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As a farther illustration of Bunyan's sentiments slightest degree from the path of duty; still he on this subject, we give the following letter to the belonged to no sect, but that of Christian, and church at Braintree:

the same freedom which had guided him in form•The 7th of the Twelfth Month, 1676 (Feb. 1677).

ing his principles, he cheerfully allowed to others. “The church of Christ in and about Bedford, to the church IIitherto, water baptism liad been considered a

of Christ in and about Braintree, sendeth greeting, pre-requisite to the Lord's table by all parties. "Holy and beloved-We, fellow-heirs with you of the grace The Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Independof life, having considered your request concerning our honoured ents, had denounced the Baptists as guilty of a and beloved brother, Samuel Hensman : that he shall be given most serious heresy, or blasphemy, in denying up to you for your mutual edification, and his furtherance and the right of infants to baptism; not only did they joy of faith; and considering also, in the capacity he now standeth by reason of his habitation amongst you, his edifica- exclude the Baptists from communion with their tion is to be from you, not from us—he being, by God's pro. churches, but they persecuted them with extreme vidence (by which he disposeth the world), placed at such a rigour. When the Independents made laws for distance from us. And considering, also, the great end of the government of their colony in America, in Christ our Lord, in ordaining the communion of saints, is his 1644, one of the enactments was, • That if any glory in their edification, and that all things are to be done by his


shall either openly condemn, or oppose the command to the edification of the body in general, and of every inember in particular, and that this we oft (ought ?) to design baptizing of infants, or seduce others, or leave the in our receiving him, and giving up to other churches, and not congregation during the administration of the rite, to please ourselves: do as before God and the elect angels, grant they shall be sentenced to banishment.' The same and give up to you our elect brother, to be received by you in year a poor man was tied up and whipped, for rethe Lord, and to be nourished, in the church at Braintree, fusing to have his child baptized. • The Rey, J. with you as one that is dear to the Father and our Lord Jesus Clarke, and Mr. 0. Holmes, of Rhode Island, for Christ ; and this we the willinger do, because, as we are in visiting a sick Baptist brother in Massachusetts, formed concerning you, beloved, you are not rigid in your instead of being admitted to the Lord's table, they principles, but are for communion with saints as saints, and have been taught by the Word to receive the brotherhood, were arrested, fined, imprisoned, and whipped.' because they are beloved, and received of the Father and the At this very time, the Baptists formed their colony Son, to whose grace we commend you, with the brother of late at Rhode Island, and the charter concludes with a member with us, but now one of you. Grace be with you these words, •All men may walk as their conall. Written by the appointment of the church here, and sub- sciences persuade them, every one in the name of scribed, in her name, by your brethren, as followeth:

his God.' This is probably the only spot in the world where persecution was never known. The Baptists considered that immersion in water was the marriage rite between the believer and Saviour;

that to sit at the Lord's table without it was SAM. Fenn.

OLIVER STOT. spiritual adultery, to be abhorred and avoided, John Fenn.

Thomas COOPER. and therefore refused to admit any person to the LUKE ASTWOOD.

JOHN CROKER. Lord's table who had not been baptized in water The late Mr. Kilpin of Bedford considered the upon a personal profession of faith in the Saviour. whole of this letter to be entered in the minutes This was the state of parties when Bunyan, at in Bunyan's hand-writing.

the commencement of his pastorate, entered into There is also in the church book the copy of a the controversy. He had been promised a comletter, in 1674, addressed to the church some-mendation to his book by the great, the grave, time walking with our brother Jesse,' refusing to the sober' Dr. Owen, but he withdrew his sancdismiss to them Martha Cumberland, unless they tion. 'And perhaps it was more for the glory of were certified that they continued in the practice God, that truth should go naked into the world, of mixed communion. In these sentiments Bun- said Bunyan, 'than as seconded by so weighty yan lived and died. His church remains the same an armour-bearer as he.' Bunyan denied that to the present day. In the new, commodious, and water could form a wedding garment, or that handsome meeting-house, opened in 1850, there water baptism was a pre-requisite for the Lord's is a baptistery, frequently used. The present table, or that being immersed in water was putting minister, the amiable and talented John Jukes, on our Lord's livery, by which disciples may be baptizes infants, and receives the assistance of a known. “Away, fond man, do you forget the neighbouring Baptist minister to baptize adults. text, “ By this shall all men know that ye are my

Not only had Bunyan clear, well-defined, and disciples, if ye have love one to another." 12 An most decided views of the ordinances of the gospel, attempt was made to embroil Bunyan in a public but also of all its doctrines. His knowledge upon disputation in London upon this subject, which he those solemn subjects was drawn exclusively from very wisely avoided. This controversy will be the sacred pages; nor dared he swerye in the 1 Vol. i., 649. 2 Vol. ii., p. 638. 3 Vol ii., p. 641.

John Bunyan



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found in our second volume, and is deeply interest | he only used those in composing lis various treaing, making allowance for the esprit de corps ma- tises while in confinement. He certainly had and nifested on all sides. A verse in the Emblems is read The Plain Man's Pathway, Practice of Piety, very pertinent upon the violence of this disputo:- Luther on the Galatians, Clarke's Looking-glass for Oar gospel has had here a summer's day,

Saints and Sinners, Dodd on the Commandments, But in its sunshine we, like fools, did play;

Andrews' Sermons, Fowler's Design of Christianity, Or else fall out, and with each other wrangle, D'Anvers and Paul on Baptism, and doubtless all

And did, instead of work, not much but jangle.'i the books which were within his reach, calculated After a lapse of nearly two centuries, Bun- to increase his store of knowledge. yan's peaceable principles have greatly prevailed; About this time lie published a small quarto so that now few churches refuse communion on tract, in which he scripturally treats the doctrine account of the mode in which water baptism of eternal election and reprobation. This rare has been administered, The Baptists are no book, published for sixpence, we were glad to purlonger deemed heretics as they formerly were. chase at a cost of one guinea and a lialf, because Dr. Watts aided this kindly feeling—A church a modern author rejected its authenticity! It is baptized in infancy, or in adult age, may allow included in every early list of Bunyan's works, communion to those that are of the contrary prac- and especially in that published by himself, in 1688, tice in baptisin.'? Robert Robinson praises to guard his friends from deception; for he had Bunyan's work, and advocates his sentiments upon become so popular an author that several forgeries the most liberal principles. One of his remarks is had been published under his initials. These few very striking :—' Ilappy cominunity! that can pages on election contain a scriptural treatise upon produce a dispute of one hundred and fifty years a very solemn subject, written by one whose mind unstained with the blood, and unsullied with the was so imbued by the fear of God, as to have cast fines, the imprisonments, and the civil inconveniences out the fear of man; which so generally embarrasse of the disputants. As to a few coarse names, rough writers upon this subject. It was translated into

a compliments, foreign suppositions, and acrimo- Welslı, and is worthy an attentive perusal, espenious exclamations, they are only the harmless cially by those who cannot see the difference besqueakings of men in a passion, caught and pinched tween God's foreknowledge and his foreordination. in a sort of logical trap.'* To this time, Bunyan A new era was now dawning upon him, which, was only known as an extraordinarily talented and during the last ten years of his life, added ten. eloquent man, whose retentive memory was most fold to his popularity. For many years his beautirichly stored with the sacred Scriptures. All his fully simple, but splendid allegory, The Pilgrim's sermons and writings were drawn from his own Progress, lay slumbering in his drawer.Numerous mental resources, aided, while in prison, only by the had been his consultations with his pious associates Bible, the Concordance, and Fox's Book of Martyrs. and friends, and various had been their opinions, Very emphatically he says, “I am for drinking whether it was serious enough to be published. water out of my own cistern.' 'I find such a spirit all of them had a solemn sense of the impropriety of idolatry in the learning of this world, that had of anything like trifling as to the way I it at command I durst not use it, but only use from destruction, and the road to the celestial city. the light of the Word and Spirit of God.' 'I will It appears strange to us, who have witnessed the not take of it from a thread even to a shoe latchet.'4 very solemn impressions, in all cases, made by It must not be understood that he read no other reading that book, that there could have been a works but his Bible and Book of Martyrs, but that doubt of the propriety of treating in a colloquial Vol. iii., p. 755.

manner, and even under the fashion of a dream, ? Christian Church, 8vo, 1747, p. 280.

those most important truths. Some said, "John, 3 The General Doctrine of Toleration, applied to Free print it;' others said, 'not so.' Some said, 'it Communion, p. 8. George Whitefield most warmly approved might do good ;' others said, ‘no.' The result of all the communion of all God's saints with each other. This, I must own, more particularly endears Mr. Banyan to my heart.

• He hesitated as to the propriety of publishing it, probably He was of a catholic spirit. The want of water (adult baptism), from the influence of the weighty opinion of Martin Luther. with this man of God, was no bar to outward Christian com

“The people are greatly delighted with allegories and similimunion. And I am persuaded that if, like him, we were more tudes, and therefore Christ oftentimes useth them; for they deeply and experimentally baptized into the benign and gra- are, as it were, certain pictures which set forth things as if cious influences of the blessed Spirit, we should be less baptized they were painted before our eyes. Paul was a marvellous into the waters of strife about circumstantials and non-essencunning workman in handling allegories, but Origen and tials. For being thereby rooted and grounded in the love of Jerome turn plain Scriptures into untit and foolish allegories. God, we should necessarily be constrained to think and let Therefore, to use allegories, it is oftentimes a very dangerous think, bear with and forbcar one another in love, and withont thing.'* Such instructions, from one he so much venerated, saying, I am of Paul, Apollos, or Cephas ; have but one grand, curbed his exuberant imagination, and made him doubly watchlandable, disinterested strife, namely, who should live, preach, ful, lest allegorizing upon subjects of such vast importance might and esalt the ever-loving, altogether-lovely Jesus most.

darken counsel by words without knowledge.' * Vol. iii., p. 398.

* Com. on Gal. iv. 21.


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those consultations was his determination, I print | versions and translations of this wonderful book ; it will,' and it has raised an imperishable monu- the opinions of the learned and pious of its merits, ment to his memory. Up to this time, all Bunyan's principal scenes, and a synopsis. It has been the popularity arose from his earlier works, and his source of very numerous courses of lectures by mi

Leaving out of the question those most nisters of all denominations; and has been turned extraordinary books, The Pilgrim's Progress and into a handsome volume of hymns, adapted for Holy War, his other writings ought to have handed public worship, by the late Mr. Purday, a friend down his name, with honour and popularity, to the of John Wesley's, and a laborious preacher for latest posterity. While the logical and ponderous more than half a century. works of Baxter and Owen are well calculated to Great efforts have been made by the most popufurnish instruction to those who are determined to lar artists to enliven the scenes of the pilgrimage; obtain knowledge, the works of Bunyan create that but no colour glows like the enchanting words of very determination, and furnish that very know. Bunyan. No figures are so true to nature, and so ledge, so blended with amusement, as to fix it in life-like. Those eminent engravers, Sturt and the memory. Let one illustration suffice. It is our Strut, Stothard and Martin, with the prize efforts duty to love our enemies, but it is a hard lesson ; excited by the Art Union of England, and the we must learn it from the conduct of the Divine curious outlines by Mrs. M.Kenzie, the daughter Creator— There is a man hates God, blasphemes of a British admiral, have endeavoured to exhaust his name, despises his being; yea, says there is the scenes in this inexhaustible work of beautiful no God. And yet the God that he carrieth it thus scenery. The most elegant and correct edition is towards doth give him his breakfast, dinner, and the large-paper, sumptuous volume by Mr. Bogue, supper; clothes him well, and, when night comes, admirably illustrated with new designs, engraved on has him to bed, gives him good rest, blesses his wood in superior style--a volume worthy the drawfield, his corn, his cattle, his children, and raises ing-room of queens and emperors. The designs, him to high estate; yea, and this our God doth also, of the late David Scott, recently published at not only once or twice, but until these transgres- Edinburgh, are new, and peculiarly striking. His sors become old; his patience is thus extended entrance to the Valley of the Shadow of Death is years after years, that we might learn of him to mysteriously impressive, à fit accompaniment to do well. All the works of Bunyan abound with Bunyan's description, which is not excelled by any such striking lessons, as to render them extremely thing in Dante, Spencer, or Milton. In both parts valuable, especially to Sunday-school teachers and of the Pilgrim's Progress this scene is full of terministers, to enliven their addresses and sermons. rific sublimity. But we must be excused, if we But, in The Pilgrim's Progress, the world has ac- most warmly recommend our own offspring-the knowledged one train of beauties; picture after pic- present edition—as combining accuracy, elegance, ture, most beautifully finished, exhibiting the road and cheapness, with the addition of very numerous from destruction to the celestial city; our only diffi- notes, which, we trust, will prove highly illustraculty in such a display being to decide as to which tive and entertaining. is the most interesting and striking piece of scenery.? The carping criticisms of Mr. Dunlop, in his The editor's introduction to that extraordinary book History of Fiction, and of an author in the Penny is intended to prove that it was written while the Encyclopedia, are scarcely worth notice. The author was imprisoned for refusing to submit his complaint is, want of benevolence in the hero of conscience to human laws, and that it is a perpetual the tale. How singular it is, and what a testimonument to the folly of persecution ; the pecu- mony to its excellence, that an intelligent writer liar qualifications of the author are displayed in upon fictions should have been so overpowered its baving been a spontaneous effusion of his own with this spiritual narrative, as to confound it mind, unaided by any previous writer; an analysis with temporal things. Christian leaves his wife is given of all prior pilgrimages, in which, more espe- and children, instead of staying with them, to be cially in The Pilgrims, The Pylgremage of the Soule, involved in destruction all this relates to inward Grande Amoure, and in The Pilgrim of Loretto, the spiritual feelings, and to these only. Visited reader will find a faithful picture of some of the by compunctions of heart, Christian strives to insingularities of Popery drawn by itself; an ac- spire his wife and children with the same, but count of the editions, forgeries, errors in printing, in vain; he attends solitarily to his spiritual state,

taunted by his family, while, as to temporal things, 1 Vol. iii., p. 739. ? Even Dean Swist, in his popular Letter to a Young Divine, he becomes a better husband and father than ever says, “I have been better entertained, and more informed by a he was--but this is not prominent, because it is enfew pages in the Pilgrim's Progress, than by a long discourse tirely foreign to the author's object, which is to disupon the will and the intellect, and simple and complex ideas.' Nothing short of extraordinary merit could have called for play the inward emotions of the new birth, the spisuch a eulogy from so severe a critic.

ritual journey alone, apart from all temporal affairs.





Multitudes read it as if it was really a dream, the tified with lilies all the year round.' It is marvellous old sleeping portrait confirming the idea. In the that a picture of nature should have been so beautistory, Christian Diost mysteriously embodies all fully and strikingly described by an unlettered articlasses of men, from the prince to the peasant—zan, as to be used in embellishing an elegant novel, the wealthiest noble, or merchant, to the humblest written nearly two centuries after his decease.? mechanic or labourer-and it illustrates the most The Pilgrim was followed by a searching treatise solemn, certain truth, that, with respect to the on The Fear of God. The value of this book led salvation of the soul, the poorest creature in exist- to its republication by the Tract Society, and 4000 ence is upon perfect equality with the lordly pre-copies have been circulated. It is a neat and late, or magnificent emperor, with this word ring- acceptable volume, but why altered ? and a psalm ing in their ears, the poor have the gospel omitted. Bunyan says, 'Your great ranting, swagpreached to them.' The Grace Abounding, or Life gering, roysters;' this is modernized into •Your of Bunyan, is a key to all the mysteries of The ranting boasters.' Then followed, the Come and Pilgrim's Progress, and Holy War.

Welcome to Jesus Christ. This was frequently Bunyan's singular powers are those of descrip- reprinted, and hundreds of thousands have been tion, not of invention. He had lived in the city of circulated to benefit the world. His popularity destruction—he had heard the distant threatening increased with his years; efforts were made, but in of the awful storm that was shortly to swallow it vain, to steal him from his beloved charge at Bedup in unutterable ruin- he had felt the load of sin, ford. • He hath refused a more plentiful income and rejoiced when it was rolled away before a cru- to keep his station,' is the language of his survivcified Saviour-he knew every step of the way, and ing friend, Charles Doe. It is not surprising that before he had himself passed the black river, he had he was thus tempted to leave his poor country watched prayerfully over those who were passing, church, for we are told by the same biographer, that and when the gate of the city was opened to let them. When Mr. Bunyan preached in London, if there enter, he had strained his eyes to see their glory. were but one day's notice given, there would be

The purifying influence of The Pilgrim's Progress more people come together to hear him preach, may be traced in the writings of many imaginative than the meeting-house could hold. I have seen authors. How does it in several parts beautify to hear him preach, by my computation, about the admirable tale of Uncle Tom, and his Cabin. 1200 at a morning lecture, by seven o'clock, on In that inimitable scene, the death of the lovely a working day, in the dark winter time. I also Eva, the distressed negro, watching with intense anxiety the

progress of death, says, “When that 2 Within the Editor's memory, polished writers hesitated blessed child into the kingdom, they'll open name and education. Thus Cowper sang

to name our incomparable allegorist, on account of his humble goes the door so wide, we'll all get a look in at the

I name thee not, lest so despised a name glory.' Whence came this strange idea — not

Should move a sneer at thy deserved fame.' limited to the poor negro, but felt by thousands Now nearly all men find it difficult to do that name sufficient who have watched over departing saints ? It comes called after his name. A magnificent ship, for the China trade,

honour. One of the most splendid steam-ships in America is from the entrance of Christian and Hopeful into

was built at Aberdeen by Walter Hood & Co., which so swiftly the celestial city—'I looked in after them, and, traversed the ocean as to have made the voyage from Canton behold, the city shone like the sun ; the streets, to London in ninety-nine days, without any aid from steam. also, were paved with gold, and in them they architecture is named The John Bunyan." Roman Catholics

This beautiful and grand specimen of the perfection of naval walked with crowns on their heads, palms in their have printed large editions of the Pilgrim, with slight omishands, and golden harps to sing praises, which, sions, for circulation among the young under the care of the when I had seen, I wished myself among them.'

Our English fanatics have committed a crime that

would make a papist blush. A Rev. E. Neale has clumsily How often has Bunyan's wit sparkled in sermons, altered the Pilgrim's Progress, that Banyan might appear to and even in speeches delivered in the senate. Re- teach the things which Bunyan's righteous heaven-born soul cently, in a speech on the coalition ministry, the abhorred. It is a piece of matchless self-conceit to think of

mending that which has been admired by the wisest of the following reference was introduced:—Mr. Facing- human race in all nations, and which has obtained an unboth-ways, of honest John Bunyan, is not a crea- bounded popularity. Such an attempt to alter it is an acknowture mankind can regard with any complacency; ledgment that all the boasted power of Oxford, Exeter, and nor will they likely suffer any one to act with Rome, are unable to invent a tale to supersede the matchless

beauties of the work of our spiritually-minded, heavenly-asone party, and reserve his principles for another.' sisted brazier. If Mr. Neale should, at any time, alte

a deed It has also been strangely quoted in novel writing or a will in a similar manner, the law declares it to be forgery, -thus in Bell's Villettevisiting a God-mother in a similar forgery was committed in a recent London edition of

and the punishment for that felouy is transportation for life. A pleasant retreat, is said to resemble the sojourn of Dr. Cheever's Hill Difficulty. The Tractarians, doubtless

, Christian and Hopeful, beside the pleasant stream, commit these scandalous outrages upon the Fathers, and all with green trees on each bank, and meadows beau- other writers, and deserve the contempt of every honest, up

right mind. * Vol. ii., p. 166.

3 Vol. i., p. 473.

· Vol. i., p. 480.


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computed about 3000 that came to hear him one happier for the poor than any preceding ones in Lord's-day, at London, at a town's end meeting- British history. Bunyan's notions of conscientious house, so that half were fain to go back again for dealing, will make all traders who read them-blush. want of room, and then himself was fain at a back November 12, 1681, Bunyan's friend and fellowdoor to be pulled almost over people to get up labourer Samuel Fenn, was removed from this world, stairs to his pulpit.' This took place in a large and in the following year persecution raged severely. meeting-house, erected in Zoar Street, either the church was, for a season, driven from the on the site or near the Globe Theatre, South- meeting-house, and obliged to assemble in the fields. wark. On this spot, the prince of dramatists The Word of the Lord was precious in those days. amused and corrupted crowded houses; while in In 1682, while surrounded by persecution, he the immediate vicity were the stews and bear prepared and published his most profound and garden, frequented oy libertines of the lowest caste. beautiful allegory, The Holy War, made by ShadOne Sunday, in 1582, many were killed or miser- dai upon Diabolus, for the Regaining of the Meably wounded while attending the brutal sport of tropolis of the World; or, The Losing and Taking bear-baiting. Ilere, in the heart of Satan's em- again the Town of Mansoul. The frontispiece is pire, the prince of allegorists attracted multi- the most accurate likeness of Bunyan that is extudes, to be enlightened by his natural eloquence, tant; it is engraved by White, from a drawing, and to be benefited by the fruits of his prolific also by him, now preserved in the print departand vivid imagination, at all times curbed and ment of the British Museum. From this draw. directed by the holy oracles. It was a spacious ing, carefully compared with the print, we have building, covering about 2000 feet of ground (50 furnished the expressive likeness which forms the by 40), with three galleries, quite capable of hold- frontispiece to this volume. It has also a coring the number computed by Mr. Doe. We have, rect whole-length portrait, with emblematical de. from correct drawings, furnished our subscribers vices. This exceedingly beautiful and most finished with the plan and elevation of this ancient meeting- allegory has never been so popular as The Pilgrim's house. Having preached with peculiar warmth Progress, for reasons which are shown in the introand enlargement, one of his friends took him by duction to The Holy War. The whole narrative the hand, and could not help observing what a of this wondrous war appears to flow as naturally sweet sermon he had delivered ; 'Ay,' said he, as did that of the pilgrimage from the highly ima'you need not remind me of that, for the devil ginative mind of the author. Man, in his innotold me of it before I was out of the pulpit!'? cence, attracts the notice and hatred of Apollyon. Amongst his hearers were to be found the learned Nothing could be accomplished by force-all by and the illiterate. It was well known that Dr. subtlety and deceit. He holds a council of warJohn Owen, when he had the opportunity, embraced selects his officers — approaches—parleys, and it with pleasure, and sat at the feet of the un- gains admittance—then fortifies the town against learned, but eloquent tiuker. Charles II., hearing its king-Immanuel determines to recover itof it, asked the learned D.D., How a man of his vast armies, under appropriate leaders, surround great erudition could sit to hear a tinker preach?' the town, and attack every gate. The ear is garto which the doctor replied, “ May it please your risoned by Captain Prejudice and his deaf men. Majesty, if I could possess the tinker's abilities, I But he who rides forth conquering and to conquer would gladly give in exchange all my learning.' is victorious. All the pomp, and parade, and hor

He now pictured the downward road of the rors of a siege are as accurately told, as if by one sinner to the realms of death and darkness in the who had been at the sacking of many towns. The Life of Badman. This was published in 1680, author had learnt much in a little time, at the and is written in a language which fraudulent siege of Leicester. All tlie sad elements of war tradesmen at that period could not misunderstand; appear, and make us shudder-masses of armed using terms now obsolete or vulgar. It is full of

* One of his anecdotes is remarkable, as exhibiting the state anecdotes, which reveal the state of the times, as of medical knowledge in his neighbourhood. A poor wretch, superlatively immoral, and profane. He incident who had taught his son to blaspheme, was affected with a ally notices that a labourer received eightpence or

nervous twisting of the muscles of his chest. This was suptenpence per day.3 At that time, bread and all the posed to arise from a Satanic possession. One Freeman, 'a

more than ordinary doctor, attempted the cure. They bound necessaries of life, excepting meat, were dearer than the patient to a form, with head hanging down over the they are at present. In fact, our days are much end; set a pan of coals under his mouth, and put something

therein that made a great smoke, to fetch out the devil. There 1 Two views of this mecting-house, an exterior and interior, they kept the man till he was almost smothered, but no devil after its conversion into a workshop, are given in the Plate came out of him.* The death-bed scene of the broken-hearted facing page i. of this Memoir. In the interior, part of the Mrs. Badman, is delicately and beautifully drawn. beams and pillars that supported the gallery still remain. • Sutclif's History of Bunyan's Church, ? Toplady's Works, vol. iv., p. 463.

• Vol. iii., p. 245. 3 Vol. üi., p. 637.

* Vol. iii., p. 605.



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