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lawful for a man
perhaps make him pay as much or more for it at wrong their neighbour, and like Mr. Padman do
wretches called pawnbrokers, that lend money and But above all, your hucksters, that buy up the goods to poor people, who are by necessity forced
poor man's victuals by wholesale, and to such an inconvenience; and will make, by one
sell it to him again for unreasonable trick or other, the interest of what they so lend gains, by retail, and as we call it by piecemeal; amount to thirty, forty, yea sometimes fifty pound they are got into a way, after a stinging rate, to by the year; notwithstanding the principal is seplay their game upon such by extortion: I mean cured by a sufficient pawn; which they will keep such who buy up butter, cheese, eggs, bacon, &c. too at last, if they can find any shift to cheat the by wholesale, and sell it again, as they call it, wretched borrower. by pennyworths, two pennyworths, a halfpenny- ATTEN. Say! Why such miscreants are the pest worth, or the like, to the poor, all the week after and vermin of the commonwealth, not fit for the the market is past.
society of men; but methinks by some of those These, though I will not condemn them all, do, things you discoursed before, you seem to import many of them, bite and pinch the poor by this kind that it is not lawful for a man to make the best of evil dealing. These destroy the poor because of his own. he is poor, and that is a grievous sin. 'Ile that WISE. If by making the best, you mean to sell oppresseth the poor to increase his riches, and he for as much as by hook or crook he whether it be that giveth to the rich, shall surely come to want.' can get for his commodity; then I say Therefore he saith again, · Rob not the poor be. it is not lawful. And if I should say best of his own; cause he is poor, neither oppress the afflicted in the contrary, I should justify Mr. Bad- peguei ein they the gate: for the Lord will plead their cause, and man and all the rest of that gang; but eight reasons. spoil the soul of them that spoiled them.' Pr. xxii. 16, that I never shall do, for the Word of God con22, 23.
denins them. But that it is not lawful for a man O that he that gripeth and grindeth the face of at all times to sell his commodity for as much as the poor, would take notice of these two scriptures! he can, I prove by these reasons:Here is threatened the destruction of the estate, First, If it be lawful for me alway to sell my yea and of the soul too, of them that oppress the commodity as dear, or for as much as I can, then poor. Their soul we shall better see where, and it is lawful for me to lay aside in my dealing with in what condition that is in, when the day of doom others good conscience to them and to God; but is come; but for the estates of such, they usually it is not lawful for me, in my dealing with others, quickly moulder; and that sometimes all men, and to lay aside good conscience, &c. Therefore it is sometimes no man knows how.
not lawful for me always to sell my commodity as Besides, these are usurers, yea, they take usury dear, or for as much as I can. That
Good conscience for victuals, which thing the Lord has forbidden. it is not lawful to lay aside good con
in selling De. xxiii. 19. And because they cannot so well do it science in our dealings has already on the market-day, therefore they do it, as I said, been proved in the former part of our discourse; when the market is over; for then the poor fall into but that a man must lay it aside that will sell his their mouths, and are necessitated to have, as they commodity always as dear, or for as much as he can, for their need, and they are resolved they shall can, is plainly manifest thus. pay soundly for it. Perhaps some will find fault 1. He that will, as is mentioned afore, sell liis for my meddling thus with other folks' matters, and commodity as dear as he can, must we must not
make a prey of for my thus prying into the secrets of their iniquity. sometimes make a prey of the ignor
ourueiglibour's But to such I would say, since such actions are ance of his chapman. But that he iguorance. evil, it is time they were hissed out of the world. cannot do with a good conscience, for that is to For all that do such things offend against God, overreach, and to go beyond my chapman, and is
forbidden. 1 Th. ir. 6. Therefore he that will sell his Hucksters, or general dealers, were more formidable ene- commodity as afore, as dear, or for as much as he mies to the poor in former days, than in the present time of can, must of necessity lay aside good conscience. competition. ' A great famine was caused by huckstering husbandmen, those knaves in grain.'— Fuller's Worthies, North
2. He that will sell his commodity always as umberland.-(ED.)
dear as he can, must needs sometimes make a prey
must be used
of his neighbour's necessity; but that he cannot do my commodity as dear, or for as much as I can,
with a good conscience, for that is to go then it is lawful for me to deal with my Charity must be Noror his neigh
beyond and defraud his neighbour, con- neighbour without the use of charity. used in our
trary to i Th. iv. 6. Therefore he that But it is not lawful for me to lay will sell his commodity, as afore, as dear, or for aside, or to deal with my neighbour without the as much as he can, must needs cast off and lay use of charity, therefore it is not lawful for me aside a good conscience.
always to sell my commodity to my neighbour for 3. He that will, as afore, sell his commodity as as much as I can. A man in dealing should as Nor of his fond. dear, or for as much as he can, must, really design his neighbour's good, profit, and
. mess of our com- if need be, make a prey of his neigh- advantage, as his own, for this is to exerciso
bour's fondness; but that a man can- charity in his dealing. not do with a good conscience, for that is still a That I should thus use, or exercise charity togoing beyond him, contrary to 1 Th iv. 6. Therefore, wards my neigbour in my buying and selling, &c., he that will sell his commodity as dear, or for as with him, is evident from the general commandmuch as he can, must needs cast off, and lay aside • Let all your things be done with charity.' 1 Co. good conscience.
But that a man cannot live in the exercise The same also may be said for buying; no man of charity that selleth as afore, as dear, or that
may always buy as cheap as he can, buyeth as cheap as he can, is evident by these good conscience but must also use good conscience in reasons:in buying
buying; the which he can by no means 1. He that sells his commodity as dear, or for use and keep, if he buys always as cheap as he as much money always as he
seeks himself, can, and that for the reasons urged before. For and himself only. But charity sceketh not her such will make a prey of the ignorance, necessity, own, not her own only. 1 Co. xiii. So then he that and fondness of their chapman, the which they seeks himself, and himself only, as he that sells, cannot do with a good conscience. When Abra-as afore, as dear as he can, does, maketh not use ham would buy a burying-place of the sons of of, nor doth he exercise charity in his so dealing. leth, thus he said unto them: Intreat for me to 2. He that selleth his commodity always for as Ephron the son of Zohar, that he may give me much as he can get, hardeneth his heart against the cave of Macphelah, which he hath - in the end all reasonable entreaties of the buyer. But he of his field; for as much - as it is worth 'shall he that doth so cannot exercise charity in his dealing; give it me. Ge. xxiii. 8, 9. He would not have it therefore it is not lawful for a man to sell his under foot, he scorned it, he abhorred it; it stood commodity, as afore, as dear as he can. not with his religion, credit, nor conscience. So 3. If it be lawful for me to sell my commodity, also, when David would buy a field of Ornan the as afore, as dear as I can, then there can be no Jebusite, thus he said unto him, “Grant me the sin in my trading, how unreasonably soever I place of this thrashing-floor, that I may build an manage my calling, whether by lying, swearing, altar therein unto the Lord; thou shalt grant it cursing, cheating, for all this is but to
There may be, me for the full price.' 1 Ch. xxi. 22. He also, as sell my commodity as dear as
trading Abraham, made conscience of this kind of dealing. Ep. iv. 25.
But that there is sin in these He would not lie at catch 2 to go beyond, no, is evident, therefore I may not sell my commodity not the Jebusite, but will give him his full price always as dear as I can. for his field. For he knew that there was wicked- 4. He that sells, as afore, as dear as lie can, ness, as in selling too dear, so in buying too cheap, offereth violence to the law of nature, for that therefore he would not do it. ?
saith, Do unto all men even as ye a man, in tradThere ought therefore to be good conscience would that they should do unto you. ing must not used, as in selling so in buying; for it is also un
Now, was the seller a lawful for a man to go beyond or to defraud his buyer, he would not that he of whom neighbour in buying ; yea, it is unlawful to do it he buys should sell him always as dear as he can, in any matter, and God will plentifully avenge that therefore he should not sell so himself when it is wrong, as I also before have forewarned and tos- his lot to sell and others to buy of him. tified. See also the text, Le. xxv. 14. But,
5. He that selleth, as afore, as dear as he can, Secondly. If it be lawful for me always to sell makes use of that instruction that God hath not To lie at catch, to watch for an opportunity to take an
given to others, but sealed up in his hand, to abuse nnfair advantage. See the conversation between Faithful and his law, and to wrong his neighbour withal, which Talkative in the Pilgrim's Progress, p. 124.-(ED.)
indeed is contrary to God. Job xxxvii. 7. * Augustine had so strong a sense of fair dealing, that when God hath given thee more skill, more
abuse the gift a bookseller asked for a book far less than it was worth, he, of knowledge and understanding in thy
knowledge of his own accord, gave him the full value thereof !! See Clark's
earthy things. Looking-glass, p. 121, edit. 1657.-(Ed.)
commodity, than he hath given to him
and is sin in
Mat. vii. 12.
to the law of hature,
we have in the ness
And I say
that would buy of thice. But what! canst thou money. But if there were no knaves in the world think that God hath given thee this that thou these objections need not be made.? mightest thereby make a prey of thy neighbour? And thus, my very good neighbour, have I given that thou mightest thereby go beyond and beguile you a few of my reasons why a man that hath it thy neighbour? No, verily, but he hath given thee should not always sell too dear nor buy as cheap it for his help, that thou mightest in this be eyes as he can, but should use good conscience to God to the blind, and save thy neighbour from that and charity to his neighbour in both. damage that his ignorance, or necessity, or fond- ATTEN. But were some men here to hear
I I would betray him into the hands of. 1 Co. believe they would laugh you to scorn.
WISE. I question not that at all, for so lír. 6. In all that a man does he should have an Badman used to do when any man told him of liis An eye to the eye to the glory of God, but that he faults; he used to think himself wiser Badman used to
in all we should cannot have that sells his commodity than any, and would count, as I have been the data therm
always for as much as he can, for the hinted before, that he was not arrived of his faults. reasons urged before.
to a manly spirit that did stick or boggle at any 7. All that a man does he should do in the wickedness. But let Mr. Badman and his fellows name of the Lord Jesus' Christ, that is, as being laugh, I will bear it, and still give them good commanded and authorized to do it by him. Col counsel. 12. xvi. 13–15. But I will remember also, fii. 17. But he that selleth always as dear as he for my further relief and comfort, that thus they can, cannot so much as pretend to this without that were covetous of old served the Son of God horrid blaspheming of that name, because com- himself. It is their time to laugh now,
that they manded by him to do otherwise.
may mourn in time to come. La. vi. 25. 8. And lastly, in all that a man does he should again, when they have laughed out their laugh, have an eye to the day of judgment, and to the he that useth not good conscience to God and consideration of how his actions will be esteemed charity to his neighbour in buying and selling, of in that day. Ac. xxiv. 15, 16. Therefore there is not dwells next door to an infidel, and is near of kin any man can, or ought to sell always as dear as he to Mr. Badman. can, unless he will, yea, he must say in so doing, ATTEN. Well, but what will you say to this I will run the hazard of the trial of that day. •If question? You know that there is no
A question. thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buyest aught settled price set by God upon any comof thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not oppress one modity that is bought or sold under the sun, but another.' Le. XIV. 14.
all things that we buy and sell do ebb and flow, ATTEN. But why do you put in these cautionary to price, like the tido; how then shall a man of a words, They must not sell always as dear, nor buy tender conscience do, neither to wrong the seller, always as cheap as they can? Do you not thereby buyer, nor himself, in buying and selling of comintimate that a man may sometimes do so? modities?
Wise. I do indeed intimate that sometimes the seller may sell as dear, and the buyer buy as cheap
CHAPTER XI. as he can; but this is allowable only in these cases:
(INSTRUCTIONS FOR RIGHTEOUS TRADING.] when he that sells is a knave, and lays aside all good conscience in selling, or when the buyer is a WISE. This question is thought to be frivolous knave, and lays aside all good conscience in buy- by all that are of Mr. Badman's way, it is also ing. If the buyer therefore lights of a knave, or difficult in itself, yet I will endeavour if the seller lights of a knave, then let them look to shape you an answer, and that first to themselves; but yet so as not to lay aside con- to the matter of the question, to wit, how a trades. science, because he that thou dealest with doth so, man should, in trading, keep a good conscience; but how vile or base soever the chapman is, do a buyer or seller either. Secondly, how he should thou keep thy commodity at a reasonable price; prepare himself to this work and live in the pracor, if thou buyest, offer reasonable gain for the tice of it. For the first, he must ob
Preparations to thing thou wouldst have, and if this will not do serve what hath been said before, to
dealer. with the buyer or seller, then seek thee a more wit, he must have conscience to God, honest chapman. If thou objectest, But I have charity to his neighbour, and, I will add, much not skill to know when a pennyworth is before me, moderation in dealing. Let him therefore keep get some that have more skill than thyself in that affair, and let them in that matter dispose of thy * Cheating, either in quality, weight, or price of commodities,
is not common in Mahometan countries, where the punish
ment is very severe ; that of nailing the dealer's ears to his 1 Fondness,' an inordinate desire to possess. 'I have such door-posts. It is a foul disgrace to Christian countries that a fond fantasy of my own.'---Sir T. More.--(ED.)
these crines are so common.
within the bounds of the affirmative of those eight give the thing that thou hast to do with its just reasons that before were urged to prove that men value and worth; for thou canst not do otherwise, ought not, in their dealing, but to do justly and knowingly, but of a covetous and wicked mind. mercifully betwixt man and man, and then there Wherefore else are commodities overvalued by the will be no great fear of wronging the seller, buyer, seller, and also undervalued by the buyer. It is or himself. But particularly to prepare or instruct naught, it is naught, saith the buyer,' but when he
, a man to this work:
hath got his bargain he boasteth thereof. Pr. xx. 14. 1. Let the tradesman or others consider that What hath this man done now, but lied in the there is not that in great gettings and in abund- dispraising of his. bargain? and why did he disance which the most of men do suppose; for all praise it, but of a covetous mind to wrong and that a man has over and above what serves for his beguile the seller? present necessity and supply, serves only to feed 2. Art thou a seller, and do things grow
dear? the lusts of the eye. For what good is there to Set not thy hand to help or hold them up higher ; the owners thereof, saving the beholding of them this cannot be done without wickedness neither, with their eyes?' Ec. v. 11. Men also, many times, for this is a making of the shekel great. Am. viii, 5. in getting of riches, get therewith a snare to their Art thou a buyer, and do things grow dear? use soul. 1 Ti. vi. 7–9. But few get good by getting of no cunning or deceitful language to pull them them. But this consideration Mr. Badman could down, for that cannot be done but wickedly too. not abide.
What then shall we do, will you say? Why I 2. Consider that the getting of wealth dis- answer, leave things to the providence of God, and lionestly—as he does that getteth it without good do thou with moderation submit to his hand. But conscience and charity to his neighbour--is a great since, when they are growing dear, the hand that offender against God. Hence he says, 'I have upholds the price is, for the time, more strong smitten mine hand at thiy dishonest gain which than that which would pull it down; that being thou hast made.' Eze. xxii. 13. It is a manner of the hand of the seller, who loveth to have it dear, speech that shows anger in the very making of especially if it shall rise in his hand. Therefore mention of the crime. Therefore,
I say, do thou take heed and have not a hand in 3. Consider that a little, honestly gotten, though it, the which thou mayest have to thine own and it may yield thee but a dinner of herbs at a time, thy neighbour's hurt, these three ways:will yield more peace therewith than will a stalled 1. By crying out scarcity, scarcity, beyond the ox ill gotten. Pr. xv. 17. • Better is a little with truth and state of things; especially take heed of righteousness, than great revenues without right.' doing of this by way of a prognostic for time to
It was for this for which he A judgment of 4. Be thou confident that God's eyes are upon was trodden to death in the gate of all thy ways, and that he pondereth ali thy Samaria, that you read of in the second book of goings,' and also that he marks them, writes Kings. 2 Ki. vii. 17. This sin hath a double evil in them down, and seals them up in a bag against it. (1.) It belicth the present blessing of God the time to come. Pr. v. 21. Job xiv. 17.
among us; and (2.) It undervalueth the riches of 5. Be thou sure that thou rememberest that his goodness, which can make all good things to thou knowest not the day of thy death. Remem- abound towards us. ber also that when death comes God will give thy 2. This wicked thing may be done by hoarding substance, for the which thou hast laboured, and up when the hunger and necessity of the poor
calls for the which perhaps thou hast hazarded thy soul, for it. Now, that God may show his dislike to one thou knowest not who, nor whether he shall against this, he doth, as it were, license the people be a wise man or a fool. And then, 'what profit to curse such a hoarder up—He that withholdeth hath he that hath laboured for the wind ?' Ec. v. 16. corn, the people shall curse him, but blessing shall
Besides, thou shalt have nothing that thou be upon the head of him that selleth it.' Pr. xi. 26. mayest so much as carry away in thine hand. 3. But if things will rise, do thou be grieved, Guilt shall go with thee if thou hast got it (thy be also moderate in all thy sellings, and be sure substance] dishonestly, and they also to whom let the poor have a pennyworth, and sell thy corn thou shalt leave it shall receive it to their hurt. to those in necessity. Which then thou wilt do These things duly considered and made use of by when thou showest mercy to the poor in thy selling thee to the preparing of thy heart to thy calling to him, and when thou, for his sake because he is of buying and selling, I come, in the next place, to poor, undersellest the market. This is to buy and show thee how thou shouldst live in the practick sell with good conscience; thy buyer thou wrongest part of this art.
Art thou to buy or sell? not, thy couscience thou wrongest not, thyself thou 1. If thou sellest, do not commend; if thou wrongest not, for God will surely recompense thee. buyest, do not dispraise; any otherwise but to Is. lviii. 6–8. I have spoken concerning corn, but
Pr. xvi. 8. 1 Sa. ii. 5.
thy duty is to let your moderation' in all things an early appearance of the sin of the soul. It, • be known unto all men, the Lord is at hand.' as I may say, is that corruption that strives for
predominancy in the heart, and therefore usually
comes out first. But though children are so inCHAPTER XII.
cident to it, yet metbinks those of more years [BADMAN'S PRIDE, ATIIEISM, INFIDELITY, AND ENVY.] have begun with Mr. Badman's pride
, only I think
should be ashamed thereof. I might at the first ATTEN. Well, Sir, now I have heard enough of it is not the pride in infancy that begins to make Mr. Badman's naughtiness, pray now proceed to a difference betwixt one and another, as did, and his death.
do those wherewith I began my relation of his life, Wise. Wly, Sir, the sun is not so low, we have therefore I passed it over, but now, since he had yet three hours to night.
no more consideration of himself, and of his vile ATTEN. Nay, I am not in any great laste, but and sinful state, but to be proud when come to I thought you had even now done with his life. years, I have taken the occasion in this place to
Wise. Done! no, I have yet much more to say. nake mention of his pride.
ATTEN. Then he has much more wickedness ATTEN. But pray, if you can remember them, than I thought he had.
tell me of some places of scripture that speak WISE. That may be. But let us proceed. against pride. I the rather desire this because
This Mr. Badman added to all his that pride is now a reigning sin, and I happen Mr. Badman a very proud mau. wickedness this, he was a very proud sometimes to fall into the company of them that man, a very proud man. He was exceeding proud in my conscience are proud, very much, and I have and haughty in mind; he looked that what he said a mind also to tell them of their sin, now when I ought not, must not be contradicted or opposed. tell them of it, unless I bring God's Word too, I He counted himself as wise as the wisest in the doubt they will laugh me to scorn. country, as good as the best, and as beautiful as Wise. Laugh you to scorn! the proud man will ne that had most of it. lle took great delight in laugh you to scorn bring to him what text you praising of himself, and as much in the praises can, except God shall smite him in his conscience that others gave him. He could not abide that by the Word. Mr. Badman did use to serve them any should think themselves above him, or that so that did use to tell him of his; and besides,
their wit or personage should by when you have said what you can, they will tell of pride in gcueral.
others be set before his. He had you they are not proud, and that you are rather scarce a fellowly carriage for bis equals. But for the proud man, else you would not judge, nor those that were of an inferior rank, he would look so malapertly? meddle with other men's matover them in great contempt. And if at any time ters as you do. Nevertheless, since you desire it, he had any remote occasion of having to do with I will mention two or three texts; they are these: them, he would show great height and a very - Pride and arrogancy - do I hate. Pr. viii. 13. domineering spirit. So that in this it may be .A man's pride shall bring him low.' Pr. xxix. 23. said that Solomon gave a characteristical note of ' And he shall bring down their pride.' Is. XIV, 11. him when he said, 'Proud and haughty scorner is · And all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, his name, who dealeth in proud wrath. I'r. xxi. 24. shall be stubble, and the day that cometh shall He never thought his diet well enough dressed, his burn them up.' Mal. iv. 1. This last is a dreadful clothes fine enough made, or his praise enough text, it is enough to make a proud man shake. refined,
God, saith he, will make the proud ones as stubble; ATTEN. This pride is a sin that sticks as close that is, as fuel for the fire, and the day that cometh to nature, I think, as most sins. There is un shall be like a burning oven, and that day shall cleanness and pride, I know not of any two gross burn them up, saith the Lord. But Mr. Badman sins that stick closer to men than they. They could never abide to hear pride spoken against, have, as I may call it, an interest in nature; it nor that any should say of him, He is a proud likes them because they most suit its lusts and man. fancies; and therefore no marvel though Mr. Bad- ATTEN. What should be the reason of that? man was tainted with pride, since he had so wick- WISE. He did not tell me the reason; but I supedly given up himself to work all iniquity with pose it to be that which is common to greediness.
all vilo persons. They love this vice, not love to be
called proud. Wise. You say right; pride is a sin that sticks but care not to bear its name. The close to nature, and is one of the first follies where- drunkard loves the sin, but loves not to be called Pride sticks close in it shows itself to be polluted. For even in childhood, even in little child to say that God will not bear us for our presumptuous mala
Malapert, dexterous in evil-speaking. “It is blasphemors dren, pride will first of all show itself; it is a hasty, pertäess unless we invoke the saiuts.'--Tyndale.
Proud men do