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The most important point, howe tect; there does really appear no soever, is the choice of an architect; lid objection to its being immediate and here we must allow no consider- ly adopted by the Committee, except ation whatsoever to interfere with the the want of funds for so great an una freest competition; for, if we employ dertaking. an architect who does not possess, in a But a moment's consideration will considerable degree, the genius and serve to show, that this very objection taste of the ancient artists, and who is, in fact, one of the strongest arguhas nothing but mechanical power of ments in favour of the immediate and execution to recommend him, we may unqualified adoption of the Parthenon be certain that this great restoration as the model, and the Calton Hill as can never be accomplished so as to the situation, of the National Monubecome an honour to this age and ment. Even the lowness of the subcountry.
scription is an indubitable and strike But, although it were too much to ing symptom of the justness of the expect that the occasion should all at public taste; for there is no man, once call into being a British Phidias, whatever be his politics, or whatever yet it were a most unworthy determi- his patriotism, who ought to subscribe nation to stop short because we are so freely, when doubtful of the uses doubtful of commanding the highest to which his money is to be approdegree of excellence, or to take it for priated, as he would do when he granted that this great and free coun has a distinct assurance that it would try, which has produced such states, certainly be devoted to an object men, and warriors, and poets, and countenanced by persons of taste, philosophers, and great artists in every knowledge, and public spirit, unother department, should be incapaç der the direction of an architect ble, upon due encouragement, of send- of genius and talents. This is not only ing forth an architect not less worthy obvious a priori, but is strictly conof the age in which we live.
sonant to the fact in the present case, At all events, the Committee are as all who have heard the subject disbound in justice, not only to the sub- cussed in company will admit. We scribers, but to the whole country, hear in every quarter people asking, not to trifle with the national reputa “ What is to be the plan of the Nation in this matter, but to eucourage, tional Monument?" Who is to be by every means in their power, the einployed to build it?” Some lamentfairest competition ; to circulate in- ing that they have subscribed before vitations, not only to architects, but the plan was fixed; others declaring to men of genius of all descriptions, that they will not subscribe at all to come before the Committee, in or unless the Parthenon be adopted, and der to substantiate their claims to the unless every possible competition be great honour of restoring the Pare allowed before appointing an archithenon.
tect; and many more promising to If this be done in an honest spirit, as double, treble, and even some very ea we feel confident, from the known cha- minent individuals have been heard racters of the leaders in this national to declare, that they will quadruple. undertaking, it will be done; if all job- theamount of their subscription when , bing and favour be excluded ; if a ever these important points are finally sufficient time be given; and if able, settled. It is exceedingly important upright, and public-spirited judges bé that such feelings should not be alappointed by the Committee to inves- lowed to subside, without due adtigate the claims of candidates, and to vantage being taken of them; and distinguish between the mere mecha- the Committee may rest assured, that, nical copyist and the man of genius ; if they allow the moment to pass, they we feel assured that this appeal to the can never hope to restore the valuacountry will not be made in vain. ble tone which now prevails amongst
Such, then, being the fitness of the all classes and parties, and which onoccasion for raising a National Monu- ly wants a little well-directed imment; the advantages of situation pulse to give it the irresistible mofor placing it; the model from which mentum, that never fails to accomto copy it; and the materials where pany the exercise of right public opiwith to construct it; and such the nion in this country. The same reaexpectations of procuring a fit archi- soning will apply to our settlements
abroad, particularly in India, where edifice which has contributed probathere is not only wealth, but a very bly more than all the other buildings pure taste for Grecian architecture, in the world, to the refinement of and where, as I can testify, from hav- taste, were of itself an object worthy ing resided some time in that country, of any age or country, the motives just adverted to may be If, then, as is most earnestly to be expected to act most powerfully. hoped, the Committee shall lose no
At all events, the experiment is time in publishing to the world that well worth trying; and if, in the end, they have decided upon adopting the the funds shall not prove sufficient, model proposed, and inviting subwe shall not be in a worse predicament scriptions on that understanding, it is than we are at present. But of this material that they should attend to the there is little fear, because the Par- following points, without a due rethenon is considered by skilful prace collection of which, they must not tical men to be the least expensive hope to see the subscriptions in the form which could be selected; and it smallest degree augmented. is thought, that, for thirty or forty It ought to be distinctly stated to thousand pounds, the whole temple the public, not only that the Parmight be restored in the manner pro- thenon is to be adopted as a model for posed ; and that, for ten thousand the National Monument on the Calmore, suitable sculpture might also ton Hill, but that it is not to be a be added. It is evident that, with church. This assurance is altogether this sum, it would be hopeless to aiin essential to the success of the proposed at distinction in any other known measure, as will be apparent to every style of architecture.
one who recollects, that the objects of And here one reflection occurs, this building are to record and comwhich it is right that every lover of memorate deeds of military renown, his country and of the arts should at -to foster and rouse the national tend to, namely, that, if the present pride; to keep alive that lofty and project fails, there is no hope left that daring spirit, which has for its it will ever afterwards succeed in this object the advancement of national country. No such opportunity as the glory, the resistance of foreign enepresent can ever arise again in our mies, and, in short, the encourageday; and it is in Edinburgh alone that ment of every patriotic and energethis great edifice can be restored ; be- tic feeling which the recent war called cause in this city, and in no other, into such useful action ; and without all the requisite advantages are to be the operation of which we should profound. In the first place, it is in the bably have become a province of France. capital alone thata National Monument Now, although there is nothing in ought to be placed ; in the next, E- these patriotic feelings incompatible dinburgh is adapted most wonderful- with our religion, there is not a little ly, by its picturesque physical situa- inconsistency, in selecting a place detion, as well as by its eminent moral voted to such objects, as a house of rank in the scale of cities, for the re- worship. Such an appropriation would ception of a great Classical Temple; be destructive of those objects, and and, lastly, it commands exclusively the National Monument of Scotland an unlimited supply of the finest pose would soon merge in the Calton sible materials.
Church of Edinburgh: Whatever, inWere the Temple of Minerva, in- deed, tends to alter its original purpose deed, entire, there might be some would infallibly lessen, and eventualdoubt whether it would be right to ly obliterate, its effect ; and we should attempt such an imitation as is pro- soon cease to regard this monument posed; but, alas! the original is fast in the spirit which it ought to be esdisappearing, and in a few years will timated, were we to make it a place of be totally lost to the world. This daily or weekly resort, not with a arises, as is well known, not at all view of reflecting on the national from the nature of the structure it- objects for which it was raised, but to self, which is of a character to pro- carry our thoughts to considerations of mise unlimited duration, but entirely an infinitely higher and more sacred from local circumstances ; so that to character, and which have no connecrestore, and to perpetuate in this tion whatsoever with the monument country, and in a perfect manner, an in question.
It is no answer to this to observe, ed, where are the monuments that that, in comparison with these exalted commemorate the services of Duncan, reflections, the objects of a National of Abercromby, of Moore? Where Monument are absolutely as nothing; those which tell us of the discoveries -it is on this very account that we of Napier, or Gregory, or Maclaurin, wish to keep these feelings separate ; or that are to record the celebrity of to prevent the certain destruction of our lamented contemporary Playfair ? the one, without the chance of advan- And why is the memory of such wricing the other.
ters as Smith, Robertson, Ferguson, But there is still another objection, or of such poets as Thorson, Home, which, in justice to a large proportion and Burns, and of numberless others of the public, cannot be surinounted. dear and honourable to Scotland, and
If a Church be determined on, which, in any other country, would to what persuasion is it to be appro- have been consecrated by superb mopriated ? On what principle can it be numents, thus entirely neglected in a maintained that it should be of the land where nationality is so deeply Church of Scotland ? Are the Episco- cherished ? palians not fully entitled to participate England, to her infinite advantage, in all the advantages of the National has Westminster Abbey, and St Paul's, Monument? Have not all other per- but we in Scotland have absolutely suasions a similar claim ? T'hey have no spot on which to raise a monuall contributed their share to the glories ment to any of the distinguished phiwhich this Monument is intended to losophers, statesmen, or warriors of record; and there ought certainly to be Scotland, who have so greatly contrinothing done upon this occasion to buted to bring our country to its preimply that there is, or has been, any sent degree of knowledge, security, shade of difference in national spirit. and glory. In every point of view In point of fact, there is no such dis- this is a most important national detinction ; it were a libel on the coun- sidcratum, and it is impossible not to try to suppose it possible; and it would see how admirably it would be supbe a wanton and profitless insult to plied by devoting the National Mopropose a measure which should vir- nument exclusively to this sacred obtually take for granted so humiliating ject; an object which, it may be reand unworthy an aspersion !
marked, could not be accomplished, As a matter of policy, too, this idea were the Monument to be o Scotch (if it ever was seriously entertained) Church, because the usages of this must be speedily abandoned. Thé persuasion forbid all such approprianumerous and wealthy members of tions. the Church of England here, though The value of such a public receptacle possessed, as we know, of the highest for monuments in sustaining the napublic spirit, and the most praise- tional character is so well understood, worthy zeal and liberality in every that it is needless to dwell upon it thing that relates to the embellish- here; but it may not, perhaps, have ment of Edinburgh, cannot be ex- occurred to every one how directly it pected to subscribe to a Scotch church. would contribute to the improvement The same will apply, but with still of taste, by the encouragement it greater force, to all other persuasions. would instantly give to sculpture ;
But, while we deprecate the idea of for, independently of the numerous devoting the National Monument to monuments which public respect, that part of our religious observance pride, and gratitude, woull be happy which consists in periodical service, to raise to departed learning, valour, we would by all ineans recommend and talents, many families woulil be that the spot should be consecrated, stimulated by such an opportunity, to and that it should be devoted to sa erect monuments to relatives who cred purposes alone.
may have fallen in the service of their The want of a fit receptacle for country. Let those who have lost tombs or cenotaphs, or, indeed, any friends in battle recollect how consokind of memorial in honour of emi- litary is public sympathy and respect, nent men, has long been felt in this and how dreary and comfortless is the country, and never more than at the idea that so much worth and valour present moment.
are to be forgotten, or to be recalled Wherc, for example, it may be ask- only to the recollection of sume vil
lage congregation, by an obscure and on the public taste which arose out frail memorial in a country church- of these causes has been prodigious. yard ; and let them contrast with this But, while every one allows the ima the enthusiastic pride they would feel portance of these researches and these in knowing, that the glory which their collections, in a national point of view, family had achieved was not to pass it does not appear to have been so geaway, but was to be publicly acknow- nerally felt, that a much greater adledged, and publicly recorded in asplen- vantage would arise from did and conspicuous monument, raised ferring to this country, not alone a for this purpose by their exulting coun- few mutilated fragments of the sculptry! We may be sure that there is no ture which has ornamented a temple, person insensible to these valuable e- but the whole, or rather a fac-simile motions; our country would be low in- of the whole temple itself. deed were it otherwise, it being clearly The reason of this appears to be, essential to a free country that such feel- that, to understand to any useful purings should exist; since, where there pose the merits of Grecian architecis no ambition to be venerated after ture, it must be seen. The effect, indeath, there is no such thing as devo- deed, produced on the mind by the tion to the public service when alive. sight of Doric temples is most extraThere will be, and ought to be, a vast ordinary, and not easily described. variety in the kind and degree of sen- It imparts, in fact, a new sense, and timent which will prompt us to raise without the aid of this the mind is such monuments, but the result must not fitted to receive those ideas in be the same in all-the security, the which a right apprehension of the glory, the happiness of the coun- subject consists. There is no man of
sense and education who has examined I shall trouble your Lordship and a temple of the pure Doric style withthe public with only one other consi- out being strongly affected, or withderation.
out being conscious of having thereIt has often been asked, If such be by acquired an unexpected accession really the advantages of the Grecian of correct taste, and sound judgment architecture above that which is the on architectural subjects. The imgrowth of this country, why have we pression left is never to be erased, and not imported it before now? The an- it has, moreover, the power of givswer to which is, that we were, until ing birth to and of cherishing a new very lately, almost entirely ignorant class of perceptions, wbich are of of the existence of the fine buildings use in improving the understanding of Greece, or, to speak more correct- not only when it is employed upon ly, we were ignorant of their extraor- works of art, but when the objects of dinary beauty, and of their effect in its consideration are in any way conforming the taste and chastising the nected with the elegancies and refinejudgment in all matters connected ments of society. with the science of architecture. The It is this strong impression of the descriptions of a few old travellers magical effect, which the presence of failed altogether to strike our imagi- such a temple as the Parthenon can alone nation ; but, in process of time, as the produce, that urges the advocates of facilities of travelling increased, these the present plan to recommend its asplendid monuments of ancient art doption so earnestly. They feel perbecame the objects of more frequent suaded that, to place the Temple of and careful examination, and nume- Minerva before the eyes, not of one or rous travellers returned to spread in two travellers, but of the whole pubthis country, by their writings and lic, is the most certain means of culdrawings, as far as such means could tivating our national taste and happido, the enlightened spirit which they ness at home, and, consequently, the had but just acquired themselves. power and importance of our country The first effect of this was, to send ac among other nations. Nothing short broad eminent artists and men of of this, it is greatly to be apprehendscience of all descriptions. The next ed, can produce that ardent and vawas, to induce many enterprising and luable enthusiasm which, unhappily public-spirited individuals to send to for so good a cause, has found, upon this country such detached fragments this occasion, such feeble and inadeof those glorious edifices as were ca- quate expression. pable of transportation. The effect
REMARKS ON DR CHALMERS's influence of locality in towns." The
following passages, however, suffi.
ciently illustrate his views. It is with Although we do not feel ourselves regard to Sabbath-schools chiefly that qualified to decide on Dr Chalmers's he specifies the operation of his prin. plans of improvement, their aspect is ciple. yet so simple and beautiful, and they are recommended in a strain of so considered, is that which it has upon the
“ The first effect of it which falls to be much natural, though sometimes uncouth, eloquence, that we shall conti- teacher. He, with a select and appropri
ate vineyard thus lying before him, will nue to lay them before our readers re feel himself far more powerfully urged, gularly as they appear. At all events, than when under the common arrangeit is a very noble effort which he is ment, to go forth among its families. making, -and, if his fervid spirit is However subtle an exercise it may rehappier in seizing the grand general quire from another, faithfully to analyse views of Christian exertion, than in the effect upon his mind, he himself has meeting the objections which may be only to try it, and he will soon become made in detail, it is still of infinite sensible of the strong additional interest should be exhibited in all their sim- When the subject on which he is to opemoinent that those leading principles that he acquires, in virtue of having a plicity. They all hang upon that rate thus offers itself to his contemplation, grand discovery of the Gospel, that in the shape of one unbroken field, or of Love is omnipotent, and that every one entire and continuous body, it acts as enterprise which is undertaken in the a more distinct and imperative call upon pure spirit of good-will to man, and him, to go out upon the enterprise. He is not vitiated by any by-ends, will will feel a kind of property in the famisooner or later be successful. It is lies; and the very circumstance of a mathus the leading feature of his plans, terial limit around their habitations serves to bring Christian principle and affec
to strengthen this impression, by furnishtion into constant play, and to throw ing to his mind a sort of association with into the back-ground,
the hedges and the landmarks of property. much
At all events, the very visibility of the less effectual, all the more operose limit, by constantly leading him to permachinery of charity: This runs ceive the length and the breadth of his through all his speculations on the task, holds out an inducement to his enermaintenance of the poor ; and whe- gies, which, however difficult to explain, ther or no, in the present artificial will be powerfully felt and proceeded on. state of society, his views on that and There is a very great difference, in respect on corresponding subjects may be al- of its practical influence, between a task ways practicable, they certainly seem that is indefinite, and a task that is clearto proceed on sound and importantly seen to be overtakeable
. The one has principles. The subject of his
the effect to paralyse, the other to quicken lations in the little tract before us is spirit on his undertaking, when, by every
exertion. It serves most essentially to one of a very limited nature, yet it new movement, one feels himself to be affords him scope for some admir- drawing sensibly nearer to the accomplishable observations. He objects to the ment of it—when, by every one house that present system of many charitable in- he enters, he can count the lessening num. stitutions, that, instead of being con- ber before him, through which he has yet fined to certain districts of a town, to pass with his proposals for the attend. their operation soon becomes general ance of their children and when, by the over the whole, by which means it is distinct and definite portion which is still much less effectual, in his view, than untravelled, he is constantly reminded of if it were fixed and concentrated to a
what he has to do, ere that district, which particular spot. He finds it difficult vaded. He can go over his families too,
he feels to be his own, is thoroughly perto explain the exact nature of the with far less expence of locomotion, than principle on which this distinction under the common system of Sabbath. proceeds, and which he terms “ the schools; and, for the same reason, can he
more fully and frequently reiterate his at. The Christian and Civic Economy of tentions; and it will charın him onwards, Large Towns. By Thomas Chalmers, to find that he is sensibly translating himD. Ď. Minister of St John's Church, Glas- self into a stricter and kinder relationship gow. No. 2.-On the Influence of Loca. with the people of his district; and, if he lity in Towns. Glasgow, 1820.
have a taste for cordial intercourse with the