fellows of his own nature, he will be glad- the resources of a mighty population, an dened and encouraged by his growing fa- overflowing attendance may be afforded to miliarity with them all; and thus will he each of them, while an humble fraction of turn the vicinity which he has chosen into the whole is all that is overtaken ; and be. a home-walk of many charities; and re. low the goodly superficies of a great appacognised as its moral benefactor, will his rent stir and activity, may an unseen kindness, and his judgment, and his structure of baser materials deepen and Christianity, be put forth with a well- accumulate underneath, so as to furnish a earned and well-established influence, in solution of the fact, that with an increase behalf of a grateful population.”—p. 56-58. of Christian exertion amongst us, there

“ Under a local system, the teachers should, at one and the same time, be an more towards the people. Under a gene- increase of heathenism. ral system, such of the people as are dis. “ It is the pervading operation of the posed to Christianity move towards them. local system, which gives it such a superiTo estimate the comparative effect of these or value and effect in our estimation. It {0, take the actual state of every mixed is its thorough diffusion through that porand crowded population, where there must tion of the mass in which it operates. It be many among whom this disposition is is that movement, by which it traverses utterly extinguished. The question is, the whole population, and by which, inhow shall the influence of a Sabbath- stead of only holding forth its signals to school be brought most readily and most those of them who are awake, it knocks at abundantly into contact with their fami. the doors of those who are most profound. lies? Which of the two parties, the teach. ly asleep, and, with a force far more ef. e or those to be taught, should make the fective than if it were physical, drags them first advances to such an approximation ? out to a willing attendance upon its miniTo meet this question, let it ever be re- strations. In this way, or indeed in any membered, that there is a wide and a way, inay it still be impossible to reach mighty difference between the wants of the parents of our present generation. our physical, and those of our moral and But the important practical fact is, that, spiritual nature. In proportion to our averse as they may be to Christianity on Sant of food is our desire for food ; but their own account, and negligent as they it is not so with our want of knowledge, often are, in their own persons, of the ar virtue, or religion. The more desti- Christianity of their children, still there is tute we are of these last, the more dead a pride and a satisfaction felt in their at. we are as to any inclination for them. A tendance upon the Sabbath-schools, and general system of Sabbath-schooling may their proticiency at the Sabbath-schools. attract towards it all the predisposition Let the system be as impotent as it may that there is for Christian instruction, and in its efficiency upon the old, still it yet leave the majority as untouched and comes into extensive contact with the ducas unawakened as it found them. in tile and susceptible young; and, from the moving through the lanes and the recesses way in which it is fitted to muster them of a long-neglected population, will it be nearly all into its presence, is it fitted, in found of the fearful multitude, that not proper hands, to wield a high and a preonly is their acquaintance with the gospel siding influence over the destinies of a fuextinguished, but their wish to obtain an acquaintance with it is also extinguished. “ The schools, under a general system, They not only have no righteousness, but are so many centres of attraction for all they have no bungering nor thirsting after the existing desire that there is towards it. A general teacher may draw some Christianity; and what is thus drawn is, kindred particles out of this assemblage. doubtless, often bettered and advanced by He may bring around him such families the fellowship into which it has entered. as are of a homogeneous quality with him. The schools, under a local system, are self. Those purer ingredients of the mass, so many centres of emanation, from which which retain so much of the etherial cha- a vivifying influence is actively propagated racter as to have an etherial tendency, through a dead and putrid mass. It does may move towards a place of central and not surprise us to be told, that, under congenial attraction, though at a consider, the former operation, there should be an able distance from them; and, even though, increase of youthful delinquency, along in so doing, they have to come separately with an increase of public instruction for out from that overwhelming admixture the young. Should the latter operation with wbich they are encompassed. But become universal in cities, we would be the bulky sediment remains untouched surprised if there were still an increase of and stationary; and, by its power of assi- youthful delinquency; and it were a phemilation, too, is all the while adding to nomenon we would be unable to explain. its own magnitude. And thus it is both “ The former or general systein draws a possible thing that schools may multiply around it the young of our more decent under a general system, and that oat of and reputable families. It can give an

ture age.

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impulse to all the matter that floats upon touched by them. There is the firm and the surface of society. It is the pride of the obstinate growth of a sedentary corthe latter, or local system, while it refuses ruption, which will require to be more acnot these, that it also fetches out from tively assailed. It is certainly cheering to their obscurities, the very poorest and count the positive numbers on the side of most profligate of children. It may have Christianity. But, beyond the ken of or. a painful encounter at the outset, with dinary notice, there is an outnumbering the filth, and the raggedness, and the both on the side of week-day profligacy, other rude and revolting materials, which and of Sabbath profanation. There is it has so laboriously excavated from those room enough for apparent Christianity, mines of depravity, that lie beneath the and real corruption, to be gaining ground surface of common observation. But it together, each in their respective terrimay well be consoled with the thought, tories; and the delusion is, that, while that, while much good has been done by many are rejoicing in the symptoms of its predecessor, which, we trust, that it our country's reformation, the country is on the eve of supplanting, it holds in itself may be ripening for some awful criits own hands the materials of a far more sis, by which to mark, in characters of glorious transformation.

vengeance, the consummation of its guilt." “ This is an age of many ostensible do.

p. 61-66. ings in behalf of Christianity. And it

We have given these passages at full looks a paradox to the general eye, that, with this feature of it standing out so con

length, because they are striking and spicuously, there should also be an un- important. Their eloquence, indeed, doubted increase of crimes, and commit- is the least part of their praise. The ments, and executions, all marking an following remarks likewise are full of augmented depravity among our popula- true Christian wisdom. tion. A very slight degree of arithmetic,

“ There are so many philanthropists in we are persuaded, can explain the para- this our day, that if each of them who is dox. Let it simply be considered, in the qualified were to betake himself, in his case of any Christian institution, whether own line of usefulness, to one given locaits chief office be to attract or to pervade. lity, it would soon work a great and viShould it only be the former, we have no sible effect upon society. One great secudoubt, that a great visible exhibition may rity for such an arrangement being propa. I be drawn around it--and that stationary gated, is the actual comfort which is expe. i pulpits and general Sabbath-schools, and rienced by each, after he has entered on open places of repair for instruction indis- his own separate portion of it. But there criminately to all who will, must give rise is, at the same time, a temporary hin. to a great absolute amount of attendance. drance to it, in the prevailing spirit of the And whether we look at the streets, when times. The truth is, that a task so iso. all in a fervour with church-going—or wit- lated as that which we are now prescribness the full assemblage of children, who ing, does not suit with the present rage come from all quarters, with their weekly for generalising. There is an appetite for preparations, to a pious and intelligent designs of magnificence. There is an imteacher-or compute the overflowing audi- patience of every thing short of a univertory, that, Sabbath after Sabbath, some sal scheme, landing in a universal result. free evening sermon is sure to bring out Nothing will serve but a mighty organizafrom among the closely peopled mass- tion, with the promise of mighty conseor, finally, read of the thousands which quences ; and, let any single person be find a place in the enumerations of some infected with this spirit, and he may degreat philanthropic society-we are apt, cline from the work of a single court or from all this, to think that a good and a

lane in a city, as an object far too limited religious influence is in full and busy cir- for his contemplation. He may like to culation on every side of us. And yet, share, with others, in the enterprise of subthere is not a second-rate town in our em. ordinating a whole city to the power of pire, which does not afford materials

some great and combined operation. And enough, both for all this stir and appear

we may often have to deliver a man from ance, on the one hand, and for a rapid in this ambitious tendency, ere we can precrease, in the quantum of moral deteriora. vail upon him to sit humbly and persevertion, on the other. The cloings to which ingly down to his task-ere we can lead we have adverted may bear, with a kind him to forget the whole, and practically of magnetic influence, on all that is kin- give himself to one of its particulars-ere dred in character to their own design, and

we can satisfy him, that, should he moraltheir own principle. They may commu ise one district of three hundred people, he nicate a movement to the minority who will not have lived in vain-ere we can will, but leave still and motionless the ina- get him to pervade his locality, and quit jority who will not.

Whole streets and his speculation. whole departments may be nearly un " This spirit has restrained the march of

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philanthropy, as effectually as, in other schools have been formed upon the days, it did that of philosophy. In the principle which he here recommends. taste for splendid generalities, it was long We shall give both of these in his own ere the detail and the drudgery of experi- warm language, nor can we conclude mental science were entered upon. There better than with his eloquent concluis a sound and inductive method of philan- sion. We really are desirous to give thropy, as well as a sound and inductive method of philosophising. A few patient our feeble aid to the dissemination of disciples of the experimental school have the views of this distinguished phiconstructed a far nobler and more endur- lanthropist, and of the earnest words ing fabric of truth, than all the old school- in which he clothes them. The first met put together could have reared. And instance is that of the Saltmarket Sabcould we prevail on those who are unwea bath School Society. ried in well-doing, each to take his own separate slip, or portion of the vast terri “ The field of its operations takes in tory that lies before us, and to go forth up. both sides of the street, with the deep, and on it with the one preparation of common narrow, and numerous lanes which branch sense and common sympathy; and, resign- off from them. It bears a population of ing his more extended imaginations, actu 3624; and to cultivate this extent, there ally to work with the materials that are were only four individuals, at the outset of put into his hand would we, in this in the undertaking, who, instead of spreading ductive way of it, arrive at a far more so themselves over the whole, appropriated lid, as well as striking consummation, than each a small locality, and waited for more ever can be realised by any society of wide agents, ere they proceeded to lay out the and lofty undertakings.

remainder. And, such is the impulse The individual who thus sits soberly that lies in a field of exertion, with its down to a work, that is commensurate with boundaries lying visibly before you such the real mediocrity of the human powers, is the excitement given to human power, will soon meet with much to reconcile him when linked with a task that may be surto the enterprise. He will not fail to con- mounted, instead of being left to expatiate trast the impotency of every general ma at random, over an obscure and fathomnagement, in reference to the whole, with less unknown—such is the superior charm the efficacy of his own special manage- of a statistical over an extended territory, ment, in reference to a part. His feeling and such the more intense sympathy of a of the superior comfort of his own walk, devoted few, in the prosecution of their and his conviction of its superior produc- common and defined object, than that of tiveness, will soon make up to him for the the scattered many, who have spread beloss of those more comprehensive surveys yond the limits either of mutual inspecthat are offered to his notice by Societies, tion or of general control, that, in a few which, however gigantic in their aim, are months, did this little association both so inefficient in their performance. He complete its numbers, and thoroughly alloses a splendid deception, and he gets, in locate and pervade the whole ground of exchange for it, a solid reality, and a rea its projected operations. It has now openlity too, which will at length grow and ed fourteen schools, and provided them brighten into splendour, by the simple ap- with teachers. The number of scholars is position of other districts to his own—by 420, amounting to more than a ninth of the mere summation of particulars-by the whole population. This is a very full each philanthropist betaking himself to proportion indeed ; for, on pretty extenthe same path of exertion, and following sive surveys, is it found, that the whole out an example that is sure to become number of children, from the age of six to more alluring by every new act of expe- fifteen, comes to about one-fifth of the porience.

pulation. Certain it is, that all the gene“ There is an impatience on the part of ral societies in previous operation had many a raw and sanguine philanthropist, brought out but a very slender fraction, for doing something great ; and, akin to indeed, of the number bronght out by this, there is an inpatience for doing that this local and pervading society—that magreat thing speedily. They spurn the ny a crowded haunt of this district was condition of drivelling amongst littles ; and as completely untouched by the antecedent unless there be a redeeming magnificence methods, as are the families in the wilds in the whole operation, of which they bear of Tartary—that hundreds of young, nea part, are there some who could not be ver in church, and without one religisatisfied with a humble and detached al ous observation to mark and to separate lotment in the great vineyard of human their Sabbath from the other days of the usefulness." pp. 71-74.

week, have thus been brought within an

atmosphere, which they now breathe for Dr Chalmers mentions two remark the first time in their cxistence that, with able instances in Glasgow in which a small collection of books attached to

each humble seminary, there is a reading lity. The sum deposited in this local of the purest and most impressive charac- bank is about proportional to the sum of ter, in full circulation amongst both the 30,0001. for the town and suburbs of parents and the children who belong to it; Glasgow ; and forms another proof, among and, what is not the least important effect the many others which multiple around of all, that, by the frequent recurrence of us, of the superiority, in point of effect, week-day visitations, there is both a Christ, which a small, and, at the same time, disian and a civilizing influence sent forth tinct and unfettered management holds, upon a whole neighbourhood, and a over a wide and ambitious superintenthousand nameless cordialities are con- dence. stantly issuing out of the patriarchal rela

“ We read in the book of Genesis, how tionship, which has thus been formed be- few the righteous men were, that would tween a man of worth, and so many out- have sufficed to save a city from destruccast and neglected families.”—p. 77, 78. tion. It is cheering to calculate on the

“Strong, however, as our partialities are powers of human agency, and how much for the Saltmarket Society, we are not even an individual may do, when those sure but that we feel a still greater inte- powers are wisely and steadily directed, rest in the solitary, yet eminently success- and, above all, what is the number of inful, attempt of a gentleman in our city, dividuals required, who, if each, labouring whose name, from motives of delicacy, we in his own duteous and devoted walk, forbear to mention. It is now about a would altogether assure the magnificent reyear and a half ago, since he assumed a sult of a country recovered from vice and district to himself, which he resolved to violence, and placed conclusively beyond cultivate, on the system of local philan. the reach of all moral and all political disthropy. We believe that, in respect of orders. the rank and condition of those who live “ This result will, at length, be arrived in it, it is greatly beneath the average of at, not by the working of one mighty orGlasgow. It comprises a population of ganization, for the achievement of great 996; whom he, in the first instance, most things, but by the accumulation of small thoroughly surveyed, and all of whom, things-not by men, whose taste it is to we are confident, he has now most tho- contemplate what is splendid in philanroughly attached, and that, by a series of thropy, but by men whose practical talent the most friendly and enlightened services. it is to do what is substantial in philanHe has found room, within its limits, for thropy-not by men who eye, with imafour Sabbath-schools, which he provided ginative transport, the broad and boundless with teachers of his own selecting, and expanse of humanity, but by men who who, like himself, labour, of course, grå. can work in drudgery and in detail, at the tuitously in the cause; as, indeed, we be- separate portions of it. But, before we lieve, do all the other Sabbath teachers in can sit down and be satisfied with doing the city. The scholars amount to 110; thoroughly and well, that which lies with which is, also, in very full proportion to in the compass of our strength-there must the number of inhabitants. "He has also be a conquest over the pride of our nainstituted a Savings Bank, which takes in ture there must be a calling in of the deposites only from those who live, and fancy, from those specious generalities, from those who work, within the bounds which have lured so many from the path of this little territory. With this last ex- of sober and productive exertion—we must tension of his plan, the bank may 'em- resign the glory of devising a magnificent brace a population of 1200; and, from whole, and count it enough to have renits commencement, in December 19th, dered, in our narrow sphere, and in our 1818, to December 18th, 1819, the whole little day, the contribution of a part to the sum deposited is 235l. 128. 3. During good of human society. The whole it is the twelvemonth, sixty families of this only for Him to contemplate fully whose small district have opened their accounts agents we are, and who assigns a portion with the bank, and received an impulse of usefulness to each - severally, as he will. from it, on the side of economy and fore. It is our part to follow the openings of his sight. This, in such a year, proves what Providence, and to do, with our might, might be made of the neglected capabili- that work which he hath evidently put inties of our labouring classes. Any gene- to our hands. Any great moral or econoral savings bank for the town at large mical change in the state of a country, is would not have called out one-tenth of not the achievement of one single arm, but this sum, from the obscure department the achievement of many; and though one which this gentleman occupies, and which, man walking in the loftiness of his heart, with the doings and devices of a most ju- might like to engross all the fame of it, dicious benevolence, he is so fast rescuing it will remain an impotent speculation, from all the miseries which attach to å unless thousands come forward to share crowded population. We hold this to be among them all the fatigue of it. It is pot one of the most signal triumphs of loca- to the labour of those who are universalist

in science, that she stands indebted for her years, contains, likewise, views and present solidity, or her present elevation, reasonings which go deeper, and may but to the separate labours of many each afford subjects of the most important occupying his own little field, and heaping, thought to understandings of the on the basis of former acquisitions, his own greatest reach and maturity. It may distinct and peculiar offering. And it is be thought, perhaps, that there are just so in philanthropy. The spirit of it already books enough on this great of late years ; but still clouded and misled subject, and that the evidences of reby the bewildering glare which the fancy ligion have been detailed, over and of ambitious man is apt to throw around over again, so often, that nothing his own undertakings." He would be the farther is to be said upon them. We sole creator of a magnificent erection, ra are far from being of that opinion. ther than a humble contributor to it, &. Although the leading points of evimong a thousand more, each as necessary dence have been often illustrated, yet and important as himself. And yet, would they will always occur in new and he only resign his speculations, and give original forms to different minds; and himself to the execution of a task, to which so far are we from thinking that the his own personal faculties were adequate, subject is exhausted, that we consihe would meet with much to compensate der it, on the contrary, to be inexthe loss of those splendid delusions, which have hitherto engrossed him. There would


With the increasing be less of the glare of publicity, but there knowledge of every age, and with the would be more of the kindliness of a quiet innumerable holds which religion is and sheltered home. He could not, by ever continuing from day to day to his own solitary strength, advance the little gain upon the hearts of men, will stone into a great mountain, but the worth the features of its evidence ever apand the efficacy of his labours will be sure pear more striking and affecting; and to recommend them to the imitation of we think those intelligent inquirers many—and the good work will spread, by do a good service to society who, frora example, from one individual, and from time to time, bring forward the views cae district to another-and, though he which have had most influence on may be lost to observation, in the growing their own minds. The author of magnitude of the operations which surround him, yet will he rejoice even in his these little works began his career at very insignificance, as the befitting condi- a period when infidel philosophy was tion for one to occupy, among the many much more fashionable in this counmillions of the species to which he belongs try than it, happily, is at present. --and it will be enough for him, that he Bred to the profession of the law, he has added 'one part, however small, to that naturally applied to the inquiries great achievement, which can only be com- of religious evidence, the habits of pleted by the exertions of an innumerable illustration and reasoning, in which multitude and the fruit of which is to fill that calling had reared him; a pecu. the whole earth.” pp. 84-88.

liarity which appears in many parts of his writings. Their most distinguish

ing characteristic, however, is the imA FATHER'S SECOND pression which they bear of a sound

and honest mind, finding its own di

rect path in the midst of the sophistries We mentioned this little work in and cavillings with which the literaour last Number, but only mentioned ture of his age and country was but it; and as we think it contains an

too much beset. Taking them in useful summary of natural and reveal- this view, there is a strain of no inen religion, we shall now proceed to considerable originality and eloquence give some farther account of it. It is in many parts of these treatises. an expansion, in a different form, of

The first is on natural religion, and the author's preceding little treatise, is supposed to be the conclusions of which was so favourably received, a plain man” upon that great and or, while that skimmed over the interesting subject

. It consists, accordground, chiefly with a view to the in- ingly, of the arguinents which most struction of the young, the present readily occur to a person of an unsowork, though quite suitable to their phisticated understanding on the evi

dence of a Deity, and of the moral By a Layman, author of a Father's government of the universe, as they are Gift to his Children. 1820.

discovered to the light of nature, and it



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