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subject, Bunyan was simply guided by a sense of God for his goodness. The last you see of lim
duty. Fear of the consequences, or of offending -is alone, kneeling on the prison floor; he is
his enemies, never entered his mind. He felt that alone with God.'
they were in the hands of his heavenly Father, Charles Doe, who manifested most laudable
and that all their malice must be over-ruled for anxiety to hand down the works of Bunyan to
good. Notwithstanding his solemn warning not posterity, bears honourable testimony to his con-
to speak irreverently of the book, his refusal to duct while in prison. It was by making him a


use which had subjected him to severe privations visit in prison that I first saw him, and became
and the fear of a halter, this Christian hero was acquainted with him; and I must profess I could
not daunted, but gives his opinion of it with all not but look upon him to be a man of an excellent
that freedom and liberty which he considered spirit, zealous for his master's honour, and cheer-
essential to excite in his fellow-men inquiries as fully committing all his own concernments unto
to its origin and imposition.

God's disposal.

When I was there, there were It is not my province to enter into the contro about sixty Dissenters besides himself there, taken versy whether in public worship a form of prayer but a little before at a religious meeting at Kaistoe, ought to be used. Let every one be persuaded in the county of Bedford ; besides two eminent in his own mind; but to pass a law denouncing Dissenting ministers, Mr. Wheeler and Mr. Dun those that refuse to use a prescribed form as (both very well known in Bedfordshire, though worthy of imprisonment, transportation, or death, long since with God?), by which means the prison is an attack upon the first principles of Christianity. was very much crowded; yet, in the midst of all To punish those who spoke irreverently of it, was that hurry which so many new-comers occasioned, almost an acknowledgment that it would not bear I have heard Mr. Bunyan both preach and pray investigation. To speak of the book as in his with that mighty spirit of faith and plerophory of serious judgment it deserved, was not that mark divine assistance that has made me stand and of sectarianism which Romaine exhibited when he wonder.'S Here they could sing, without fear of called the beautiful hymns of Dr. Watts, which being overheard; no informers prowling round. are used so much in public worship among Dissen- The world was shut out; and, in communion with ters, “ Watts' jingle,' and • Watts' whims !!! No heaven, they could forget their sorrows, and have answer appears to have been published to Bunyan's a rich foretaste of the inconceivablo glory of the extremely interesting volume until twelve years celestial city. It was under such circumstances after the author's death, when a reply appeared that Bunyan preached one of his most remarkunder the title of Liturgies Vindicated by the Dis- able sermons, afterwards published under the titlo senters, or the Laufulness of Forms of Prayer proved of The Holy City or the New Jerusalem, 1665. against John Bunyan and the Dissenters. 1700. This Upon a certain first-day, being together with is a very rare and curious volume. The author, as my brethren in our prison-chamber, they expected usual in such controversies, deals wholesale in that, according to our custom, something should invective, and displays all the ability of a sophist. be spoken out of the Word for our mutual edifica.

The Christian world is indebted to Dr. Cheever tion. I felt myself, it being my turn to speak, so for a beautiful picture of Bunyan's devotional ex- empty, spiritless, and barren, that I thought I ercise in his cell. •It is evening; he finishes should not have been able to speak among them his work, to be taken home by his dear blind so much as five words of truth with life and child. IIe reads a portion of Scripture, and, evidence. At last I cast mine eye upon this clasping her small hands in his, kneels on the prophecy, when, after considering awhile, mecold stone floor, and pours out his soul to God; thought I perceived something of that jasper in then, with a parting kiss, dismisses her to her whose light you find this holy city descended ; mother. The rude lamp glimmers on the table; wherefore, having got some dim glimmering thereof, with his Bible, pen, and paper, he writes as though and finding a desire to see farther thereinto, I with joy did make him write. His face is lighted as a few groans did carry my meditations to the Lord from the radiant jasper walls of the celestial city. Jesus for a blessing, which he did forth with grant, IIe clasps his hands, looks upward, and blesses and helping me to set before my brethren, we did

Psalmody Elit., 1775, p. 137. George Whitefield, in all eat, and were well refreshed; and behold, also, recommending the works of Bunyan, says, “ Ministers never that while I was in the distributing of it, it so write or preach so well as when under the cross; the Spirit of increased in my hand, that of the fragments that Christ and of glory shall rest upon them.' * Admiring the courage and honesty of Bunyan, when alluding to the Prayer- we left, after we had well dined, I gathered up Book, we carnestly unite in his petition- The Lord in mercy this basketful. Wherefore, setting myself to a turn the hearts of his people, to seek more after the Spirit of more narrow search, through frequent prayer, what prayer, and, in the streugih of that, to pour out their souls before the Lord.'

% This was published in 1698. * Preface to Bunyan's Works, 1767.

* Heavenly Foutran, 2d edition, 1700, p. 126.

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first with doing, and then with undoing, and after that has ever appeared. It was there that lie that with doing again, I thus did finish it." To was led to write the Grace Abounding to the Chief this singular event the religious public are indebted of Sinners. He displays in the preface his deep for one of Bunyan's ablest treatises, full of the interest in the spiritual welfare of those who had striking sparkles of his extraordinary imagination. been born under his ministry. He rejoices in their It was a subject peculiarly adapted to display his happiness, even while he was sticking between powers—the advent of New Jerusalem, her im- the teeth of the lions in the wilderness. I now pregnable walls and gates of precious stones, golden again, as before from the top of Shenir and Herstreets, water of life, temple, and the redeemed mon, so now from the lions' dens, from “ the from all nations flocking into it.”

mountains of the leopards," do look yet after you In these times of severe persecution, two of the all, greatly longing to see your safe arrival into church members, S. Fenn and J. Whiteman, were the desired haven.'4 How natural it was that, ordained joint pastors. Fenn has just been de- while narrating his own experience, he should be livered out of prison; yet they ventured to brave led to write a guide to pilgrims through time to the storm, and in this year, although the lions eternity, and that it should be dated from the den!' prowled before the porch, a number were added •And thas it was: I writing of the way to the church. Thus was their little Jerusalem And race of saints, in this our gospel-day, built even in troublous times.'

Fell suddenly into an allegory Bunyan's popularity and fame for wisdom and About their journey, and the way to glory.'' knowledge had spread all round the country, and Any one possessing powers of imagination, to it naturally brought him visitors, with their doubts, whom the adventures of Christian are familiar, and fears, and cases of conscience. Among these would, on reading the Grace Abounding, be cona singular instance is recorded in the Life of Bad- tinually struck with the likeness there drawn of man. • When I was in prison,' says the narrator, the pilgrim—the more he contemplates the two • there came a woman to me that was under a pictures of Christian experience, so much the moro great deal of trouble. So I asked her, she being striking is their similarity. The one is a narraa stranger to me, what she had to say to me? She tive of facts, the other contains the same facts said she was afraid she should be damned. I allegorized. Thus, by an irresistible impulse from asked her the cause of those fears. She told me heaven upon the mind of a prisoner for Christ, did that she had, some time since, lived with a shop- a light shine forth from the dungeon on Bedford keeper at Wellingborough, and had robbed his bridge which has largely contributed to enlighten box in the shop several times of money, and pray, the habitable globe. The Pilgrim has been transsays she, tell me what I shall do? I told her I lated into most of the languages and dialects of would have her go to her master, and make him the world. The Caffrarian and Hottentot, the satisfaction, Slie said she was afraid lest he enlightened Greek and Hindoo, the remnant of the should hang her. I told her that I would inter- Hebrew race, the savage Malay and the voluptucede for her life, and would make use of other ous Chinese—all have the wondrous narrative in friends to do the like; but she told me she durst their own languages. Bunyan was imprisoned by not venture that. Well, said I, shall I send to bigots and tyrants, to prevent his being heard or your master, while you abide out of sight, and known; and his voice, in consequence, reaches to make your peace with him before he sees you? and the ends of the earth. Let every wretched perscwith that I asked her master's name. But all she cutor contemplate this instance of God's oversaid in answer to this was, pray let it alone till ruling power. You will surely plunge the aveng. I come to you again. So away she went, and ing sword into your own vitals if, by persecution, neither told me her master's name nor her own; you vainly endeavour to wound the saints of the and I never saw her again.” Ile adds, 'I could living God. You may make hypocrites throw tell you of another, that came to me with a like off their disguise. The real Christian may be disrelation concerning herself, and the robbing of couraged, but he perseveres. He feels the truth her mistress.'

of Bunyan's quaint saying, “thie persecutors are To his cruel imprisonment the world is indebted but the devil's scarecrows, the old one himself for the most surprising narrative of a new birth lies quat;' while the eye of God is upon him to

save the children of Zion.“ IIis otherwise dreary 1 Vol. iii., p. 397, 398.

imprisonment was lightened, and the time beguiled ? This deeply interesting book is dedicated to fonr sorts of readers-the godly, the learned, the captious, and to the mother by these delightful writings. His fellow-prisoners of harlots. To her he says, 'I have nothing here to please were benefited by hearing bim read his pilgrim's your wanton eye, or voluptuous palate; no paint for thy adventures. But this has been so fully displayed wrinkled face, nor crutch to support thy tottering kingdom.' It is a a very amusing preface,

4 Vol. i., p. 4. • Author's Apology for the Pilgrim. 3 Vol. iii., p. 610.

• Vol. i., p. 002. VOL. III.

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in the introduction to the Pilgrim that any further | leaves the persecutor in the hands of God. Stand notice is unnecessary."

off, Christian ; pity the poor wretch that brings While busily occupied with his Grace Abound down upon himself the vengeance of God. Your ing and Pilgrim's Progress, he wrote a poetical pitiful arm must no strike him—no, stand by, epistle in answer to the kind inquiries of his nume- 'that God may have his full blow at him in his rous friends and visitors. After thanking them time. Wherefore he saith avenge not yourself for counsel and advice, he describes his feelings in Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord.” Give prison. His feet stood on Mount Zion ; his body place, leave such an one to be handled by me.' 6 within locks and bars, while his mind was free to • There are several degrees of suffering for study Christ, and elevated higher than the stars. righteousness—the scourge of the tongue, the Their fetters could not tame bis spirit

, nor prevent ruin of an estate, the loss of liberty, a gaol, a his communion with God. The more his ene- gibbet, a stake, a dagger. Now answerable to mies raged, the more peace he experienced. In these are the comforts of the Holy Ghost, preprison he received the visits of saints, of angels, pared like to like, part proportioned to part, only and the Spirit of God. • I have been able to the consolations are said to abound.'? The mind laugh at destruction, and to fear neither the horse of Bunyan was imbued with these sentiments ; nor his rider. I have had sweet sights of the baptized into them, and consequently elevated far forgiveness of my sins in this place, and of my above the fear of what man could do unto him. being with Jesus in another world.'? If his Yes, he knew the power of God. • He can make cars were to be pierced in the pillory, it would be those things that in themselves are most fearful only to hang a jewel there. The source of his and terrible to behold, the most delightful and happy feelings is well expressed in one of the most desirable things. He can make a gaol more stanzas:

beautiful than a palace, restraint more sweet by The truth and I were both here cast

far than liberty, and the reproach of Christ greater Together, and we do

riches than the treasures of Egypt.'
Lie arm in arm, and so hold fast

The Bible, that heavenly storehouse, was opened
Each other; this is true.'s

to him: I never had, in all my life, so great an Yes, honest John Bunyan, the world at large now inlet into the Word of God as now.'' 'I have gives you credit for the truth of that saying. had sweet sights of forgiveness and of the heavenly

How strange must it seem to the luxurious Jerusalem. I have seen here that which, while worldling, with his bed of down and splendid in this world, I shall never be able to express.' hangings, but aching heart, to hear of the exqui- About a year before he was set at liberty he site happiness of the prisoner for Christ on bis received a very popular work, written by Edward straw pallet! •When God makes the bed,' as Fowler, a Bedfordshire clergyman, who was soon Bunyan says, he must needs be easy that is cast after elevated to the see of Gloucester. It was thereon; a blessed pillow hath that man for his entitled The Design of Christianity, and professed head, though to all beholders it is hard as a stone.'* to prove that the object of the Saviour was merely In the whole course

to place man in a similar position to that of Adam of his troubles, he

before the fall. It is an extremely learned proenjoyed the sym

duction, full of Greek and Latin quotations; but, pathy of his family

in Bunyan's estimation, it aimed a deadly blow at and friends, His

the foundations of Christianity. To restore man food was brought

to Adam's innocency, and then to leave him to daily, and such was

cope with Satanic subtlety, was to cut off all the veneration in

hopes of salvation. It was brought to him in which his memory

February 1672, and in the very short period of was embalmed, that

forty-two days, Fowler's theory was most comthe very jug in

pletely demolished by Bunyan's Defence of the which his broth was

Doctrine of Justification, 4to, dated from prison, taken to the prison

the 27th of the 12th Month, 1671 (27th March, has been preserved to this day.

Bunyan's Jug.

1672). This was answered by a small 4to volume,

entitled Dirt Wiped off. Bunyan had used some In the midst of all his sufferings he murmurs harsh epithets; but the clergyman, or his curate, not, nor for a moment gives way to revenge; he beat the tinker in abusive language. He had

years, and died in 1839. One tradition says the jug was 1 Vol. ij., p. 7.

? Grace Abounding, No. 322. used as noted in the text; another that his broth was brought 3 Vol. i., p. 65.* 4 Vol. i., p. 741.

to chapel' in it, for his Sunday dinner, in the vestry. This jug is in possession of Mrs. Hillyard, widow of the 6 Vol. ii., p. 737-739. 2 Co. i. 5; vol. i., p. 735. late Mr. Hillyard, who was minister of the chapel for fifty 8 Vol. ii., p. 700.

Vol. i., p. 47.

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been by this time promoted to the rectory of division into three parts most probably alludes Cripplegate. For an account of this controversy, to the severity or liberality of his jailers. the reader is referred to the introduction to Bun- had at times, while a prisoner, an extraordinary yan's work on Justification, and to that to the degree of liberty; like Joseph in Egypt, some of Pilgrim's Progress." The impression it made his jailers committed all to his hands. There upon the public mind is well expressed in a can be little doubt but that he went from the rude rhyme, made by an anonymous author, in prison to preach in the villages or woods, and his Assembly of Moderate Divines:

at one time went to London to visit his admir

ing* friends; but this coming to the ears of the • There's a moderate Doctour at Cripplegate dwells, Whom Smythes his curate in trimming excells;

justices, the humane jailer bad well nigh lost his

place, and for some time he was not permitted to But Bunyan a tinker hath tickled his gills.'

look out at the door. When this had worn off, The last work that he wrote in prison was the he had again opportunities of visiting his church confession of his faith, and reason of his practice and preaching by stealth. It is said that many as to mixed communion, not with the world, but of the Baptist congregations in Bedfordshire owe with saints of other denominations. As this their origin to his midnight preaching. plunged him into a fearful controversy with his Upon one occasion, having been permitted to Dissenting brethren (Baptists, Independents, and go out and visit his family, with whom he intended Presbyterians), a notice of it will more properly to spend the night, long before morning he felt be introduced in our account of that conflict. He so uneasy that at a very late hour he went back had been incarcerated nearly twelve years, and to the prison. Information was given to a neighhad determined to suffer to the end. Here he bouring clerical magistrate that there was strong found time 'to weigh, and pause, and pause again, suspicion of Bunyan having broke prison. At the grounds and foundations of those principles midnight, he sent a messenger to the jail, that he for which he suffered,' and he was a Nonconformist might be a witness against the merciful keeper. still. “I cannot, I dare not now revolt or deny On his arrival, he demanded, 'Are all the prisoners my principles, on pain of eternal damnation,'' are safe?' the answer was, “Yes.' 'Is John Bunyan bis impressive words. • Faith and holiness are safe?' • Yes.' 'Let me see him.' He was called my professed principles, with an endeavour to be at up and confronted with the astonished witness, peace with all men. Let they themselves be judges, and all passed off well. His kind-hearted jailer if aught they find in my writing or preaching doth said to him, “You may go out when you will, for render me worthy of almost twelve years’imprison- you know much better when to return than I can ment, or one that deserveth to be hanged or tell you.'5 banished for ever, according to their tremendous During these twelve terrible years, and partisentence. If nothing will do unless I make of my cularly towards the end of his imprisonment, the conscience a continual butchery and slaughter. members and elders of his church at Bedford sufshop, unless putting out my own eyes, I commit fered most severely, a very abridged account of me to the blind to lead me, I have determined, the which is given in the introduction to the Pilgrim's Almighty God being my help and shield, yet to Progress. The set time for his liberation was now suffer, if frail life might continue so long, even drawing near, but the singular means by which it until the moss shall grow over mine eye-brows, was accomplished must be reserved for our next rather than to violate my faith and principles." chapter. The allusion to moss growing on his eye-brows most probably referred to the damp state of his den or dungeon.

PERIOD SIXTH. The continuation to the Grace Abounding, written BUNYAN IS DELIVERED FROM PRISON-CONTROVERSY WITH by a friend, and published four years after his THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH ON THE SUBJECT OF THE LORD'S decease, divides his imprisonment into three

SUPPER-PUBLISHES THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS, AND MANY

BOOKS, AND BECOMES EXTREMELY POPULAR-HIS DEperiods ; but as Bunyan makes it one continued imprisonment, there can be no doubt but that it was a long, dreary confinement; during which the As Charles II. felt himself securely seated on his testimony of his friend, Samuel Wilson, is, that it throne, his design to establish an absolute monarchy was 'an uncomfortable and close prison, and some became more and more apparent. The adulation times under cruel and oppressive jailers.' The

4 Vol. i., p. 62. Vol. i., p. 278; and vol. iii., p. 13. 2 Vol. ii., p. 593.

It has been doubted 'whether he was justified in thus • Vol. ii., p. 594.–Heroic man! British Christians are most making excursions from the prison. This may be answered by deeply indebted to thee, and thy fellow-sufferers, for the high the question—Was Peter justified in leaving the prison, and privileges they now enjoy. May thy name be had in ever going to the prayer-nieeting at Mary's house ? Acts, xii., 7-19. lasting remembrance.

• Vol. iii., p. 19.

CEASE AND CHARACTER.

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of his professed friends, and the noisy popularity Bunyan to the office of elder, that their way in with which he was greeted, appear to have fos- that respect may be cleared up to them.' At tered his crafty designs to rid himself of parlia- a meeting held at Bedford, on the last day of mentary government. His whole conduct was that the ninth month (November), there was appointed of a Papist, who keeps no faith with Protestants; another meeting to pray and consult about conor of a statesman, whose religion, honour, and cluding the affair before propounded, concerning truthfulness, were wholly subservient to expediency. gifts of the brethren to be improved, and the To further his object, he forined a council of five choyce of brother Bunyan to office, at Gamlingay, noblemen, two of whom were Roman Catholics, on the 14th day, and at Hawnes, the 20th, and at and the other three either careless as to religion or Bedford, the 21st of the same instant, which it was professed infidels. The first letter of their names desired might be a general meeting.' After all formed the word Cabal. Aided by these he sought this jealous care, and these fervent applications to to extinguish liberty, and extirpate the Protestant the throne of grace for Divine guidance, the result faith. To furnish himself with the means of was most gratifying. •At a full assembly of the indulging his unbridled passions, he, like a buc-church at Bedford, the 21st of the tenth month, caneer, seized the Dutch merchantmen returning after much seeking God by prayer and sober confrom India and Smyrna, without any declaration ference formally had, the congregation did at this of war, and laid his hands upon all the money meeting, with joynt consent, signified by solemn borrowed of his merchants which had been de- lifting up of their hands, call forth and appoint posited in the exchequer. He then united himself our brother John Bunyan to the pastoral office or with France to destroy Holland, the stronghold of eldership. And he accepting thereof, gave himliberty. To gratify the Roman Catholics, and self up to serve Christ and his Church, in that conciliate the Dissenters, he issued a declaration in charge, and received of the elders the right hand favour of liberty of conscience, the seal to which of fellowship, after having preached fifteen years.' he afterwards broke with his own hands, but he The choice thus solemnly made, was ratified by the could not prevent a considerable degree of religious abundant blessings of heavenly union and great liberty arising from such vacillating conduct. prosperity-no stranger or novice, but one whose

Bunyan, who had secured the confidence and preaching and writings had proved most acceptesteem of his jailer, now found his prison more able to them for a series of years-one that had like a lodging-house, and enjoyed great privileges. been owned and blessed of his God, and whom the Ile frequently, if not regularly, attended the church church delighted to honour. meetings, and preached with some degree of pub- At the same church meeting, • The congregalicity. The church at Bedford was at this time tion having had long experience of the faithfulness in want of a pastor, and their eyes were naturally of brother John Fenn in his care for the poor, did fixed upon Bunyan to succeed to that important after the same manner solemnly choose him to the office. There were two weighty considerations honourable office of a deacon, and committed their that required Divine guidance in coming to a con- poor and purse to him, and he accepted thereof, clusion. One was, whether it might injuriously and gave himself up to the Lord and them in that affect the prisoner's comforts, and the other was, service.' The church did also determine to keep the propriety of making choice of a Christian the 26th inst, as a day of fasting and prayer, both brother to be their ministering elder, while incar-here, and at Hawnes, and at Gamlingay, solemnly cerated in a jail. Feeling these difficulties, the to commend to the grace of God brother Bunyan church held several meetings on the subject, the and brother Fenn, and to entreat bis gracious as. minutes of which are very interesting. The first sistance and presence with them in their respectivo was held at Hawnes, on the 24th of the eighth works, whereunto he hath called them.' month (October) 1671, when the improvement The most extraordinary circumstance that took of the gifts of the church, and their disposal in place at this time was, that while Bunyan was a an orderly way, were proposed to consideration, prisoner in a wretched dungeon for preaching the that God might be sought for direction therein; glad tidings of salvation, or, in the mysterious and a time further to consider and debate thereof, legal jargon of the period, holding conventicles,' was appointed this day seven-night, at evening, at he received his Majesty's license to preach, and Bedford, where the principal brethren were de- thus to hold conventicles

one of the sired for that purpose to come together, at brother first that was granted. His Majesty continued to John Fenn's; and a church-meeting was appointed keep him a prisoner for preaching more than six to be there that day week. · The church was also months after he had licensed him to preach!! At minded to seek God about the choyce of brother the same time that the permission to preach was

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3 The ecclesiastical year commenced in March. The tenth * For an accurate copy of this declaration, see vol. iii., p. 21. monthi means December.

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