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tion of Virginia...The Lessons of Harsh Necessity...Improvement of the Civil

Administration of the Confederacy...Ordnance, Manufacturing Resources,

Quartermasters' Supplies, &c Page 167

CHAPTER VII.

The Heroism of Virginia...Her Battle-Fields...Burnside,s Plan of Cam-

paign... Calculations of his Movement upon Fredericksburg...Failure to Sur-

prise Gen. Lee...the Battle Of Fredericksburg...The Enemy Crossing the

River...Their Bombardment of the Town...Scenes of Distress...The Battle on

the Right Wing...The Story of Marye's Heights...Repulse of the Enemy...

The Old Lesson of Barren Victory...Death of Gen. Cobb...Death of General

Gregg...Romance of the Story of Fredericksburg...Her Noble Women...Yan-

kee Sacking of the Town...A Specimen of Yankee Warfare in North Caro-

lina...Designs of the Enemy in this State...The Engagements of Kinston...

Glance at other Theatres of the War...Gen. Hindman's Victory at Prairie

Grove...Achievements of our Cavalry in the West...The Affair of Hartsville...

Col. Clarkson's Expedition...Condition of Events at the Close of the Year

1862 Page 192

CHAPTER VIIL

The Eastern Portion of Tennessee...Its Military Importance...Composition

of Bragg's Army—The Battle Of MuRFREESBORo'...The Right Wing of the

Enemy Routed—Bragg's:Exultations...The Assault of the 2d January../* The

# Bloody Crossing of Stone River "...The Confederates Fall Back to Tulla-

homa...Review of the Battle Field of Murfreesboro'...Repulse of the Enemy

at Vicksburg....THE Re-capture Of Galveston....The Midnight March...

Capture of "the Harriet Lane "...Arkansas Post Taken by the Yankees...Its

Advantages...The Affair of the Rams in Charleston Harbour...Naval Structure

of the Confederacy...Capture of the Yankee Gunboat "Queen of the West"...

Heroism of George Wood...Capture of "the Indianola"...The War on the

Water...The Confederate Cruisers...Prowess of "the Alabama."

Page 211

CHAPTER IX.

An Extraordinary Lull in the War...An Affair with the Enemy on the

Blackwater...Raids in the West...Van Dorn's Captures...the Meeting Of

Congress...Character of This Body...Its Dullness and Servility...Mr. Foote

and the Cabinet...Two Popular Themes of Confidence...Party Contention in

the North...Successes of 4he Democrats There...Analysis of the Party Politics

of the North...The Interest of New England in the War...How the War

Affected the Northwestern Portions of the United States...Mr. Foote's Reso-

lutions Respecting the Northwestern States...How They Were Received by

the Southern Public...N«w War Measures at Washington...Lincoln a Dic-

tator...Prospect of Foreign Interference...Action of the Emperor Napoleon...

Suffering of the Working Classes in England.:.The Delusions of an Early

Peacc.The' Tasks Before Congress...Prostrate Condition of the Confederate
Finances...President Davis' Blunder...The Errours of Our Financial System...

The Wealth of the South...The Impressment Law of Congress...Scarcity of

Supplies...Inflated Prices...Speculation and Extortion in the Confederacy...

Three Remarks About These...The Verdict of History. . . Page 235

CHAPTER X.

Character of Military Events of the Spring of 1863...Repulse of the Enemy

at Fort McAllister...The Siege Of Vicksburg...The Yazoo Pass Expedition...

Confederate Success at Fort Pemberton...The Enemy's Canals or "Cut OfFs"...

Their Failure...Bombardment Of Port Hudson...Destruction of "The Mis-

sissippi"...A Funeral Pyre...Happy Effects of our Victory...A Review of the

Line of Inland Hostilities...Hooker's Hesitation on the Rappahannock...The

Assignment of Confederate Commands West of the Mississippi...The Affair of

Kelly's Ford...Death of Major Pelham...Naval Attack On Charleston...

Destruction of "The Keokuk"...Scenery of the Bombardment...Extent of the

Confederate Success...Events in Tennessee and Kentucky... Pegram's Re-

verse...The Situation of Hostilities at the close of April 1862.

Page 250

CHAPTER XL

Close of the Second Year of the War...Propriety of an Outline of Sonw

Succeeding Events...Cavalry Enterprises of the Enemy...The Raids in Mis-

sissippi and Virginia...Sketch Of The Battles Of The Rappahannock...The

Enemy's Plan of Attack...The Fight at Chancellorsville...The Splendid Charge

of "Stonewall" Jackson...The Fight at Fredericksburg...The Fight at Salem

Church...Summary of our Victory...Death Of "stonewall" Jackson...His

Character and Services Page 268

CHAPTER XII.

A Period of Disasters...Department Of The Mississippi...Grant's March

Upon Vicksburg...Its Steps and* Incidents...The Engagement of Port Gibson...

The Evacuation of Jackson...The Battle of Baker's Creek...Pemberton's

Declarations as to the Defence of Vicksburg...A Grand Assault upon "the

Heroic City "...Its Repulse... The Final Surrender of Vicksburg...How the Pub-

lic Mind of the South was Shocked...Consequences of the Disaster...How it

Involved Affairs on the Lower Mississippi...Other Theatres of the War...The

Campaign In Pennsylvania And Maryland... Hooker Manoeuvred out of Vir-

ginia...The Recapture of Winchester...The Second Invasion of the Northern

Territory...The Alarm of the North...General Lee's Object in the Invasion of

Maryland and Pennsylvania...His Essays at Conciliation...The Errour of Such

Policy...The Advance of his Lines into Pennsylvania...The Battle of Gettys-

burg...The Three Days' Engagements...Death of Barksdale...Pickett's Splen-

did Charge on the Batteries...Repulse of the Confederates...Anxiety and

Alarm in Richmond...Lee's Safe Retreat into Virginia...Mystery of his

Movement...Recovery of the Confidence of the South ***** Review

of the Present Aspects of the War...Comparison Between the Disasters of
1862 and those of 1863...The Vitals of the Confederacy yet Untouched...

Eeview of the Civil Administration...President Davis, his Cabinet and his

Favourites...His Private Quarrels...His Deference to European Opinion...

Decline of the Finances of the Confederacy...Reasons of this Decline—The

Confederate Brokers...The Blockade-Runners...The DisafFections of Property-

Holders...The Spirit of the Arniy...Tl*e Moral Resolution of the Confede-

racy...How the Enemy has Strengthened it...The Prospects of the Future.

Page 283

CHAPTER XIII.

REVIEW—POLITICAL IDEAS IN THE NORTH, &c.

The Dogma of Numerical Majorities...Its Date in the Yankee Mind...

Demoralization of the Idea of the Sovereignty of Numbers...Experience of

Minorities in American Politics...Source of the Doctrine of "consolida-

Tion""...The Slavery Question the Logical Result of Consolidation...Another

Aspect of Consolidation in the Tariff...Summary of the Legislation oji the

Tariff...A Yankee Picture of the Poverty of the South...John C. Calhoun...

President Davis' Opinion of his School of Politics..."Nullification," as a

Union Measure...Mr. Webster's "Four Exhaustive Propositions "...The ^True

Interpretation of the Present Struggle of the South...The Northern Idea of

the Sovereignty of Numbers...Its Results in this War...President Lincoln's

Office...The Revenge of the Yankee Congress Upon the People...The Easy

Surrender of their Liberties by the Yankees...Lincoln and Cromwell...Expla-

nation of the Political Subserviency in the North...Superficial Political Edu-

cation of the Yankee...His "Civilization "...The Moral Nature of the Yankee

Unmasked by the War...His New Political System...Burnside's "Death

Order "...A Bid for ^Confederate Scalps... A New Interpretation of the War...

The North as a Parasite...The Foundations of the National Independence of

the South...Present Aspects of the War...Its External Condition and Morals...

The Spirit of the South and the Promises of the Future. . . Page 309

THE SECOND YEAR OF THE WAR.

CHAPTER I.

The New Orleans Disaster...Its Consequences and Effects...Dispatches <tf the European Commissioners ...Butler "the Beast"... Public Opinion in-£«*' tope...The Atrocities of the Massachusetts Tjrant...Execution of Mumford..* Lesson of New Orleans...Spirit of Resistance in the South...Change"in the Fortunes of the Confederacy...Two Leading Causes for it...The Richmond •' Examiner"...The Conscription Law...Governor Brown of Georgia...Re-orga/iization of,the Army... Abandonment of our Frontier Defences...The Policjr of Concentration...Governor Rectors Appeal...First Movements of the Summer Campaign in Virginia...The Retreat from Yorktown...Evacuation of Norfolk... Destruction of the "Virginia"...Commodore Tatnali's Report...Secretary Mallory's Visit to Norfolk...The Engagement of Williamsburg...The Affair of Barhamsville...McClellan,s Investment of the Lines of the Chickahominy...Alarm in Richmond...The Water Avenue of the James...The Panic in Official Circles...Consternation in the President's House*...Correspondence between President Davis and the Legislature of Virginia...Noble Resolutions of the Legislature...Response of the Citizens of Richmond...The Bombardment of Drewry's Bluff...The Mass Meeting at the City Hall...Renewal of Public^ Confidence...The Occasions of This....jackson's Campaign In Th* Valley...The Engagement of McDowell...The Surprise at Front Royal... Banks' Retreat Down the Valley...The Engagements of Port Republic...Results of the Campaign...Death of Turner Ashby...Sufferings of the People of the Valley of the Shenandoah...Memoir Op Turner Ashby.

The fall of New Orleans was one of the most extraordinary triumphs which the enemy had obtained. It was the crowning stroke of that extraordinary campaign of the winter and spring of the year 1862, in'which, by the improvidence of the Southern authorities and a false military policy which divided their armies and weakened them by undue dispersion, they had lost much of their territory, most of the prestige of their arms, and had fallen upon a train of disasters well calculated to affect the general public, both at home and abroad- The close of this campaign, so ill-starred to the Confederacy, found it with scarcely more than three entire States—Texas, Alabama and Georgia. - Large portions of the territories of Virginia, the Carolinas and Florida were occupied by the enemy; he had broken our line of defences in Tennessee, and held important positions on the Upper Mississippi; and now, by the capture of New Orleans, he had secured the great Southern depot of the trade of the immense central valley of the continent, obtained command of an extent of territory accessible by his gunboats greater than the entire country before lost to ths Confederacy, and had good reason to hope, by the junction of his fleets on the Mississippi, to. open its navigation, and give to the West an outlet to the ocean.

.The conquests of the Federal arms made In the winter and spring of 1862, were not without their effect in Europe, and presented to the nations in that part of the world a sombre picture of the Confederacy. The dispatches of our ministers at the courts of England^and France declared that the prospect of recognition, of which they had formerly given such warm and sanguine assurances, had been overclouded by the disaster at New Orleans. Mr. Slidell wrote from Paris that the French government declared that "if New Orleans had not fallen, our recognition could not have been much longer delayed." He added, however, that he had been assured that "even after that disaster, if we obtained decided successes in Virginia and Tennessee, or could hold the enemy at bay a month or two, tire same4 result would follow"—a promise, to the breach of which and to the unhappy expectations which it excited, we shall hereafter Ijave occasion to refer. Mr. Mason, our minister at London, also referred to the opinion that at the time of the enemy's capture of New Orleans, our recognition was on the eve of accomplishment.

The immediate sufferers of the disaster at New Orleans were the people of that city. It was aptly rewarded for its easy submission by the scourge of a tyrant. The corrupt and mer

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