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naments and utensils. Here then a whole family eat and sleep, without any consideration of decency or cleanliness, being in regard to the latter, worse even than the beasts of the field, who naturally respect their own tenements. It was scarcely possible to witness this disgusting scene, to behold men, women, and children so wretched, so hideous, and so abject, without reflections not very conforming to doctrines, which for the happiness of the world should be inculcated; and the beautiful reasoning of the philosopher and poet, was scarce sufficient to check the presumptuous discon
"All the villages have high mud walls, flanked with little towers of the same material, to protect them from the Bedouin Arabs. At night a constant guard is mounted, and the faithful dog, who in Egypt is treated with such barbarity, protects the thankless master's property; for the magazines of corn are formed on the outside of the walls, otherwise they would be too extended for the inhabitants to defend. The property of each village is deposited in one place, every individual owner heaping up his own rick, and keeping it distinct from his neighbours, by preserving a path round. Thus the depot resembles a corn field in England, only more compressed, previously to its produce being carried into the barns: but the interior regulations of these little independent states, and general system of government in the country, are beyond the limits of this work; nor could they be so well described as General Reynier has succeeded in doing, who has exemplified these details in a very instructive and able manner, since his knowledge and talents were not, as in his Military History, fettered with prejudice. A perusal of his work is well worth the attention of every man to whom legislation is interesting."
The following picture of Cairo is another instance of the different im
pressions excited in different minds by the same objects:
was no less big with disappointment. "The inspection of Grand Cairo The French had anticipated on their arrival the sight of magnificent buildings, grand squares, sumptuous decorations, a general appearmerce, the enjoyment of every luxance of wealth and riches, of comury in all the profusion of eastern splendor, in short, a capital where their recreations would amply compensate them for the misery they had suffered on their route thither. This city they fondly fancied to have been the emporium, which was the ward of France to them for their object of the expedition, and the reservices in Europe. Great therefore was their disappointment, when they saw none of these expectations realized, but on the contrary, the desperate certainty that they were involved in a wretchedness, from which they could not escape.
error, expected little, yet did not "The English, instructed by their reduce their ideas low enough.
the great suburb of Cairo, was one "The town of Boulac, which is heap of ruins, having been destroyin the insurrection in the year 1799. ed by the French during the siege A few wretched hovels, and two or three barracks, were the only remaining buildings of this once large and populous fauxbourg.
very much shattered at the differ-
large; two or three of them are
He was stabbed whilst walking on
"Place Bequier is a large open square, where most of the Beys resided, but many of their houses have been destroyed by the French; indeed, one whole side is in ruins. This place has, however, been otherwise improved by them, trees being planted on each side of the roads, which cross the square at right angles, and fosses having been dug to retain the water, with the view of checking the dreadful quantity of dust which flies from the sand and ruins always in the evening.
To conceive the true nature of this insufferable nuisance, the whirlwind of other countries must be imagined as occurring every evening, and filling the whole atmosphere of Egypt with burning dust, and the light particles of rubbish. Thus the only part of the day which is tolerable from the diminution of heat, cannot be taken advantage of as the opportunity for exercise.*
"The French had intended to have opened the streets of Cairo, and formed through Place Bequier a magnificent road from the citadel to Giza; but the distraction of the times did not allow of these improvements being attended to, and thus the city bears irretrievable monuments of their ravages, with very few indeed of their benefits. The bairas or exchanges, which the merchants occupy, are large square buildings, divided into little shops, in which the treasures of the caravans were deposited. Since the arrival of the French, none had come from Arabia, and even an unwashed shawl was not to be bought.
"The citadel, in which the Pacha was always kept as a kind of
Independent of this general state of the atmosphere, large pillars of dust and wind are always visible. Sometimes in the circle of the horizon twenare to be seen, and scarcely ever fewer than four or five. Their force is very great, and the tents were instantly blown into the air by them.
state prisoner, is a miserable paltry castle and the avenue of houses leading to it is horrible. In the citadel is the celebrated well called Joseph's, being dug in the time of a Vizir bearing that name. It is excavated in the rock, is two hundred and eighty feet deep, and forty-two in circumference. Winding stairs lead gradually to the bottom, and some way down, oxen are employed in turning the wheels to raise the water, which is very brackish.
"The circumference of the city of Cairo, including the suburb of Boulac, is six miles; and yet this place, till lately, was considered in the east, and partially through Europe, as the largest capital in the world.
"The people were excessively dirty, mostly affected in their eyes; and swarms of beggars, distorted, or unnatural formed wretches, crowded the streets. The manners and customs of the inhabitants are so well delineated in the Arabian Nights Entertainments, that every one has been agreeably made acquainted with them."
The sequel of this work contains some valuable particulars respecting the diseases of Egypt. The author maintains that the plague is local, occasioned by a corrupted atmosphere, and never introduced by contagion. This appears to be the creed of the French physicians, and is made at least plausible by the facts enumerated by the author. Indeed the medical science is that branch of knowledge which will be most indebted to the campaigns in Egpyt.
The catalogue of major and minor plagues to which Egypt is subject, is a terrible list. They are such as to deter any reasonable being from ever residing in the country, who has the choice of leaving it; but we are not thoroughly ap prized of those advantages which belong to the country, and of the influence of custom to inure us to physical and moral evils,
O'er the blue mists of Alleghany rise, Mingling with purest airs of western skies;
Down the bold stream of fair Ohio roll,
And fill with pleasing awe the farmer's soul;
Diffusing balmy comfort far and wide Float on the waves of Missisippi's tide. Even 'midst the forest's dark and gloomy round,
Where yet the woodman's axe must
The future mothers, as their babes they kiss,
His stride is dreadful to the fields of strife,
And his bright armour fear-strikes hosts of men.
He like a God by all his clan is feared; His nod, his look, is by them all obeyed.
One who had dared to question his command
Was piece-meal hewn by his indignant sword,
And thrown to blood-hounds to regale their thirst.
He has withstood the threats and power of kings,
Shall breathe a prayer to heaven for And plans to seize him frequently has Jenner's bliss.
THIS man, being of an ardent spirit and an enterprising soul, by the eccentricity of his character divided the opinion of the world.... By some he was supposed equal to the highest enterprises; while others regarded him as a desperate adventurer: but by his wit and the lively display of his talents, he had gained the confidence of M. de Sartine and the Count de Maurepas, who afterwards employed him in the most dangerous attempts.
Towards the close of the year 1774, Parades completed his tour through Swisserland and the lower Valais, where making himself agreeable to several persons of science and distinction, he was empicyed as an engineer; in which capacity he formed the superb project of opening, by means of a canal from the Rhone, a communication between Geneva and the Vicentin, the object of which was to render France mistress of an immense commerce. This plan was laid before the Marquis de Vergennes, then ambassador to the Swiss Cantons, who judging it of the highest importance, sent the projector, with letters of recommendation, to the Comte de Vergennes at Paris, where he arrived early in the year 1778, and took the title of the Comte de Parades, for the first time.
Unfortunately for the kingdom of France, and the honour and advantage of the engineer,this scheme was
laid aside: but France then being in a state of fermentation, in expectancy of a war with England, Parades entertained hopes of being once more actively employed. Having well weighed the probabilities of his future fortune, he resolved to pass over into England, to acquire an accurate knowledge of the strength of Great-Britain; of her forces by sea and land; of her maritime fortifications; with such other information as might form the basis of his future exaltation.
He put his design into execution, and early in February arrived in England, where he visited all the principal towns; examining every thing worthy of notice, and digesting his remarks into a memorial, with which he arrived at Paris in March. This memorial was presented to M. de Sartine, who praising his zeal expressed his satisfaction, and recommended another journey into England, entirely for the purpose of procuring correct plans of every sea-port; to learn the separate stations of the British navy; the number of ships of war ready for sea, with those refitting and building; the condition of the magazines and dock-yards; and, in short, of every thing connected with the English maritime rosources.
Parades accordingly quitted Versailles a second time, and soon after arrived in England, where he most strictly fulfilled his commission: he