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Ethical development, though more ob- equally great has been in the work of vious in the extension of the field of Christian thinkers, rehabilitating it with applied ethics, has been no less note- an essentially religious spirit. The Ethiworthy for the larger study and exhibi

cal Culture movement of the last tion of ethical principles, nd two decades, with the natural Ethical development with already some con

excess of recoil from unethical ia literature

spicuous fruit in theol- religion, would make ethics a substitute ogy on the one hand, and economics and for religion. Yet it has a positive value, civics on the other, as well as a clarifying especially as a spur to the churches for and energizing influence upon religion. the due cultivation of a field which had The multiplying treatises on ethics are a been too much neglected in the interests sign of the times. In the third quarter of dogma and ritual. The work of the of the century, when Darwinism was in Church in all denominations is growing the air, ethical studies seemed decadent, more ethical, and the work of distinctively but since then these have been remark- ethical societies is growing, if not more ably stimulated, in common with all the religious, less critical of religion. This sciences relating to man, by the new advance to the truth that thorough mothought shed upon his origin. And just rality is religious thought in action, and as evolution, feared at first as atheistic, thorough religion is moral action in has given fresh proofs of an immanent thought, closes for didactic purposes the God, so also has it furnished new evi- immemorial and scandalous break between dence of an immanent moral order, in religion and morality. To transfuse the which humanity is grounded, that it may didactic into the practical is the task that realize the same in its development. But awaits the teachers of the twentieth cenit is in the line of social obligations that tury. The advance in ethics, as in every the advance of ethical studies has taken other line of progress, serves indeed to the most perceptible effect, by at least make the gaps in the line of progress partially redressing the upset balance more painfully visible. It is abundantly between Duties and Rights. Since the sufficient, however, for so small a part of dawn of history duties have been mainly human history as a single century cominsisted on, and rights only grudgingly prises, to give occasion to thank God and conceded. But the outbursts of the take courage, that the gaps may be filled. eighteenth century for the assertion of rig ts threw duties temporarily into the

POLITICS background of an extreme individualism, Politically the nineteenth century has whose evils have forced sober thinkers been characterized by a great advance to declare, with Professor MacCunn, that toward individual freedom and toward democracy has missed its mark, if it has nationalism. The French Revolution nothing more than rights to insist upon. Overthrow overthrew absolutism in France. During the last half-century the extrav- of Napoleon, the child of the French agant assertion of “natural rights” has absolutism Revolution, overthrew absolutbeen checked by political philosophers, ism in all western Europe, and founded declaring, with Francis Lieber, that there a new absolutism upon the ruins, identical are no rights without duties annexed; by in spirit but different in theory, since the rise and recently rapid growth of its historic foundation was a French Christian Socialism ; by numerous asser- plebiscite. The Napoleonic despotism tions, both by legislatures and by courts, was in turn overthrown at Waterloo, of the paramount claims of social interest and the reinstatement of Bourbonism Among the achievements of ethical study proved temporary. By the middle of the in our time must be reckoned a visibly nineteenth century representative instituprogressive approach toward the never tions had been established in France, Geryet realized equilibrium between individu- many, and Italy, and even in Spain. alist and socialist principles, as the cen- Doubtless much has yet to be accomplished trifugal and centripetal forces on whose before these countries become truly demobalance the stability of any social system cratic in spirit, but it is scarcely conceiv. depends.

able that they will ever revert to that A gain to ethics during the century imperialism from which they have emerged.


How much has been accomplished toward that to contradict the Church is a crime popular political institutions within the which the State may punish, perished century is indicated by the fact that the with the overthrow of the Inquisition in French Parliament, the German Reichstag, 1808 under the Napoleonic régime, and the Austro-Hungarian Reichsrath, the with the subsequent overthrow of the Italian Parliament, and the Spanish Cortes temporal power of the Pope in Italy. all came into being between 1800 and 1870. Writers who think it necessary to defend

These movements toward political free the traditions of the past, like Mallock or dom on the Continent were accompanied Cardinal Newman, occasionally come to an by a similar movement in England, which academic defense of the right of the State during the nineteenth century has passed to punish heresy as a crime; but it may Feudalism and from a constitutional mon- be safely assumed that the political right slavery archy really controlled by a of every man to worship God according

olished landed aristocracy, and still to the dictates of his own conscience, or feudal in spirit, to a democracy, still mon- not to worship him at all if he does not so archical in form, still subject to the checks choose, will never again be denied on any imposed by the aristocratic conservatism, large scale or to any great extent west of but in spirit as essentially democratic— the western boundary of Turkey and that is, ruled by the people—as is either Russia. France or the United States. The pocket S omewhat less marked in its final outboroughs have disappeared, the franchise come, though not less striking in its prochas been extended, the religious disabili esses, has been the development of nationties have been removed. Practically all alism. The unification of Germany, of the reforms demanded by the Chartists

Italy, and of Austria-Hungary have been secured, and the suffrage is so

of nationalism


has been accomplished dur-

has been accompnsned nearly universal that all classes have their

ing the present century. In representation directly in Parliament or our own country the Civil War was fought indirectly through the influence of public even more to preserve the Nation from opinion upon Parliament. A somewhat being broken up into jealous and conflictsimilar extension of political influence ing political States than for the freedom has taken place in the United States, of the slave, which incidentally resulted in all sections of which the property from the triumph of nationalism. Radiand religious qualifications which were cally unlike in temperament and character common at the beginning of the century are the three great leaders in three great have practically disappeared. In this contemporaneous movements toward nagreat Anglo-Saxon movement away from tional unity: Bismarck in Germany, Cavour class representation to popular representa- in Italy, Abraham Lincoln in the United tion, William E. Gladstone has been the States. Grouping these events together, most distinguished single leader. His we may safely deduce from them, as one genius was exhibited in his ability to con of the results of the century, that commuduct the English people from a political nities occupying contiguous territory and order based on class to a political order possessing the same racial and linguistic based on all the people, without disturb peculiarities belong, under the divine order, ance or revolution. With these develop- in one political organism. If the peoments of political liberty has gone a ple of the Balkan States could realize this development in industrial liberty even simple truth, and make common cause in more striking. Without a revolution, a federal union against common enemies, slavery has been abolished in Great Brit- there is little reason why they should not ain and in all her colonies. At the cost be independent of the nominal suzerainty of a war of gigantic proportions, slavery of Turkey on the one hand, and the direct has been abolished in the United States. intervention in their affairs of Russia on

Contemporaneously with these develop the other. The changed relation of ments of political and industrial liberty America to European Powers involved in

has gone a development of the rapidly moving events of the past few liberty

is religious liberty. The doctrine years is too recent to be taken account

that the Church has authority of here. These events rather present a to determine what is religious truth, and problem for the solution of the future


than indicate any accomplished solution the manufacturing cities became double of pre-existing problems.

what it was in the rural districts, the

children dying in swarms from constantly SOCIOLOGY

repeated epidemics, and the adults losing So far as external conditions are con- not only in vigor but in stamina. These cerned, the great social changes of this evils, which came partly from long hours century are due to the concentration of in close factories—even for children of industry in great factories, and the con- five and six-and partly from overcrowd

sequent concentration of peo ing in unwholesome tenements, have been Concentration

' ple in great cities. The largely overcome by better sanitation and

development of the factory cleanlier living, so that to-day the cities system in place of the home industries, or are nearly as healthy as the rural districts petty shops with one or two workmen, -though many problems that have come which preceded it, has caused the build- from the crowding of the people in indusing up of an industrial hierarchy with a trial centers are still unsolved. Apart division of labor as minute and a concen- from these outward social changes, howtration of authority as absolute as in any ever, and more important, has been the of the political or ecclesiastical hierarchies almost continuous growth of a sentiment of other ages. The result of this industrial

of social unity, which has

Liberty, frater- manifested itself so con system has inevitably been the economic

manifested itself so conspicseparation of classes, and a concentration

uously in the political and of industrial wealth utterly unknown a educational world, and is to-day beating century ago. While, however, the rich so strongly against the development of have grown immeasurably richer, the poorabsolutism in the world of industry. As as a rule, have grown less poor. Money a result of this social sentiment the cenwages are more than double what they tury has seen the overthrow of feudal were at the beginning of the century, and tenures in the west of Europe, the overprices, with the exception of rent and throw of serfdom in Russia, and the meat, are generally lower. Furthermore, overthrow of slavery in America. There

what workingmen have lost have, indeed, been several marked periods

in in the way of individual in- of reaction, but, taken as a whole, the of workingmen

dependence or individual nineteenth century has been almost as influence with their employers, that came marked as the era of the Reformation for from working in small shops, has been the broadening sense of the essential made up by the collective independence equality in political and industrial rights and power that have come through the for- of all the children of men. mation of unions. Moreover, the intellectual loss-or division of intelligencethat is said to have come from the division The most obvious characteristics of the of labor and the employment of a man's literature of the nineteenth century are its whole working time upon a single mechan- range of subjects and its variety of methical operation, has been in some degree od and manner. It is at the farthest offset by the shortening of the working the remove from the classical day, and more than offset by the develop Revolutionary standards, traditions, and ment of popular education through the epoch forms; in its free play of ingreat religious awakening of the beginning dividuality it has expressed that expansion of the century, and the widening influence of human thought which has left its fullof the schools, the press, and the political est record in science, and that expansion responsibilities which came to the working of human activity which is expressed classes later. The development of cities, politically in democratic institutions. Sci

which, as a consequence of the ence and democracy are perhaps the two Growth

industrial development, has been
industrial de

words which, to the future, will embody a distinguishing mark of the nine- most fully the spirit, thought, and producteenth century, not only in this country tivity of the century; and these two funbut throughout western Europe, brought damental movements have found varied with it at first great physical evils to and splendid expressions in its literature. the working classes. The death-rate in The deep stirring of the world by the



of cities

French Revolution set in motion waves training, and power of divining and reof feeling which did not subside until flecting the thought of his time, made many years after the opening of the cen- Tennyson the representative English poet tury, and the agitation of which is to be of the latter half of the century; while found in one of its most influential lit. the Brownings, Matthew Arnold, William erary movements that of Romanticism. Morris, Rossetti, and Swinburne express The chief figure of this movement in different phases of English thought or France was Victor Hugo, its master spirit, different aspects of modern passion and reinforced by an informal and irregular faith. In England the novel reached its fellowship which included George Sand, fullest development in the hands of Scott, Gautier, and Béranger. In England the Jane Austen, Dickens, Thackeray, George chief voice of this revolt was Byron, whose Eliot, Meredith, and Hardy ; while critilyrical gift was perhaps greater than that cism of life in history, biography, and of any English poet since the Elizabethan essay has been enriched by the work of age, and whose work as an artist was Carlyle, Ruskin, and Arnold. limited only by his character and his in- By inevitable reaction the romantic sight. He was the leader of an insurrec- movement in France was followed by the tion, the dashing and brilliant figure on realistic movement, which is generally the barricade, not the organizer of a new traced to the brothers Goncourt and movement; a master of melody and of pestic Flaubert, and which found its descriptive verse, who has left his per "master spirit in Zola-a man of manent impress on English poetry, and is indomitable energy, of great talent, and best known of all modern English poets of unquestioned sincerity, but lacking the in Europe. Wordsworth, succeeding to power of selection, deficient in taste and the tradition of Thomson, Cowper, and in reserve; a collector and organizer of Burns, interpreted Nature from the spirit- facts rather than a great artist, whose ual side with marvelous insight and noble ascendency promised for a time to be passion of the imagination, and remains permanent, but whose star is now fast one of the greatest figures and one of the sinking. Realism, pushed to its extremes, permanent forces of the century. Shelley. became Naturalism, and Naturalism ineva far finer spirit than Byron, was pene itably brought forth the decadent school, trated and inspired by the Revolution; which has produced some men of notable Coleridge, poet, thinker, and critic of the talent, like Guy de Maupassant, but it highest order though of discursive mind, was doomed to sterility and decay by its has been a searching influence in theology absorption in the secondary or morbid and criticism. Keats's rich imagination phases of life. Balzac, the greatest of all and deep feeling for beauty imparted a the French novelists, cannot be claimed spell to his verse which Tennyson and the by any school. His work, in its magnilater poets have not escaped.

tude and significance, stands by itself. The first slender volume which came The century has seen the rise of a great from the hand of Tennyson alone was national literature in Russia, which has issued in 1832, but it was fifteen years given the world a poet of high order in later before his reputation had passed Poushkin, and four novelists of genius in The beyond the circle of a small group

Dostoyevski, Gogol, Turgenieff, Victorian of devoted friends, and had be- northern and Tolstoï-all in profoundest poetry come one of the great traditions

sympathy with their race, and of English literature. “In Memoriam," interpreting its spiritual quality, its passion, which appeared in 1850, at the very its mysticism, and the pressure of absolutmoment when the early scientific move- ism on its rich impulses with marvelous ment was at its most aggressive stage, and power. No country has ever had in ficwhen England seemed wholly devoted to tion more complete disclosure of what lies material pursuits, gave expression to that in its heart than Russia. Turgenieff used life of the spirit which has been the inspi- to say that all the later novelists were ration of English character and the source shaken out of Gogol's sleeve; it is quite of English moral strength since the begin- certain that his little story “ The Inspecning of the race. His balance, sanity, tor" exerted a liberating influence on deep artistic feeling, thorough technical later Russian literature, as Turgenieff's


“ Annals of a Sportsman ”exerted on later History of New York." Before that day Russian social order. The century has there were writers in America, but, with seen in northern Europe a rebirth of liter

three exceptions-Franklin, Ed

American ature which curiously reproduces some of

wards, and Woolman--they can

literature the characteristic qualities of the ancient

not be ranked as masters of eddas, sagas, and popular tales. The most style. In American poetry the name of picturesque of these new figures is Björn Poe stands first-an artist whose command son-a typical Norwegian, who has inter- of the lyrical note was more subtle and preted with simplicity and sincerity some sure than that of any other American aspects of contemporary life in Norway. singer; who was not a representative poet, Ibsen is the foremost in point of contem- and whose work does not interpret the porary interest of all the Northern writers; fundamental ideas of life which rise in a dramatist of great force and of satiric such clearness in the work of Homer, spirit, who has applied to the society of Dante, Goethe, Shakespeare, Milton, and his time searching and remorseless analy- Tennyson. In American prose Hawsis, and whose underlying doctrine, if it thorne holds the first place; with these were carried to its logical conclusion, two in the highest circle belongs Emerson, would disintegrate society.

a poet of high rank by virtue of half a Until 1832 Germany possessed in dozen poems, an interpreter of American Goethe the foremost man of letters of the idealism, and a “ friend of the spirit" by century—an artist of immense fruitfulness, virtue of the entire body of his work. of extraordinary range of interests, and of Irving, Bryant, Lowell, Holmes, Whittier,

a breadth of culture which Longfellow, Thoreau, Whitman, and Germany and Southern Europe

me is not likely to be repeated Lanier are names which must be reckoned

in any of his successors; with in any report of American literature. with lyrical power of the highest order, The historians of literary quality include wide and tolerant insight, and the breadth a long and distinguished line of writers of view which goes to the making of a poet from Bancroft to Fiske. The tradition of of the first rank; the author of the most the essay has been well sustained from significant poem of the century; whose the days of Emerson and Lowell to those defects are to be found in the vagueness of Mr. Woodberry. Fiction, striking its of his moral insight and the consequent first great note in “ The Scarlet Letter," inability to secure the highest dramatic produced a work full of crudeness and effectiveness by identifying the doer with full also of power in "Uncle Tom's Cabin," the deed. Second to Goethe stands and has now become the most fruitful Heine, whose writings Matthew Arnold field for American writers. The signifiplaces first among the modern streams of cant fact in American literature to-day is influence in Germany. There are respect the widening of the literary interest from able but no great names between Heine's the Eastern coast to include the whole time and the recent movement which has country, and the expression of the life of brought to the front Sudermann and the country in a multitude of local types Hauptmann, two dramatists of deeply at the hands of a group of story-writers. interesting talent who have done work of sincerity, insight, and power. notable alike for deep human feeling and for freshness of imagination. In Spain literature has revived in the field of fiction, In the development of architecture durwhich has been worked by a group of ing the nineteenth century, perhaps the writers of power and freshness, foremost two most noteworthy men were a Frenchamong them being Galdós, Valdés, and man and an American, Viollet-le-Duc Pereda. In Belgium Maeterlinck stands

and Richardson. They were

Architecture out conspicuous-a mystic who uses the

adapters rather than originadrama with subtle skill, but who has left tors. Viollet-le-Duc's own buildings have in “ The Treasure of the Humble” and no marked reputation, but his work as a in “Wisdom and Destiny" the deepest cathedral-restorer is regarded as more auimpress of his genius.

thoritative than that of any of his contemAmerican literature began with the poraries, and his books on construction publication of Irving's “Knickerbocker's have become classics. In America, Rich


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