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Chap. II. pressly ordered to be used by him, as an ensign of his

office, at all public administrations. It was made in the shape of a Shepherd's Crook, and was for many ages, even till after the Reformation, constantly given to the Bishop at his consecration, to denote that he was then

constituted a Shepherd over the flock of Christ 43. These ha These are the ministerial ornaments and habits enjoined bits, &c. by our present rubric, in conformity to the first practice offensive to of our church immediately after the Reformation; though Bucer. at that time they were so very offensive to Calvin and

Bucer, that the one in his letters to the Protector, and the other in his censure of the English Liturgy, which he sent to Archbishop Cranmer, urged very vehemently to have them abolished; not thinking it tolerable to have any thing in common with the Papists, but esteeming

every thing idolatrous that was derived from them. And discon However, they made shift to accomplish the end they tinued in aimed at, in procuring a farther reform of our Liturgy: the second for in the review that was made of it in the fifth of Edbook of Edward VI. ward VI.

amongst other ceremonies and usages, these rubrics were left out, and the following one put in their place, viz.

And here it is to be noted, that the minister, at the time of the Communion, and at all other times in his ministration, shall use neither Alb, Vestment, or Cope; but being Archbishop or Bishop, he shall have and wear a Rochette; and being a

Priest or Deacon, he shall have and wear a Surplice only 4*, But restored But in the next review under Queen Elizabeth, the old again by Q. rubrics were again brought into authority, and so have Elizabeth.

continued ever since; being established by the Act of Uni

formity that passed soon after the Restoration. of the VIIÍ. I must observe still farther, that among other orlights upon naments of the church then in use, there were two lights the altar.

enjoined by the injunctions of King Edward VI. (which injunctions were also ratified by the Act of Parliament here mentioned) to be set upon the altar, as a significant ceremony to represent the light which Christ's Gospel brought into the world. And this too was ordered by the very same injunction, which prohibited all other lights and tapers, that used to be superstitiously set before images or shrines 45, &c. And these lights, used time out of mind in the church, are still continued in most, if not all, cathedral and collegiate churches and chapels, so often as

42 See the first ordinal, compiled
A. D. 1549.

43 Durand, I. 3. c. 15. fol. 77. &c.
44 Rubric before the beginning of

Morning Prayer, in the second Common Prayer Book of King Edward VI.

45 Sparrow's Collection, p. 2, 3.

divine service is performed by candle-light; and ought Sect. V. also, by this rubric, to be used in all parish-churches and chapels at the same times.

IX. To this section we might also refer the Pulpit- Church orCloth, Cushions, Coverings for the Altar, &c. and all naments other ornaments used in the church, and prescribed by

enjoined. the first book of King Edward VI.

said.

Sect. V. Of the place appointed for the reading of Morn

ing and Evening Prayer. The reader may observe, that, in the second section of the of this chapter, I have only treated of churches in place where

Morning general, and the necessity of having appropriate places for

and Eventhe performance of divine worship, and have not taken ing Prayer any notice of the particular place in the church, where is to be Morning and Evening Prayer is to be used. The appointment of which was yet the chief design of the first part of our present rubric. For in the first book of King Edward All divine VI. all the rubric relating to this matter was only one at service perthe beginning of Morning Prayer, which ordered the formed at

first in the Priest, being in the Choir, to begin, with a loud voice, the choir. Lord's Prayer, called the Pater-noster, with which the Morning and Evening Service then began. So that then it was the custom for the minister to perform divine service (i. e. Morning and Evening Prayer, as well as the Communion-office) at the upper end of the choir near the altar ; towards which, whether standing or kneeling, he always turned his face in the prayers ; though whilst he was reading the Lessons, he turned to the people. Against this Bucer, by the direction of Calvin, most This pracgrievously declaimed; urging, that “ it was a most anti- tice cla. “ christian practice for the Priest to say prayers only in the mounted “choir, as a place peculiar to the clergy, and not in the Bucer. “ body of the church among the people, who had as “ much right to divine worship as the clergy themselves.” He therefore strenuously insisted, “ that the reading divine “ service in the chancel was an insufferable abuse, and “ought immediately to be amended, if the whole nation “ would not be guilty of high treason against God 46.” This terrible outcry (however senseless and trifling) pre- And altered vailed so far, that when the Common Prayer Book was upon his altered in the fifth year of King Edward, this following complaint. rubric was placed in the room of the ld one; viz. The

46 Vide Bucer. Cens. C. 1. p. 457.

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Chap. II. Morning and Evening Prayer shall be used in such places of

the Church, Chapel, or Chancel, and the Minister shall turn
him, as the people may best hear. And if there be any con-
troversy therein, the matter shall be referred to the ordinary,

and he or his deputy shall appoint the place *7.
Which This alteration caused great contentions, some kneeling
caused

one way, some another, though still keeping in the chan-
great con-
tentions.

cel: whilst others left the accustomed place, and
formed all the services in the body of the church amongst
the people. For the appeasing of this strife and diversity,

it was thought fit, when the English service was again
Till the old brought into the church, at the accession of Queen Eliza-
custom was beth to the throne, that the rubric should be corrected,
again re-
stored in

and put into the same form in which we now have it; the reign of viz. That the Morning and the Evening Prayer shall be used 2. Eliza- in the accustomed place of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel ;

by which for the generality must be meant the Choir or Chancel, which was the accustomed place before the second Common Prayer Book of King Edward. For it cannot be supposed, that this second book, which lasted only one year and a half, could establish a custom. However, a dispensing power was left to the ordinary, who might

determine it otherwise, if he saw just cause. The origi Pursuant to this rubric, the morning and evening ser. · nal of Read-vice was again, as formerly, read in the chancel or choir. ing-Pews, or Desks.

But because in some churches the too great distance of the chancel from the body of the church, occasioned sometimes by the interposition of a belfry, hindered the minister from being heard distinctly by the people; therefore the Bishops, at the solicitations of their inferior Clergy, allowed them in several places to supersede their former practice, and to have Desks, or Reading-Pews, in the body of the church, where they might, with more ease to themselves, and greater convenience to the people, perform the daily morning and evening service. Which dispensation, begun at first by some few ordinaries, and recommended by them to others, grew by degrees to be more general, till at last it came to be an universal practice: insomuch that the convocation, in the beginning of King James l's reign, ordered, that in every church there should be a convenient seat made for the minister to read service in *8. And this being almost threescore years before the Restoration of K. Charles II. (at which time the last review of

47 Rubric before the beginning of morning prayer, in the sccond book

of King Edward.

48 See Canon 82.

the Common Prayer was made,) it is very probable, that Sect. V. when they continued this rubric, they intended the Desk or Reading-Pew should be understood by the accustomed place for reading prayers. And what makes this the more likely, is a rubric at the beginning of the Communion, which expressly mentions a Reading-Pew, and seems to suppose one in every church. It is true indeed, another rubric at the beginning of the Communion-office (which orders the table, at the communion-time, to stand in the body of the Church or Chancel, where Morning and Evening Prayer are appointed to be said) seems to have an eye to the old practice of reading prayers in the choir. But this rubric being the same that we have in King Edward's second Common Prayer Book, may perhaps have slipt into the present book through the inadvertency of the reviewers, who might not probably just then consider, that custom had shifted the place for the performance of the daily service into another part of the church. Though were it certain that this rubric was continued in the last review, to authorize the old way of reading the prayers in the choir, in such places as had still retained that custom; yet since the ordinaries have a dispensing power, and they have approved of the alteration that has been made in the introducing of Desks; it seems as regular now to perform divine service in them, as it was formerly to do it in the chancel or choir.

§. 2. The occasion of the latter part of this rubric relat- Chancels to ing to chancels, was also another of Bucer's cavils; who,

remain as

they have in his censure of our Liturgy, in the same place that he done in complains of the reading prayers in the choir, inveighs as times past. vehemently against the separation of the choir from the body of the church. This too he calls “ an antichristian “ practice, tending only to gain too great reverence to the “clergy, who would hereby seem nearer related to God “than the laity. That in ancient times churches were “ built in a round form, and not in a long one like ours, “ and that the place for the clergy was always in the “ middle; and that therefore our divisions of the chancels “ from the churches, was another article of treason against “ God.” This objection discovering an equal share of ignorance and ill-nature, seems to have obtained no greater regard than the raillery deserved. For in the review of the Liturgy of the fifth of King Edward, instead of an order to pull down the chancels, as undoubtedly this mighty reformer expected, a clause was added at the end of the first rubric to prevent any alteration, expressly

Chap. II. enjoining, that the chancels should remain as they had done

in times past. There was afterwards indeed a greater occasion for the continuance of this rubric; when a tumultuous rabble, encouraged by the complaints that they had found had been made by this same Bucer, and his director Calvin 49, proceeded to demolish both chancels and altars, pulling down the rails and frames that divided them from the rest of the church, and divesting them of all the ornaments that but seemed to intiinate them to be more than ordinary sacred. But this will fall more directly under my consideration hereafter, when I come to treat of the situation of the altar, to which the rubric in the beginning of the Communion-office will lead me.

CHAP. III.

Of the ORDER for Morning and Evening

PRAYER daily throughout the Year,

The INTRODUCTION. Whether That the primitive Christians, besides their solemn any daily service on Sundays, had public prayers every Mornservice in ing and Evening, daily, has already been hinted upon a the primi, former occasion so: but a learned gentleman is of the opitive church.

nion, that this must be restrained to times of peace; and that during the time of public persecution they were forced to confine their religious meetings to the Lord's day only ss. And it is certain that Pliny 52 and Justin Martyr 53, who both describe the manner of the Christian worship, do neither of them make mention of any assembly for public worship on any other day: so that their

49 Mr. Calvin (who was before thought by some to bave offered his assistance too officiously for carrying on the Reformation in England, and who with relation to our church had used some very hard expressions, not so well becoming the mouth of a divine) warns Martin Bucer, in a letter he sent to him just before his coming into England, against being the Author or Approver of middle Counsels: by which words he plainly strikes at

the moderation observed in the Eng. lish Reformation.-Dr. Nichols's Introduction to his defence of the Doc. trine and Discipline of the Church of England.

50 Chap. 2. sect. 1, p. 80, 81.

51 Mr. Bingham's Antiquities, book 13. ch. 9. sect. 1. vol. v. p. 281. &c.

52 L. 10. Ep. 97.

53 Apol. 1. c. 87. p. 131, and c. 89. p. 132.

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