Her poetry is distinguished by its depth of feeling, by its true pathos, by its noble and generous sentiments. Apparently she poured forth her verse with dangerous facility; and there are few of her poems which would not be improved by the simple process of curtailment. But there is not a thought or a sentiment of the many she has so beautifully expressed which any one would wish expunged. No writer ever exerted a better, gentler, happier influence. She died in 1861. Her son, Robert Barrett B., is an artist.
BROWNING, ORVILLE H. See page 880.
BROWNING, ROBERT, a distinguished contemporary poet, b. in the neighborhood of London in the year 1812, and educated at the London university. The drama of Paracelsus, which first brought him into notice, was published in 1835. Two years after this appeared his tragedy of Strafford, which was brought out upon the stage, but proved unsuccessful, though Macready himself personated the hero. Sordello and The Blot in the Scutcheon also failed, through lack of vivid and impressive incident. Pippa Passes secured a greater measure of popular approbation. In 1855, B. published Men and Women, one of his greatest works, containing poems which for depth and subtlety of conception, profound analysis of the human mind in its most delicate and impassioned conditions, and abstract speculative insight, are unsurpassed in the English language. If, as some think, in vigor and brilliancy of thought he is above Tennyson, he is as far beneath him in melody of versification and artistic beauty of style. Often he shows a morbid love of obscurity, but he frequently exhibits a Shakespearian clearness of idea and emphasis of expression. Some of his Dramatic Lyrics are faultless. Among his other poems are The Ring and the Book; Balaustion's Adventure (1871); Prince Hohenstic Schirangau (1871); Rd Cotton Night-cap Country (1873); Aristophanes' Apology (1875), The Inn Album (1875); Pucchiarotto, with other Poems (1876); La Saisiaz: The Proo Poets of Croisic (1878); Dramatic Idyls (1880); Jocoseria (1883); Ferishtah’s Fancies (1884); Parleyings with Certain People of Importance in their Day (1887). A new and uniform edition of his works appeared in 1888. Hed. Dec. 12, 1889. See the Broroning Society's Papers; Furnival's Browning Bibliography; Mrs. Orr's Handbook to Browning (1885).
BROWNISTS, a sect of English puritans of the 16th c., who took their doctrines and name from Robert Brown. The Brownists objected not only to certain doctrines, but also to the form of government of the English church, and to that of the Presbyterians as well. They would join no other reformed church on account of the toleration of unregenerate persons as members, with whom they held it impiety to be in Christian fellowship. They condemned the wedding service in church, holding marriage to be a civil contract ; refused the baptism of the children of those not church-members, or of
those who did not take sufficient care of their children already baptized, and rejected all forms of prayer, holding even that the Lord's prayer was presented as a model for imitation, not for repetition. Their form of church government was democratic, all power residing in the brotherhood. The churches were severally independent; the minister of one could not officiate in another. Lay brothers could prophesy or exhort, and it was usual after a sermon to question and discuss the topics broached. Every Brownist church was a perfect body corporate, possessing full power over its own members and acts, and accountable to no other jurisdiction whatever. The principles of this sect were those of a rude and extreme independency-the natural reaction from the ecclesiastical abuses of those times. Their leader, late in life, returned to the established church, becoming again a clergyman in it. IIis followers divided among themselves on some minor points of principle or of method, and the sect as a body came to naught. Yet those who favor “voluntaryism” in the church as against national establisment, and the sovereignty of the local congregation as against the consolidation of all the churches of some vast region, claim that the Brownist movement was the rough prophecy and heralding of a cardinal principle of polity then about to be restored to the church after ages of neglect.
BROWNLOW, WILLIAM GANNAWAY, 1805–77; b. Va. He was bred to the car. penter's trade, but in 1826 became a Methodist minister, and was for 10 years an itinerant. He took part in politics, advocating the election of Adams in 1828. In 1837, he was editor of the Knorrille Whig, and his bold and quaint utterances soon gave him a wide reputation. In 1856, he defended the Methodist church in a work called The Iron Wheel Examined and its Spokes Extracted. Two years later, with Rev. A. Pryne of New York, he discussed the question, “Ought American Slavery to be Perpetuated ?” Brownlow defended slavery. In the secession he clung to the union as the best means of upholding the institutions of the south. For this he was arrested by the confederate government and sent out of their lincs. He returned to Tennessee in 1864, and the next year was elected governor, and in 1869 was sent to the United States senate. He was ardent, fearless, and resolute, caring little for refinement in speech or action.
BROWN PIGMENTS, a term in art applied to those substances in which the three primary colors unite in unequal proportions, red being in excess. B. P. are chiefly mineral, and are used sometimes in a raw but usually in a burned state. The most important are bister, asphaltum, umber, terra di sienna, Mars brown, Cassel earth, and brown madder. According to the pigment, the character of the color is a yellow-brown, redbrown, purple-brown, etc. For browns on glass and pottery see these heads, and for brown dyes, see DYEING.
BROWN-SÉQUARD, CHARLES EDWARD. A French-American physiologist b. in Mauritius, 1918. His father, Edward Brown, was a native of Philadelphia; his mother was Frenclı, of the name of Séquard. He took the degree of M.D. at Paris, 1846, and afterwards spent much of his time in America, investigating and lecturing. His researches have been extensive, furnishing many of the most important facts in physiology, particularly in regard to the nervous system. It was formerly supposed that Longet had shown that the posterior columns of the spinal cord conducted sensation to the brain, while the anterior columns transmitted motor impulses to the muscles. Belingeri, how. ever, in 1823, claimed to have demonstrated that sensation was conveyed to the brain by the gray substance of the cord only. These observations have been confirmed by Brown. Sequard, who was also the tirst to demonstrate that the decussation of the sensory con. ductors is in the cord itself; and he has the reputation of having created the physiology of the sensory tract of the spinal cord. His experiments upon the transfusion of blood are also of great interest. Detached muscular parts of animals, after losing their irritability, were revived for a considerable time by injecting fresh, oxygenated blood into them. A remarkable experiment was the transfusion, into the carotid artery of a dog just dead from peritonitis, of biood from a living dog. The dead dog was sufficiently restored to be able to stand upon his feet and wag his tail, and make other motions. Не died a second time, twelve and a half hours after. Insufllation was also employed. In 1864 Dr. Brown-Séquard was appointed professor of physiology and pathology of the nervous system, in Harvard university. Returning to France in 1869, he was appointed professor of experimental and comparative physiology at Paris. He was founder and editor of the Journal de la Physiologie de l' IIomme et des Animaux from 1838 to 1863. He established Archives de la Physiologie Normale et Pathologique in 1869. In 1873 he practiced medicine in New York, and with Dr. E. C. Seguin published the Archives of Scientific and Practical Medicine. In 1878 he succeeded Claude Bernard as prof. of experimental medicine at the collège de France. He published Lectures on the Diagnosis and Treatment of the Principal Forms of Paralysis of the Louder Extremities, 8vo, London, 1861. In 1889, after a series of successful experiments upon himself, he advocated the use of vitalizing fluids in the bodies of animals as a means of prolonging and invigorating human life.
BROWNSON, ORESTES AUGUSTUS, LL.D., 1803–76 ; b. Vermont; a theologian and author. He was at first a Presbyterian, but soon became a Universalist preacher, and was an indefatigable writer in support of whatever be for the time adopted. In 1828, he went into politics and tried to establish a workingmen's party in New
York, moved thereto by the ideas of Robert Owen. In 1832, he was enthusiastic over Dr. Channing, and became a Unitarian preacher; in 1836, he organized in Boston “The Society of
Christian Progress," as a church of which he was pastor. About this time he pub lished Neu Vieros of Christianity, Society, and the Church, which was a moderate attack on Protestantism. In 1838, he started the Boston Quarterly Review, which had existence for about five years, and was then merged in the New York Democratic Review. In 1840, he published Charles Elwood, or the Infidel Converted, a treatise in the form of a story, in favor of the Roman Catholic church, towards which the author was drifting, and which he joined in 1844. His literary labor was enormous, nearly all the original matter in his various reviews and magazines being from his own pen. Though so changeable in his early years, he seems to have found a final conviction in his late life; and he certainly gave to the Roman Catholic church a sincere and powerful advocacy.
BROWN SPAR, a name often given by mineralogists to certain varieties of dolomite (q.v.), or magnesia limestone, of not unfrequent occurrence, distinguished by a brownish or reddish color, and a pearly luster, upon account of which they are also sometimes called pearl spar.
BROWN'S TRACT. See page 880.
BROWNSVILLE, a t. in Fayette co., Penn., 30 m. s. of Pittsburgh; pop. '80, 1489. The village is on the Monongahela river, over which there is a large and expensive bridge. The river is navigable to this point.
BROWNSVILLE, capital of Haywood co., Tenn., on the Louisville and Memphis railroad, 57 m, n.e. of Memphis ; pop. '80, 5013. There is a college for women under Baptist direction. The village is in a rich planting district, and has a good trade. 20,000 bales of cotton are shipped from here, yearly.
BROWNSVILLE, a city in Cameron co., Texas, on the Rio Grande opposite Matamoras (Mexico), 35 m. from the gulf; pop. '80, 4938. It is a port of entry, and has a considerable commerce. Fort Brown, near the city, is occupied by a United States garrison. B. contains a college, convent, custom house and several newspaper offices.
BROWN UNIVERSITY, at Providence, R. I., was organized in 1764, at Warren, in the same state, and removed in 1770 to its present location. It was known at first as Rhode Island college, but in 1804 the name was changed in honor of Nicholas Brown, one of its most munificent benefactors. It has been from the beginning under Baptist direction and patronage, but it is not sectarian in its teaching. It has an endowment of $775,000, and an annual income of $65,000. Its property is valued at over $1,250,000. The college buildings, five in number, stand upon elevated ground, and are inclosed in a campus of 16 acres, beautifully graded and adorned with trees, chiefly elms. · The library, a choice and admirable selection, contains 62,000 volumes and 19,000 pamphlets; and a permanent fund of $27,000.insures its constant increase. The museum of natural history contains a valuable collection ; the herbaria contain over 54,000 specimens. There are (1886) 15 professors, 6 other teachers, and 239 students. Mr. James Manning was the first president, Rev. Jonathan Maxcy the second, and Rev. Asa Messer the third. The latter was succeeded in 1827 by Rev. Francis Wayland, D.D., one of the most eminent of American divines and educators, under whose direction the institution greatly prospered. His successors have been Barnas Sears, D.D., LL.D., 1855–67 ; Alexis Caswell, D.D., LL.D., 1867–72 ; E. G. Robinson, D.D., LL.D., 1872-88; Elisha B. Andrews, D.D. A fund of $50,000, created by the state, sustains 30 scholarships. More than 60 other scholarships, each yielding about $60 per annum, have been established ; and there is an arrangement whereby $25 is annually deducted from the tuition of a number of indigent students, not exceeding two fifths of the whole body.
BRSHESI'NY, an insignificant t. of Poland, in the government of Piotrkov, 62 m. 8.W. of Warsaw, near the railway that connects Warsaw with Vienna and other places. Pop. '67, 6040.
BRUCE, a co. in n.w. Ontario, Canada, on lake Huron; 1600 sq.m.; pop. '81, 64,774. There is a coast line of 130 m. in the n.w. part of the county, forming a long peninsula between the lake and Georgian bay. Vast beds of salt underlie the coast along the lake. In the s. part the soil is level and fertile. Capital, Walkerton, on Saugeen river.
BRUCE, BLANCH K. See page 881.
BRUCE, the surname of a family illustrious in Scottish history, descended from Robert de Bruis
, a Norman knight, who accompanied William the conqueror to England in 1066, and died soon after. His younger son, Adam, who acquired large possessions in Yorkshire, left a son, Robert de Brus of Cleveland, a companion in arms of prince David of Scotland, afterwards David I., from whom he received a grant of the lordship of Annandale, held by the tenure of military service. At the commencement of the war in England between Stephen and Matilda, niece of the king of Scots, Robert de B. adhered to the former, and renounced his allegiance to David, resigning his lands in Annandale to his son Robert. In 1138, he was sent by the barons of the north of England to negotiate with David, who had advanced in support of his niece's claims as far as Northallen ton, Yorkshire. In the battle of the Standard which followed, he took prisoner his sod Robert, then 14 years of age, who, as lord of Annandale, fought on the Scottish side. He died in 1141. His English estates were inherited by his eldest son, Adam, whose male line terminated in Peter de B. of Skelton, constable of Scarborough castle in 1271. Robert de B., 2d lord of Annandale, had two sons: Robert—who married a natural daughter of William the lion, and died, without issue, before 1191_and William, whose son, Robert, 4th lord of Annandale, married Isobel, 2d daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon and Chester, brother of William the lion, and thus laid the foundation of the royal house of Bruce. He died in 1245.
BRUCE, DAVID, son of king Robert Bruce, succeeded his father, in 1329, as David II., when only 5 years old. In terms of the treaty of Northampton, he had married, when 4 years old, Joanna, daughter of Edward II. of England, and on 14th Nov., 1331, he was crowned with her at Scone. In 1333, the success of Edward Baliol and the English party obliged David's guardians to send him and his consort to France; but on the dispersion of Baliol's adherents, David returned to Scotland in 1341. He made three unsuccessful inroads into England, and on a fourth invasion, in 1346, was taken prisoner at the battle of Neville's Cross, near Durham, and conveyed to the tower of London. Thence he was removed to Odiham, in Hampshire, and not released till 1357, when his ransom was fixed at 100,000 marks. His queen dying in 1362, he married Margaret Logie, a Scottish gentlewoman of singular beauty, whom he divorced in 1370. He had no issue; and in his latter years, he was engaged in several intrigues with England, with the view of excluding his nephew, Robert, the steward of Scotland, the next heir, from the throne. He died at Edinburgh castle, Feb. 22, 1371.
BRUCE, EDWARD, king of Ireland, brother to the above, a chivalrous but rash and impetuous prince, was actively engaged in the struggle for Scotland's independence; and in 1308, after defeating the English twice, made himself master of Galloway. In 1315, the chieftains of Ulster tendered to him the crown of Ireland, on condition of his assisting them to expel the English from the island. With a small army of 6000 men, he embarked at Ayr, and reached Carrickfergus, May 25th of that year, accompanied by sir Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray, sir John of Soulis, sir John the Stewart, sir Fergus of Ardrossan, and other Scottish knights of renown. His rapid victories soon made him master of the province of Ulster, and he was crowned king of Ireland, May 2, 1316, but was slain at the battle of Dundalk, Oct. 5, 1317.
BRUCE, GEORGE, 1781–1866; b. Scotland, came to Philadelphia in 1795 as a printer, and in 1803 became publisher of the New York Advertiser. In 1812, he and his brother introduced the art of stereotyping, and followed that and type-founding thereafter. One of the nephews was the inventor of a machine for casting types.
BRUCE, JAMES, a celebrated traveler, born at Kinnaird house, Stirlingshire, Dec. 14, 1730, was the eldest son of David Bruce, esq., of Kinnaird, and Marion Graham of Airth. Educated at Harrow, he was sent, in the winter of 1747, to the university of Edinburgh, with the intention of studying law; but changing his views, he went to London, and having, in Feb., 1754, married the daughter of a wine-merchant's widow, became a partner in the business. His wife dying within a year, he made a tour on the continent, and on his father's death in 1758, he succeeded to the estate of Kinnaird. In 1761, he retired from the wine-trade, and in 1763 was appointed consul-general at Algiers. He remained there about two years, studying the oriental languages, and acquiring the rudiments of surgery. He then went to Aleppo, where he took further instructions in the medical art, being resolved to travel in the character of a physician. In June, 1768, he proceeded to Alexandria and from Cairo set out on his famous journey to Abyssinia, which forms an epoch in the annals of discovery. Sailing up the Nile to Syene, he crossed the desert to Cosseir, and arrived at Jeddah in April, 1769. After various detentions he reached Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, in Feb., 1770; and on Nov. 14 of that year, succeeded in reaching the sources of the Abawi, then considered the main stream of the Nile. This accomplishment of the chief object of his journey filled him with the greatest exultation. He remained about two years in Abyssinia, and returning by way of Sennaar and the desert of Assouan, after great hardship reached Alexandria, whence he embarked, Mar., 1773, for Marseilles. In France he spent a considerable time, visiting the celebrated count de Buffon, and other distinguished men, and in 1774, he returned to Scotland. In 1776, he married Mary, daughter of Thomas Dundas, esq., of Fingask, by whom he had two sons and one daughter. His long-expected Travels to Discover the Sources of the Nile, in the Years 1768–73, were published in 1790, in 5 large 4to vols. with plates and charts. The work contained such curious accounts of the manners and habits of the people of Abyssinia, that it startled the belief of many, and some of them were set down as fabrications. Among other doubters were De Tott in France, and Dr. Johnson in England. Modern travelers, including Salt, Pearce, Burckhardt, Belzoni, and others, have, however, fully confirmed his statements. B. died April 27, 1794, at Kinnaird, of a fall down stairs.
BRUCE, MICHAEL, a minor Scottish poet, the son of a weaver, b. at Kinnesswood, Kinross-shire, Scotland, Mar. 27. 1746, was, in his younger years, employed as a herdboy. In 1762, he was sent to Edinburgh University to study for the ministry, and when not at college, was engaged as a village schoolmaster. He had all his life to struggle with poverty, and his frame being weak, melancholy took possession of his mind, and his constitution began visibly to decline. He died of consumption, July 6, 1767, aged 21. His poems, few in number, and of a tender and pathetic description, were published by the rev. John Logan, his fellow-student and associate at college, at Edinburgh in 1770. His last composition was a touching elegy on his own approaching death.
BRUCE, ROBERT, the most heroic of the Scottish kings, was b. Mar. 21, 1274. In his youth he favored the English interests, in the expectation, doubtless, of his father being preferred to the Scottish throne. In 1296, as earl of Carrick, he swore fealty to Edward I. at Berwick, and the following year he renewed his oath of homage at Carlisle. Shortly after, he abandoned the cause of Edward, and, with his Carrick vassals, joined the Scottish leaders in arms for the independence of their country. On the defeat of the Scots, a few months afterwards, at Irvine, B. made his peace with the English monarch. After Wallace's defeat at Falkirk, B. burned the castle of Ayr to the ground, to prevent its falling into the hands of the English, and retired into the recesses of Carrick. In 1299, the year after Wallace had resigned the regency, B., then in his 25th year, was admitted one of the four regents, who ruled the kingdom in the name of Baliol. In the three campaigns which subsequently took place, previous to the final subjugation of Scotland, B. continued faithful to Edward, and in 1305 was consulted in the settlement of the government. With John Comyn, called the Red Comyn, the nephew of Baliol, he appears to have entered into some agreement as to their rival claims to the throne. In an interview between them, in the church of the Minorite Friars, Dumfries, Feb. 4, 1305-06, a quarrel took place, and B., in a paroxysm of passion, stabbed Comyn with his dagger. Rushing out to his attendants, he exclaimed: "I doubt I have slain the Red Comyn." “You doubt!” cried one of them; “I mak sikker!” (i.e., sure), and, running into the church with some others, slew Comyn and his brother, who attempted to defend him. B. hastened to Lochmaben castle, assembled his vassals, and asserted his right to the throne. Two months after (Mar, 27), he was crowned king at Scone. An English army, under the earl of Pembroke, nominated by Edward governor of Scotland, took possession of Perth, and on the night of the 18th June, attacked B. in the wood of Methven, compelling him to retreat into the wilds of Athole. At Dalry, near the head of Loch Tay, B. was attacked by Alexander, lord of Lorn, chief of the Macdougals, husband of the aunt of the Red Comyn, and compelled to retire. Sending his queen and her ladies to Kildrummie castle, Aberdeenshire, under the charge of Nigel Bruce and the earl of Athole, he, with 200 followers, crossed Loch Lomond, and had recourse for subsistence to the chase. B. next took refuge in the little island of Rathlin, on the n. coast of Ireland, where he remained all winter, and was supposed to be dead. In his absence, the English took the castle of Kildrummie, hanged Nigel Bruce and other chiefs who had defended it, and tore the queen and princess Marjory from the sanctuary of St. Duthac, Ross-shire. All B.'s estates were confiscated, and himself and adherents excommunicated by the pope's legate at Carlisle. In the spring of 1307, with about 300 men, B. landed in Carrick, and at midnight surprised the English garrison in his own castle of Turnberry; but before a superior force he retired into the mountainous districts of Ayrshire. At Loudon hill, May 10, 1307, he defeated the English under the earl of Pembroke, and, three days after, overthrew another party under the earl of Gloucester. In less than two years he wrested from the English nearly the whole of Scotland. His authority being now established, in 1309 B. advanced to Durham, laying waste the country. The same year, Edward II. of England invaded Scotland, but was compelled to retreat from Edinburgh to Ber. wick-upon-Tweed. In the harvest of 1312, the Scots again invaded England, but un. successfully. B. now reduced the Isle of Man also. On his return, in the autumn of 1313, he found his brother, Edward Bruce, engaged in the siege of Stirling castle, held by sir Philip Mowbray for the English. A treaty was entered into, by which Mowbray bound himself to surrender it, if not relieved before 24th June following. This led to the memorable battle of Bannockburn, 24th June, 1314, at which B. commanded in per.
The English, under Edward II., amounting, it is said, to about 100,000 men, were totally routed, leaving 30,000 dead upon the field; while the Scots, numbering only 30,000, and 15,000 camp-followers, lost about 5000. In 1317, B. passed over to Ireland, to assist his brother, Edward, elected king of that country, and defeated the Anglo-Irish under the baron of Clare; and in the spring of 1318 the Scots army invaded England by Northumberland. Another invasion of Scotland by the English king, who was compelled to retreat, was followed by B. again marching into England. After besieging Norham castle, he defeated Edward once more at Biland abbey, Yorkshire. A truce was, in consequence, ratified between the two kingdoms at Berwick, June 7, 1323, to last for 13 years. On the accession of Edward III., in 1327, hostilities recommenced; and the Scots being again victorious, a final treaty was ratified in a parliament at Northampton, Mar. 4, 1328, recognizing the independence of Scotland, and B.'s right to the throne. His warfare was now accomplished, and, suffering under the disease of leprosy, he spent the last two years of his life at Cardross castle, on the northern shore of the firth of Clyde. He died June 7, 1329, in his 55th year, and the 23d of his reign. His heart, extracted and embalmed, was delivered to sir James Douglas, to be carried to Palestine and buried in Jerusalem. Douglas was killed fighting against the Moors in Spain, and the sacred relic of B., with the body of its devoted champion, was brought to Scotland, and buried in the monastery of Melrose. B.'s body was interred in the abbey church of Dunfermline; and, in clearing the foundations for a third church on the same spot in 1818, his bones were discovered. He was twice married: (1) to Isabella, daughter of Donald, tenth Earl of Mar-issue, a daughter, Marjory, wife of Walter the high steward, whose son ascended the throne as Robert II. ; and (2) to Elizabeth, daugh