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apparent that he was rapidly sinking, and he was informed that he was dying. The intelligence was received with no expression of disappointment or anxiety on the part of the dying hero; his only response was, "It is all right," which was repeated. He had previously said that he considered his wounds "a blessing," as Providence had always a good design in whatever it ordained, and to that Providence in which he had always trusted he committed himself with uninterrupted confidence. But once he regretted his early fall, and that was with reference to the immediate fortunes of the field. Hq said, "If I had not been wounded, or had had an hour more of daylight, I would have cut off the enemy from the road to the United States Ford, and we would have had them entirely surrounded, and they would have been obliged to surrender or cut their way out; they had no other alternative. My troops sometimes may fail in driving the enemy from a position, but the enemy always fail to drive my men from a position." This was said with a sort of smiling playfulness.

The following account of the dying moments of the hero is taken from the authentic testimony of a religious friend and companion:

"He endeavoured to cheer those who were around him. Noticing the sadness of his beloved wife, he said to her tenderly, 'I know you would gladly give your life for me, but I am perfectly resigned. Do not be sad—I hope I shall recover. Pray for me, but always remember in your prayer to use the petition, Thy will be done.' Those who were around him noticed a remarkable development of tenderness in his manner and feelings during his illness, that was a beautiful mellowing of that iron sternness and imperturbable calm that characterized him in his military operations. Advising his wife, in the event of his death, to return to her father's house, he remarked, 'You have a kind and good father. But there is no one so kind and good as your Heavenly Father.' When she told him that the doctors did not think he could live two hours, although he did not himself expect to die, he replied, 4 It will be infinite gain to be translated to Heaven and be with Jesus/ He then said he had much to say to her, but was too weak.

"He had always desired to die, If it were God's will, on the Sabbath, and seemed to greet its light that day with peculiar pleasure, saying, with evident delight, 'It is the Lord's day;' and inquired anxiously what provision had been made for preaching to the army; and having ascertained that arrangements were made, he was contented. Delirium, which occasionally manifested itself during the last two days, prevented some of the utterances of his faith, which would otherwise have doubtless been made* His thoughts vibrated between religious subjects and the battle-field; now asking some questions about the Bible or church history, and then giving an order—'Pass the infantry to the front.' 'Tell Major Hawks to send forward provisions to the men.' 'Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees'—until at last his gallant spirit gently passed over the dark river and entered on its rest."

It is not proposed here, nor could space be found within the limits of a supplementary chapter to make a record of the life and services of General Jackson. A very brief sketch is all that is possible; and indeed it is scarcely necessary to do more, as so much of his military life is already spread on the pages of this volume and intermixed with the general narrative of the war.

General Thomas Jonathan Jackson was born in Harrison county, Virginia* in 182^, and graduated at West Point in 1846. His first military services were in the Mexican war, and he behaved so well that he was brevetted major for his services. The Army Register and the actual history and facts of the Mexican war do not furnish the name of another person entering the war without position or office who attained the high rank of major in the brief campaign and series of battles from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico.

At the close of the Mexican war, Jackson resigned his position in the army and obtained a professorship in the Virginia Military Institute. His services were not conspicuous here; Colonel Gilham was considered as the military genius of the school, and Thomas Jackson was but little thought of by the small hero-worshippers of Lexington. The cadets had but little partiality for the taciturn, praying professor.

Perhaps none of the acquaintances of Jackson were more surprised at his brilliant exhibitions of genius in this war, than those who knew his blank life at the Institute, and were familiar with the stiff and uninteresting figure that was to be seen every Sunday in a pew of the Presbyterian Church at Lexington. But true genius awaits occasion commensurate with its power and aspiration. The spirit of Jackson was trained in another school than that of West Point or Lexington, and had it been confined there, it never would have illuminated the page of history.

In the early periods of the war, Jackson, commissioned Colonel by the Governor of Virginia, was attached to General Johnston's command on the Upper Potomac. At Palling Waters, on the 2d of July, 1861, he engaged the advance of Patterson, and gave the Yankees one of the first exemplifications of his*ready-witted strategy; as Patterson never knew that, for several hours, he was fighting an insignificant force, skillfully disposed to conceal their weakness, while Johnston was making his dispositions in the rear.

The first conspicuous services of Jackson in this war were rendered at Manassas in 1861; although the marks of active determination he had shown on the Upper Potomac, and the affair of Falling Waters, had already secured for him promotion to a Brigadier-Generalship. The author recollects some paragraphs in a Southern newspaper expressing great merriment at the first apparition of the future hero on the battle-field. His queer figure on horseback, and the habit of settling his chin in his stock, were very amusing to some correspondents, who made a flippant jest in some of the Southern newspapers of the military specimen of the Old Dominion. The jest is forgiven and forgotten in the tributes of admiration and love which were to ensue to the popular hero of the war.

We have already given in another part of this work (the first volume) an account of the remarkable expedition of Jackson in the depth of the winter of 1861-2 to Winchester, where he had been sent from Gen. Johnston's lines. The expedition was successful, and the march was made through an almost blinding storm of snow and sleet, our troops bivouacking at night in the forest, where many died from cold and exhaustion.

Without doubt, th$ most brilliant and extraordinary passage in the militarj life of General Jackson was the ever famous campaign of the summer of 1862 in the Valley of Virginia. From the Valley he reached by rapid marches the lines of the Chickahominy in time to play a conspicuous part in the splendid conclusion of the campaign of the Peninsula.

Since the battles of the Chickahominy, the military services of General Jacknon are comparatively fresh in the recollections of the public. We have already seen in these pages that the most substantial achievements and brilliant successes of last summer's campaign in Virginia are to be attributed to him.

The participation of Jackson in the campaign of Maryland, and that of the Rappahannock, shared their glory, but without occasion for observation on those distinct and independent movements which were his forte, and for the display of which he had room in the Valley campaign, and that against Pope.

The most noble testimony of the services of the departed hero in the battle of Chancellorsville is to be found in the note of Gen. Lee, which is characteristic of his own generosity and worth. Gen. Lee wrote him:

"General: I have just received your note informing me that you were wounded. I cannot express my regret at the occurrence. Could I have dictated events, I should have chosen for the good of the country to have been • disabled In your stead.

"I congratulate you upon the victory which is due to your skill and energy."

Jackson's response to his attendants on hearing the note read is said to have been, "Gen. Lee should give the glory to God." It was an expression of his modesty and reverence.

A friend relates that a few nights before this battle, an equally characteristic incident occurred that is worthy of record. He was discussing with one of his aids the probability and issue of a battle, when he became unusually excited. After talking it over fully, he paused, and with deep humility and reverence said, "My trust is in God;" then, as if the sound of battle was in his ear, he raised himself to his tallest stature, and with flashing eyes and a face all blazoned with the fire of the conflict, he exclaimed, "I wish they would come."

A strong religious sentiment combined with practical energy, and an apparent dash of purpose qualified by the silent calculations of genius, were the remarkable traits of the character of Jackson. It was his humble Christian faith combined with the spirit of the warrior that made that rare and lofty type of martial prowess that has shrined Jackson among the great heroes of the age.

From all parts of the living world have come tributes to his fame. "He was," says the London Times, "one of the most consummate Generals that "this century has produced. * * * That mixture of daring and judg"ment which is the mark of 'Heaven-born' Generals, distinguished him be"yond any man of his time. Although the young Confederacy has been "illustrated by a number of eminent soldiers, yet the applause and devotion "of his countrymen, confirmed by the judgment of European itatibns, have "given the first place to Gen. Jackson. The military feats he accomplished "moved the minds of the people with astonishment, which it is only given to "the highest genius to produce. The blows he struck at the enemy were as "terrible and decisive as those of Bonaparte himself."

It is proposed already that the State of Virginia shall build for him a stately tomb, and strike a medal to secure the memory of his name. These expressions of a nation's gratitude may serve its own pleasure. But otherwise they are unnecessary.

<• Dear son of memory, great heir of fame,
What needJ8t thou such weak witness of thy name!"

CHAPTER XII.

A Period of Disasters...department Of The Mississippi...Grant's March Upon Vicksburg...Its Steps and Incidents...The Engagement of Port Gibson... The Evacuation of Jackson...The Battle of Baker's Creek...Pemberton's Declarations as to the Defence of Yicksburg...A Grand Assault upon "the Heroic City "...Its Repulse...The Final Surrender of Vicksburg...How the Public Mind of the South was Shocked...Consequences of the Disaster...How it Involved Affairs on the Lower Mississippi...Other Theatres of the War...The Campaign In Pennsylvania And Maryland... Hooker Manouvred Out of Virginia...The Recapture of Winchester...The Second Invasion of the Northern Territory...The Alarm of the North...General Lee's Object in th.e Invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania...His Essays at Conciliation... The Errour of Such Policy...The Advance of his Lines into Pennsylvania...The Battle of Gettysburg...The Three Days' Engagements...Death of Barksdale...Pickett's Splendid Charge on the Batteries...Repulse of the Confederates...Anxiety and Alarm in Richmond...Lee's Safe Retreat into Virginia...Mystery of his Movement...Recovery of the Confidence of the South ***** Review of the Present Aspects of the War...Comparison Between the Disasters of 1862 and those of 1863...The Vitals of the Confederacy yet Untouched... Review of the Civil Administration...President Davis, his Cabinet and his Favourites...His Private Quarrels...His Deference to European Opinion... Decline of the Finances of the Confederacy...Reasons of this Decline—The Confederate Brokers...The Blockade-Runners...The Disaffections of PropertyHolders...The Spirit of the Army...The Moral Resolution of the Confederacy...How the Enemy has Strengthened it...The Prospects of the Future.

We find it necessary to give another chapter to the extension of our narrative beyond its appropriate limit. We shall proceed rapidly with a general reference to such events as may exhibit the condition of the Confederacy at the time of this writing, reserving details for another volume that will properly cover the period of the third year of the War. That year has opened with disasters, at which we can now glance only imperfectly, for upon them the lights of time have scarcely yet developed.

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