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had declared that he entertained the prospect of holding it. But his reply was full of embarrassment- While he declan d his intention not to surrender the city, he at the* same time suggested the fanciful possibility, that even with the* loss of Richmond our struggle for independence might he protracted for many years in the mountains of Virginia. In the meantime, the acts of the, Confederate officials gave Visible and uniristakable sl^ns of their sense of the insecurity of the -Capital. They added to the public alarm by'preparntions to remove the archives. They ran off their wives and children into the country. They gav^ the public every reason to believe that Richmond was to become the prey of {he enemy,' and the catastrophe was awaited with lively alarm, or dull and melancholy expectation.

In the early weeks^ of May the capital of the Confederacy presented many strange anxl humiliating spectacles. The air was filled with those rumours of treason and disloyalty which seem invariably to grow out 6f a sense of insecurity* Men who had. been loudest in their professions of resistance and fielf-devotion when the Yankees were at a distance, were now engaged in secreting their property, and a few openly flattered themselves that they had not committed themselves in the war in a way to incur the enDmy's resentment. Some of them had their cellars packed with manufactured tobacco. The railroad trains were crowded with refugees. At every extortioner's shop <>n Main Street, even including the "book-stores, an array of packing trunks invited attention, and suggested the necessity of flight from Richmond. At the railroad depots*were to be Been piles of baggage, awaiting transportation. But the most abundant and humiliating signs of the panic were to be seen in the number of pine boxes about the departments ticketed 44 Columbia, South Carolina.,*'and which contained the most valuable of the public archives.

In this-condition^of the public mind, a new appeal was made to it. When it was ascertained that the Monitor, Galena, and Arwtook, were atout to head for Richmond, the Legislature of Virginia passed resolutions calling upon the Confederate authorities to defend it to the last extremity, and to make choice of its destruction rather than that of surrender to the enemy. This resolution was worthy of the.noble State of Virginia, and of a people who were the descendants of Washington's cotemporaries, of Hampden's friends, and of K4ng John's Barons. Its terms were too explicit to admit of any doubt in their construction, or an^y wavering on the part of the Confederate authorities. They expressed the desire that Richmond should be defended to the last extremity, and declared that u the President be assured, that whatever destruction or less of property of the State or individuals shall thereby result, "will be cheerfully submitted to."

The resolutions of the Legislature were responded^ to in meetings of citizens. The magical effects of t»he spirit which they created will long be remembered in Richmond. The Confederate authorities were stimulated by the brave lesson J inert and speculative patriotism was aroused to exevtionj mutual inspiration of courage and devotion passed from heait to heart through the community, and with the restoration of public confidence, came at last vigorous preparations. The James was rapidly filled up, the works at Drewry's Bluff' were strengthened, and a steady defiance offered to the'Yankee gunboats*, which had appeared within a few males'of the city at a> moment when the last gap in our river obstructions was filled up by a scuttled schooner.

< On the 15th of May, the fleet of Yankee gunboats in the James opened an attack on our batteries at Drewry*s Bluff*■ The souud of the guns was heard in the streets of Richmond, and various and.uneertain reports of the fortunes of the contest agitated the public. In the midst of the excitement, an extra-' ordinary scene occurred in the city. A meeting of citizens' had been called at the City Hall on an accidental oceasiony and at the enthusiastic call of the crowd, impromptu addresses were made by the Governor of Virginia and the Mayor of the city. Each of these officials pledged his faith that Riehmotid &hould never be surrendered. Gov. Letcher declared, with, a peculiar warmth of expression, that if the*demand was made upon him, with the alternative to surrender or be shelled, he should reply, "bombard and be d-—rd." Mayor Mayo was not less determined in the language which he addressed to the citizens. He told them that even if they were to require him to surrender the Capital of Virginia and of the Confederacy, he would, sooner than comply, resign • the mayoralty; and that, despite his age, he still "had the, nerve and strength to shoulder a musket in defence of the city founded by one of his ancestors. These fervid declarations were responded to by the citizens with wild and ringing shouts. !Nor were these the demonstrations of a mob. Among those who so enthusiastically approved the resolution of consigning Richmond to the frames rather than to the possession of the enemy, were some of the most wealthy and respectable citizens of the place, whose stakes of property in the city were large, and whose beautiful homes were exposed to the shot and shell of the malignant foe.

- The night brought the news of a signal victory. Our batteries, under the skillful command of Capt. Farrand, had, after a contest of four.hours and a half,* given a decisive repulse to the gunboats, with the inconsiderable loss of five killed and seven wounded. The accuracy of our fire had astonished the en»emy f^nd- carried dismay through his fleet. Eighteen shots^went through the sides of the Galena, according to the enemy's own; account; and this river, monster lost thirty of her crew in killed and wounded. Seventeen men were killed on another of the boats by the explosion of a gun. The boats had been unable to advance in the face of the accurate and deadly fire of our artillerists, and the next day they had dropped down tjhe stream, quite satisfied of the impracticability of the water approach to Richmond.

Regarding all jthe circumstances in which this action had taken place, there is no extravagance in saying, that the scale of the war was turned in our favour, by even so small an affair as tfrat of Drewry's Bluff. .It exploded the fanciful theories of the enemy's invincibility on the water, and went far t& assure the safety of the now closely threatened Capital of the Confederacy.

But there were other cau&es about this time which conspired to renew the popular confidence in our arms, and to swell witlt gratitude and hope the hearts which had so long throbbed with anxiety in our besieged capital. We shall see how, fofr some time, at least, the safety of ^Richmond was trusted, not so much to the fortunes of the forces that immediately pro*tected it, as to the splendid diversion of the heroic Jackson in, the Valley of Virginia. To this famous expedition public attention was now turned, in the North as well as in th$ South, and its almost marvellous results, with marked una*2nimity, were'ascribed to the zeal, heroism and genius of iti commander alone.


,Ori the change of our military lines in Virginia, and the rapid shifting of the scene of active hostilities*from the Potoinacj Gen. Jackson had been assigned with a small force t$ guard the Valley of Virginia, and the approaches in that direction, to the armies of the enemy which enveloped Rich* tnond.

Our first success was obtained in the upper portion of the Valley. On the morning of the 8th of May, our forces ha4 approached the position of Milroy, the Yankee commander a% McDowell. The brigade of General Johnson had secured an advantageous 'position on a hill, and the enemy, fearful of being surrounded, decided at last, after some signs of hesita* tion, to deliver battle. The action was not joined until about two hours of sunset. The fact was, that we engaged me enemy with not more than one third of his own numbers, which were about twelve, thousand. But the contest was easily decided by the brave froops of Johnson's brigade,'-composed of Virginia volunteers, with the 12th Georgia regiment. They had stooA for nearly two hours receiving with--composed courage the .cross fire of the enemy's artillery; and then, as the sun was sinking, they made the charge decisive of the day, and drove the enemy in consternation and utter rout from" the field.

Our loss in this action was considerable. Of three hundred and fifty killed and wounded, nearly'two thirds were Georgians. The troops of this State on other occasions than this had left monuments of their courage in 'the mountains of Virginia. The loss of the enemy at McDowell exceeded that of the Confederates, and was conjectured to be double our own.

It was probably at the suggestion of his own judgment* and fit the instance of his own military instincts, that Gen. Jackson determined'to act on the aggressive, and to essay'the extraOrdinary task of driving the. Yankees from the Valley. In pursuance of this determination, his resolution was quickly taken to make a dash at Fremont's advance,* west of Staunton, and then'to turn upon Banks with 'the adventurous purpose of driving him into Maryland.

Gen, Banks, one of the military pets of the more truculent party of the abolitionists, had entered Virginia with the airs of a conqueror. As early as the 21th of April he had telegraphed to his government the story of uninterrupted and triumphant progress; he announced that he had "advanced near Ilarris'onburg;*' and, with a characteristic flourish, he added: u Tlfe rebel Jackson has abandoned the Valley cf Virginia permanently, and is en route for Gordonsville by the way of the mountain?.."

The first intimation the obtuse Yankee General had of his mistake was the astounding news that reached him on the evening of May 2"d, that the "rebel Jackson" had descended On the guard,at Front Royal, Colonel Kenly, 1st Maryland regiment^eommanding, burned the bridges, driven the Federal troops-towards Strasburg with great loss, captured a section of artillery, and taken about fourteen huudred prisoners.

It was now Banks'* turn to betake himself to flight, or, in tile official circumlocution of that commander, " to enter the

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