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their desire to preserve the general tranquillity.
"The prospect of an abundant harvest throughout a considerable part of the continent is in the highest degree satisfactory. This happy dispensation of Providence cannot fail to mitigate, if not wholly to remove, that pressure under which so many of the nations of Europe have been suffering in the course of the last year; and I trust that we may look forward in consequence to an improvement in the commercial relations of this and of all other countries.
"I cannot allow you to separate without recommending to you, that upon your return to your several counties, you should use your utmost endeavours to defeat all attempts to corrupt and mislead the lower classes of the community; and that you should lose no opportunity of inculcating amongst them that spirit of concord and obedience to the laws, which is not less essential to their happiness as individuals, than it is indispensable to the general welfare and prosperity of the kingdom."
Domestic Events.-Course of the Year.-Double suspension of the Habeas Corpus. Celebration of the Queen's and Prince Regent's Birth-Days.—— Trials.-Special Commission held at Derby.
DOMESTIC EVENTS, &c.
Tthe distress spread through
HIS year commenced with
the greatest part of Europe, in consequence of the late and unproductive harvest of the last autumn. Although the British islands partook in a smaller degree of the prevalent evil than most other countries, from which their free admission to all foreign ports afforded them important relief, yet hardships fell heavy upon certain districts too remote from such tardy aid; and Ireland, especially, suffered severely from the want of the most essential articles of human sustenance. informed that the distress was so great in particular parts, that the poor people could find no other resource than that of anticipating their crop of potatoes by an unripe product. As the year advanced, however, better prospects began to open; and it was the general opinion that corn and other products seldom offered a more promising harvest to the cultivator. Whether this promise has not been exaggerated may be a matter of doubt; at least it appears certain that the year has concluded with an advance in the price of wheat and barley which could hardly have been expected at the time of their first decline.
A distinguishing character of
the present year has been the double suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act; which, after being
one of the first parliamentary
measures at the beginning of the session, was resumed near the close of it, and voted to be continued till the commencement of another session, in consequence of a renewed alarm. We refer to our view of the debates in Parliament for the particulars of this remarkable contest; of the issue of which we shall only observe, that whilst the ministerial members expressed great regret at being obliged to have recourse to a temporary violation of the constitution for the purpose of preventing the most urgent dangers, their opponents held that no danger was equal to the habit of entrusting ministers, at their own convenience or pleasure, with an expedient fatal to liberty.
CELEBRATION OF THE QUEEN'S
Some months ago the Prince Regent, with a view to relieve the distresses of the manufacturing classes, by affording them employment, gave directions in the Gazette for the public celebration of the Queen's birth-day, and of his own; and, in order to make the relief more effectual, notice was given, that it was expected, that on both occasions all those who
should attend the Court would appear in dresses entirely of British manufacture. In further pursuance of this plan, his Royal Highness ordered all his state and household officers to wear costly dresses of home fabrication, and those dresses were directed to be made into three classes of uniforms, according to the respective ranks of those officers. The first class consists of suits for the Lord Chamberlain, the Lord Steward, and the Groom of the Stole. The coats are of dark purple, with crimson velvet collars, richly ornamented all over with gold. Not only those persons who are immediately under the command of the Prince Regent had complied with the laudable direction of wearing British dresses, but all the company present yesterday showed that they had been equally anxious to afford relief to their suffering countrymen by employment, which is the only permanently useful mode of relief.
The Court, in honour of the Queen's birth-day, was at first fixed for the 6th of February; but her Majesty being at that time unable, from the effects of her late illness, to bear the fatigues incident to these occasions, it was postponed to the 20th, when her Majesty was entirely recovered.
The day was announced, usual, by the ringing of bells and the salute of artillery; and the people reminded by these intimations, flocked in great numbers to the vicinity of the Queen's Palace. The weather, which had been very dull and rainy, began to clear up about 2 o'clock, and the scene became very gay and magnificent. The company began to arrive about one, and continued
to do so till half-past three. The Prince Regent arrived in state about half-past three: his carriage was preceded, surrounded, and followed by a party of life-guards. The procession passed along in perfect silence. Most of the Royal Family went in state. The Duke and Duchess of York arrived first: then the Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold; next the Duke and Duchess of Glocester; and lastly, the Duke of Sussex and the Princess Sophia of Glocester. The Speaker of the House of Commons went in state, and also the Austrian and Dutch ambassadors.
Her Majesty entered the drawing-room about two o'clock, and first received the congratulations of the foreign ambassadors, of the Cabinet Ministers, and of all who had the privilege of entré.
PRINCE REGENT'S BIRTH-DAY.
April 23, being St. George's day, had been selected as the day on which the birth of the Prince Regent was in future to be observed, instead of the 12th of August, and a drawing-room, and other splendours, were of course appointed: but a sudden indisposition of the Queen, which occurred in the course of the preceding night, prevented the drawing-room from taking place. Her Majesty was taken ill at an early hour of the morning. Sir Henry Halford was immediately sent for, and attended the Royal patient twice before nine o'clock. Communications of the unlucky occurrence were dispatched to all the branches of the Royal Family; and, in the course of the morning, the streets leading to Buckingham-house and St. James's were placarded with bills, announcing the indisposi
tion of her Majesty, and her inability to receive company.
The morning was ushered in with ringing of bells. The guards mounted in white gaiters, and wore new clothes. Carlton-house was thronged during the whole of the day with all ranks, paying their respectful congratulations. The Tower guns fired at one o'clock; the firing of the Park guns was dispensed with in consequence of the indisposition of the Queen.
One of the first trials upon an accusation of the crime of sedition was that or Niel Douglas, an universal preacher in Glasgow, who was charged with words spoken in the pulpit in derogation of his Majesty, of the Prince Regent, and the whole House of Commons. The trial took place in the high court of Justiciary in Edinburgh on May 25; and the result was, that after a due attention to the evidence produced on both sides, Douglas was declared not guilty, and was dismissed from
A trial in which the public.was much more interested was that of the elder Watson, Surgeon, at the court of King's Bench, Westminster Hall, accused of high treason. It commenced on the 10th of June, and was continued till Monday the 16th, when the jury pronounced a verdict of Not guilty. The other persons implicated in the same accusation were afterwards discharged by the law officers.
About the same time a disposition to tumult and cutrage broke out in several of the midland and northern counties, particularly
Lancashire, Yorkshire, Notting hamshire, and Derbyshire. These were for the most part speedily quelled; and from a considerable number sent for trial to York, the whole were either pronounced not guilty, or previously discharged, with the exception of two, who were detained by a secretary of state's warrant under the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act.
A more melancholy result succeeded the trial of a number of prisoners, who were committed to the gaol of Derby on a charge of high treason. A special commission was issued to four judges, who in the month of October entered upon their office; and nothing could be more honourable to the criminal justice of the country than the manner in which it was executed. After the persons who had been adjudged worthy of death had undergone their trial, Mr. Denman requested of the court that the prisoners remaining at the bar might be permitted to withdraw their plea of not guilty, and substitute that of guilty. The attorney-general readily consenting, nine prisoners were allowed to amend their plea, and ten more were permitted to join them. It was generally understood that their punishment would be commuted for some lighter sentence. Twelve more next appeared at the bar, whose names being called over, the attorney-general rose, and after a speech displaying much feeling, made a declaration that his painful task was now closed, and that the hand of mercy was meant to be extended to all the rest.
The devoted number were only three, Brandreth, Turner, and Ludlum, who were executed at Derby on November 7th.
France-Decree respecting Slaves introduced in the Colonies.-Negociawith the Allied Powers.-Ordinance concerning the Debts of the City of Paris-Disturbances at Lyons.-Royal Ordinances for the creation of Majorats.-Election for the Chamber of Deputies, and Royal Speech-Project of a Law for the Press.-Law for the establishment of Religion.
Art 1. Every vessel, whether French or foreign, which shall attempt to introduce into any of colonies purchased blacks, le confiscated, and the cap.n. if a Frenchman, shall be held apable of holding a command. The whole cargo shall in like mauer be confiscated, although wt consisting of slaves: with respeet to the negroes, they shall be exposed on public works of utiLe in the colony.
A-12. The contraventions forbe in the preceding article
be tried according to the ve for us as contraventions of the laws and regulations for fo**ge commerce. As for the proCa of the confiscations pronouncet neoformity to the said arti
1 sl be realized and supgod n the same manner as the prai are of confiscations pronouncamatters of the contravention Laws concerning foreign
en at the Thuilleries, &c. Jan 9, 1617.
Early in the year negociations were carried on between the court of France, and the four principal allies, for the purpose of alleviating the burden under which that country was severely oppressed, in consequence of the foreign armies held by its principal towns. The result was the following official note presented official_note to the Duke of Richelieu by the several resident ministers of she powers in question.
OFFICIAL NOTE RELATIVE TO THE
DIMINUTION OF THE ARMY OF
The Courts of Austria, England, Prussia, and Russia, having taken into consideration the desire manifested by his most Christian Majesty to have the numbers of the Army of Occupation diminished, and proportionably the amount of charge occasioned by its presence on the French territory, have authorized the undersigned to make the following communication to his Excellency the Duke de Richelieu, President of the Council of Ministers, and Secretary of State for the Department of Foreign Affairs:—
At the time when the King, re-established upon his throne and put