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his anointed, whose ox have I taken? or whose ass know both how to be abased, and I know how to have I taken? or whom have I defrauded ? whom abound; everywhere and in all things I am inhave I oppressed?' &c. 1 Sa. xii. 3. This was to do structed both to be full and to be hungry, both to like a man of good conscience indeed. Mat. E. 19. abound and to suffer need.' Phi. iv. 12. And in this his appeal, he was so justified in the con- ATTEN. But Mr. Badman would not, I believe, sciences of the whole congregation, that they could have put this difference betwixt things feigned and not but with one voice, as with one mouth, break those that fall of necessity. out jointly, and say, 'Thou hast not defrauded us, WISE. If he will not, God will, conscience will; nor oppressed us.' Mat. I. 4.

and that not thine own only, but the consciences A professor, and defraud, away with him! A of all those that have seen the way, and that have professor should not owe any man anything but known the truth of the condition of such a one. love. A professor should provide things, not of ATTEN. Well: let us at this time leave this matother men's but of his own, of his own honest get- ter, and return again to Mr. Badman, ting, and that not only in the sight of God, but of WISE. With all my heart will I proceed to give all men ; that he may adorn the doctrine of God you a relation of what is yet behind of his life, in our Saviour in all things.

order to our discourse of his death. ATTEN. But suppose God should blow upon a professor in his estate and calling, and

CHAPTER IX. A question. he should be run out before he is aware, (BADMAN'S FRAUDULENT DEALINGS TO GET MONEY.

r.) must he be accounted to be like Mr. Badman, and lie under the same reproach as he?

ATTEN. But pray, do it with as much brevity as Wise. No: if he hath dutifully done what he could you can.

to avoid it. It is possible for a ship to Wise. Why, are you weary of my relating of

sink at sea, notwithstanding the most things? faithful endeavour of the most skilful pilot under ATTEN. No: but it pleases me to hear a great heaven. And thus, as I suppose, it was with the deal in few words. prophet, that left his wife in debt, to the hazarding WISE. I profess myself not an artist that way, the slavery of her children by the creditors. 2 Ki.iv.1, 2. but yet, as briefly as I can, I will pass through He was no profuse man, nor one that was given to what of his life is behind; and again I shall begin defraud, for the text says he feared God; yet, as with his fraudulent dealing, as before I havo I said, he was run out more than she could pay. showed with his creditors, so now with his cus

If God would blow upon a man, who can help tomers, and those that he had otherwise to deal it? Hag. i. 9. And he will do so sometimes, because withal. he will change dispensations with men, and because He dealt by deceitful weights and measures.

he will try their graces. Yea, also, He kept weights to buy by, and blow because he will overthrow the wicked weights to sell by; measures to buy Badman's frauupon his own

dulent dealing. people. How with his judgments; and all these by, and measures to sell by: those he they should do things are seen in Job. But then the bought by were too big, those he sold

ceitful weights consideration of this should bid men by were too little. have a care that they be honest, lest this comes Besides, he could use a thing called slight of upon them for their sin. It should also bid them hand, if he had to do with other men's weights and beware of launching further into the world, than in measures, and by that means make them whether an honest way, by ordinary means, they can god- he did buy or sell, yea though his customer or lily make their retreat; for the further in the greater chapnian looked on, turn to his own advantage. fall. It should also teach them to beg of God his Moreover, he had the art to misreckon men in blessing upon their endeavours, their honest and their accounts, whether by weight, or measure, or lawful endeavours. And it should put them upon money, and would often do it to his worldly advana diligent looking to their steps, that if in their tage, and their loss. What say you to Mr. Badgoing they should hear the ice crack, they may man now? And if a question was made of liis timely go back again. These things considered, faithful dealing, he had his servants ready, that to and duly put in practice, if God will blow upon a his purpose he had brought up, that would avouch man, then let him be content, and with Job embrace and swear to his book or word. This was Mr. the dunghill. Let him give unto all their dues, Badman's practice. What think you of Mr. Badand not fight against the providence of God, but man now! humble himself rather under his mighty hand, ATTEN. Think! Why I can think no other but which comes to strip him naked and bare : for he that he was a man left to himself, a naughty man; that doth otherwise fights against God; and de- for these, as his other, were naughty things; if clares that he is a stranger to that of Paul; 'Il the treo, as indeed it may, ouglit to be judged, VOL. III.

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what it is, by its fruits, then Mr. Badman must |tion, if he doth it to overthrow the authority of needs be a bad tree. But pray, for my further those texts, discovereth that himself is The old and new Batisfaction, show me now, by the Word of God, first cousin to Mr. Badman. For a just milk cem tot die the evil of this his practice; and first of his using man is willing to speak reverently of honest and upfalse weights and measures.

those commands. That man therefore it in their

weiglits WISE. The evil of that! Why the evil of that hath, I doubt, but little conscience, if appears to every eye. The heathens, that live like any at all that is good, that thus objecteth against beasts and brutes in many things, do abominate the text. But let us look into the New Testament, and abhor such wickedness as this. Let a man and there we shall see how Christ confirmeth the but look upon these things as he goes by, and he same; where he commandeth that men make shall seo enough in them from the light of nature to others good measure, including also that they to make him loathe so base a practice, although make good weight; telling such that do thus, or Mr. Badman loved it.

those that do it not, that they may be encouraged ATTEN. But show me something out of the Word to do it: 'Good measure, pressed down, and shaken against it, will you ?

together, and running over, shall men give into WISE. I will willingly do it. And first, look your bosom. For with the same measure that ye Of just weights

into the Old Testament : • Ye shall,' mete withal, it shall be measured to you again.' and measures. saith God there, .do no unrighteous- La vi. 38. To wit, both from God and man. For as ness in judgment, in mete-yard, in weight, or in God will show his indignation against the false measure; just balances, just weights, a just ephah man, by taking away even that he hath, so he will and a just hin shall you have.' Le. xix. 35, 36. This deliver up the false man to the oppressor, and the is the law of God, and that which all men, accord. extortioner shall catch from him, as well as he ing to the law of the land, ought to obey. So bath catched from his neighbour; therefore, anagain: Ye shall have just balances, and a just other scripture saith, “When thou shalt make an ephah,' &c. Eze. xlv. 10.

end to deal treacherously, they shall deal treacher. Now having showed you the law, I will also show ously with thee.' Is. xxxiii. 1. That the New Testa. you how God takes swerving therefrom. A false ment also hath an inspection into men’s trading, balance is not good.' Pr. xx. 23. • A false balance yea, even with their weights and measures, is eviis abomination to the Lord.' Pr. xi. 1. Some have dent from these general exhortations, •Defraud The eril of de- just weights, but false balances; and not;' lie not one to another.' •Let

Pat Scriptures ceitful balances, weights, and by virtue of these false balances, by no man go beyond his brother in

any their just weights, they deceive the matter, for the Lord is the avenger

of country. Wherefore God first of all commands all such.' • Whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as that the balance be made just. A just balance to the Lord,' "doing all in bis name,' 'to his glory;' shalt thou have; else they may be, yea are, de- and the like. All these injunctions and commandceivers, notwithstanding their just weights. ments do respect our life and conversation among

Now, having commanded that men have a just men, with reference to our dealing, trading, and balance, and testifying that a false one is an abomiso, consequently, they forbid false, deceitful, yea, nation to the Lord, be proceedeth also unto weight all doings that are corrupt. and measure. Thou shalt not have in thy bag Having thus in a word or two showed

you

that divers weights, a great and a small; that is, one these things are bad, I will next, for Where to buy by, and another to sell by, as Mr. Badman the conviction of those that use them, weighits had. • Thou shalt not have in thine house divers show you where God saith they are to measures, a great and a small. (And these had be found. Mr. Badman also.) But thou shalt have a perfect

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1. They are not to be found in the house of the and just weight; a perfect and just measure shalt good and godly man, for he, as his God, abhors thou have, that thy days may be lengthened in the them; but they are to be found in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee. For all house of evil doers, such as Mr. Badthat do such things (that is, that use false weights man’s is. 'Are there,' saith the prophet, ‘yet the and measures), and all that do unrighteously, are treasures of wickedness in the house of the wicked, on abomination unto the Lord.' De. xxv. 13–16. See and the scant measure that is abominable!' Mi. vi. 10. now both how plentiful, and how punctual the Are they there yet, notwithstanding God's forbidScripture is in this matter. But perhaps it may ding, notwithstanding God's tokens of anger against be objected, that all this is old law, and therefore those that do such things! O how loth is a wicked hath nothing to do with us under the New Testa- man to let go a sweet, a gainful sin, when he hath ment. Not that I think you, neighbour, will ob- hold of it! They hold fast deceit, they refuse to ject thus. Well, to this foolish objection, let us let it go. make an answer. First, he that makes this objec- 2. These deceitful weights and measures are uot

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to be found in the house of the merciful, but in the is no matter how men esteem of things, let us all. house of the cruel ; in the house of them that love here to the judgment of God. And the rather,

to oppress. “The balances of deceit because when we ourselves have done weighing and less and ope are in his hand; he loveth to oppress.' measuring to others, then God will weigh and mea

He is given to oppression sure both us and our actions. And when he dotlı and cruelty, therefore he useth such wicked things so, as he will do shortly, then woe be to him to in his calling Yea, he is a very cheat, and, as whom, and of whose actions it shall be thus said was hinted before concerning Mr. Badman's break- by bim, "TEKEL, thou art weighed in the balances, ing, so I

say now, concerning his using these de- and are found wanting.' Da v. 27. God will then ceitful weights and measures, it is as bad, as base, recompense their evil of deceiving upon their own as to take a purse, or pick a pocket; for it is a head, when he shall shut them out of his presence, plain robbery; it takes away from a man that which favour, and kingdom, for ever and ever. is his own, even the price of his money.

Atten. But it is a wonder, that since Mr. Bad. 3. The deceitful weights and measures are not man's common practice was to do thus, that some

to be found in the house of such as re- one or more did not find him out, and blame him would swallow lieve the belly, and that cover the loins for this his wickedness. up the pour.

of the poor, but of such as indeed would WISE. For the generality of people he went away swallow them up. Hear this, 0 ye that swallow clever with his knavery. For what with his balup the needy, even to make the poor of the land to ance, his false balance, and good weight, and what fail, saying, When will the new moon be gone, with his slight of hand to boot, he beguiled somethat we may sell corn? and the Sabbath, that we times a little, and sometimes more, most that he may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and had to deal with ; besides, those that use this the shekel great (making the measure small, and naughty trade are either such as blind men with a the price great), and falsifying the balances by de- show of religion, or by hectoring the buyer out by ceit? That ye may buy the poor for silver, and words. Į must confess Mr. Badman Ilow Mr. Bad. the needy for a pair of shoes, and sell the refuse was not so arch at the first; that of the wheat. The Lord hath sworn by the ex- is, to do it by show of religion ; for cheating. cellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any now he began to grow threadbare, though some of of their works.' Am. viii. 4-8. So detestable and vile nis brethren are arch enough this way, yea, and a thing is this in the sight of God.

of his sisters too, for I told you at first that there 4. God abominates the thoughts of calling of were a great many of them, and never a one of With impure

those that use false weights and men- them good; but for hectoring, for swearing, for

sures, by any other term than that lying, if these things would make weight and meathey be impure ones, or the like: “Shall I count sure, they should not be wanting to Dir. Badman's them pure,' saith he, with the bag of deceitful customers, weights ?' Mi. vi. 11. No, by no means, they are in- Atten. Then it seems he kept good weights and pure ones; their hands are defiled, deceitful gain a bad balance; well that was better than that both is in their houses, they have gotten what they should be bad. have by coveting an evil covetousness, and there- WISE. Not at all. There lay the depth of his fore must and shall be counted among the impure, deceit; for if any at any time found fault that he among the wicked of the world.

used them hardly, and that they wanted their Thus you see how full and plain the Word of weight of things, he would reply, Why, did you Gud is against this sin, and them that use it. And not see them weighed ? will

Good weights therefore Mr. Badman, for that he used by these believe your own eyes ? if you question and a bad bauthings thus to rook and cheat his neighbours, is my weights, pray carry them whither piece of knar. rightly rejected from having his name in and among you will, 1 will maintain them to be cry. the catalogue of the godly.

good and just. The same he would say of liis ATTEN. But I am persuaded that the using of scales, so he blinded all by his balance. these things, and the doing by them thus deceit- ATTEN. This is cunning indeed; but as you say, fully, is not counted so great an evil by some. there must be also something done or said to blind

Wise. Whether it be counted an evil or a virtue therewith, and this I perceive Mr. Badman had. by men, it mattereth not; you see by the Scrip- Wiss. Yes, he had many ways to blind, but he tures the judgment of God upon

it. It was not was never clever at it by making a show of religion, counted an evil by Mr. Badman, nor is it by any though he cheated his wife therewith; for he was, that still are treading in his steps. But, I say, it especially by those that dwelt near him, too well

known to do that, though he would bungle at it as 1 Purses were woru, in Bunyan's time, hanging to the girdle, well as he could. But there are some that are arch or slang over the shoulder, as they now are in some parts of Germany. A pickpocket was theu called ' a cut-purse. :-(ED.) / villains this way; they shall to view live a whole

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life religiously, and yet shall be guilty of these Little good! why do you think they consider most horrible sins. And yet religion in itself is that ? No; no more than they consider what they never the worse, nor yet the true professors of it. shall do in the judgment, at the day of God Al. But, as Luther says, in the name of God begins mighty, for their wrong getting of what they get, all mischief.For hypocrites have no other way and that is just nothing at all. to bring their evils to maturity but by using and But to give you a more direct answer. This mixing the name of God and religion therewith. kind of getting is so far off from doing them little Thus they become whited walls; for by this white, good, that it doth them no good at

They get nothe white of religion, the dirt of their actions is hid. all;' because thereby they lose their thing that com

Thus also they become graves that ap- own souls; •What shall it profit a A cloak of re. pear not, and they that go over them, man if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his

that have to do with them, are not own soul ?' Mar. viii. 36. He loseth then, he loseth kravery. aware of them, but suffer themselves greatly that getteth after this fashion. This is to be deluded by them. Yea, if there shall, as the man that is penny-wise and pound-foolish ; there will sometimes, rise a doubt in the heart of this is he that loseth his good sheep for a halfthe buyer about the weight and measure he should penny-worth of tar;& that loseth a soul for a little have, why, he suffereth his very senses to be also of the world. And then what doth he get thereby deluded, by recalling of his chapman's religion to but loss and damage? Thus he getteth or rather mind, and thinks verily that not his good chapman loseth about the world to come. But what doth he but himself is out; for he dreams not that his chap- get in this world, more than travail and sorrow, man can deceive. But if the buyer shall find it vexation of spirit, and disappointment ? Men aim out, and shall make it apparent, that he is be- at blessedness in getting, I mean, at temporal guiled, then shall he be healed by having amends blessedness; but the man that thus getteth, shall made, and perhaps fault shall be laid upon ser- not have that. For though an inheritance after vants, &c. And so Mr. Cheat shall stand for a this manner may be hastily gotten at the beginning, right honest man in the eye of his customer, though yet the end thereof shall not be blessed. They the next time he shall pick his pocket again. gather it indeed, and think to keep it too, but what

Some plead custom for their cheat, as if that says Solomon ? God casteth it away. The Lord Some plead cus. could acquit them before the tribunal will not suffer the soul of the righteous to famish;

of God. And others say it came to but he casteth away the substance of the wicked.' them for so much, and, therefore, another must Pr. x. 3. Je. xv. 18; xvii. 3. take it for so much, though there is wanting both The time, as I said, that they do enjoy it, it as to weight and measure; but in all these things shall do them no good at all; but long, to be sure, there are juggles ; or if not, such must know that they must not have it. For God will either tako 'that which is altogether just,' they must do. De it away in their lifetime, or else in the generation xvi, 20. Suppose that I be cheated myself with a following, according to that of Job: He,' the brass half-crown, must I therefore cheat another wicked, ‘may prepare it

, but the just shall put it therewith? if this be bad in the whole, it is also on, and the innocent shall divide the silver.' Job Lad in the parts. Therefore, however thou art xxvii. 17. dealt withal in thy buying, yet thou must deal Consider that also that it is written in the Projustly in selling, or thou sinnest against thy soul, verbs ; ' A good man leaveth an inheritance to his and art become as Mr. Badman. And know, that children's children, and the wealth of the sinner is a pretence to custom is nothing worth. It is not laid up for the just.' Pr. xiii. 22. What then doth he custom, but good conscience that will help at God's get thereby, that getteth by dishonest means? Why tribunal.

he getteth sin and wrath, hell and damnation, and Atten. But I am persuaded that that which is now tell me how much he doth get. gotten by men this way doth them but little good. This, I say, is his getting ; so that as David

Wise. I am of your mind for that, but this is says, we may be bold to say too; I beheld the not considered by those thus minded. For if they wicked in great prosperity, and presently I cursed can get it, though they get, as we say, the devil his habitation; for it cannot prosper with him. Ps. and all, by their getting, yet they are content, and lxxiii. Fluster and huff, and make ado for a while count that their getting is much.?

he may, but God hath determined that both he and Many ecclesiastical instruments of terror, spoliation, and

it shall melt like grease, and any observing man death, began with, “In the name of God. Amen." That sacred may see it so. Behold the unrighteous man, in a name has been, and now is, awfully profaned and prostituted way of injustice, getteth much, and loadeth bimto the vilest purposes.—(Ed.)

? This is a sad mistake ; such getting is a curse: 'Cursed 3 Modern editors, not so well aware as Bunyan of the value is the deceiver:' 'I will curse your blessings,' saith Jehovah of tar as a medicine for sheep, altered the word to ship. A by his prophet Malachi.-(Ed.)

halfpenny worth of tar will serve a shcer, but not a ship.-(Ev.) tural labourers; and so would be that of the farmer, if rent where, then let him look to himself, he would was as low vow as it was at that period.—(Ed.)

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self with thick clay, but anon it withereth, it de- surely make his purso-strings crack; he would excayeth, and even he, or the generation following act upon him without any pity or conscience. decline, and return to beggary. And this Mr. Bad- ATTEN. That was extortion, was it not? I pray man, notwithstanding his cunning and crafty tricks let me hear your judgment of extortion, what it is, to get money, did die, nobody can tell whether and when committed ? worth a farthing or no.

Wise. Extortion is a screwing from men more ATTEN. He had all the bad tricks, I think, than by the law of God or men is right; that it was possible for a man to have, to get and it is committed sometimes by them money; one would think that he should have been in office, about fees, rewards, and the like:1 but it rich,

is most commonly committed by men of trade, who Wiss. You reckon too fast, if you count these without all conscience, when they have the advan

all his bad tricks to get money; for tage, will make a prey of their neighbour. And Badman's bad he had more besides. If his custom- thus was Mr. Badman an extortioner; for although

ers were in his books, as it should go he did not exact, and force away, as bailiffs and hard but he would have them there; at least, if clerks have used to do, yet he had his opporturihe thought he could make any advantage of them, ties, and such cruelty to make use of them, that then, then would he be sure to impose upon them he would often, in his way, be extorting and forchis worst, even very bad commodity, yet set down ing of money out of his neighbour's pocket. For for it the price that the best was sold at; like those every man that makes a prey of his advantage up in that sold the refuse wheat; or the worst of the his neighbour's necessities, to force from him more

s wheat; making the shekel grent, yet hoisting up than in reason and conscience, according to the the price. Am. viii. This was Mr. Badman's way. present prices of things such commodity is worth, Another art to Ile would sell goods that cost him not may very well be called an extortioner, and judged

the best price by far, for as much as for one that hath no inheritance in the kingdom he sold his best of all for. Ile had also a trick to of God. 1 Co. vi. 9, 10. mingle his commodity, that that which was bad ATTEN. Well, this Badman was a sad wretch. might go off with the least mistrust. Besides, if his customers at any time paid him money, let them

CHAPTER X. look to themselves, and to their acquaintances, for he would usually attempt to call for that payment

(THE SIMPLE CHRISTIAN'S VIEWS OF EXTORTION. ] again, especially if he thought that there were hopes WISE. Thus you have often said before. But of making a prize thereby, and then to be sure if now we are in discourse of this, give me leave a they could not produce good and sufficient gronnd little to go on. We have a great many people in of the payment, a hundred to one but they paid it the country too that live all their days in the pracagain. Sometimes the honest chapman would ap- tice, and so under the guilt of extortion; people, peal to his servants for proof of the payment of alas ! that think scorn to be so accounted. money, but they were trained up by him to say af- As for example: There is a poor body that dwells, ter his mind, wright or wrong ; so that, relief that we will suppose, so many miles from Who are extorway, he could get none.

the market; and this man wants a ATTEN. It is a bad, yea, an abominable thing for bushel of grist, a pound of butter, or a cheese for a man to have such servants. For by such means himself, his wife, and poor children; but dwelling

poor customer may be undone, and not know how so far from the market, if he goes thither, he shall to help himself. Alas! if the master be so uncon- lose his day's work, which will be eightpence or scionable, as I perceive Mr. Badman was, to call tenpence damage to him, and that is something to for his money twice, and if his servant will swear a poor man.” So he goeth to one of his masters that it is a due debt, where is any help for such a or dames for what he wanteth, and asks them to

He must sink, there is no remedy. help him with such a thing; yes, say they, you Wise. This is very bad, but this has been a may have it; but withal they will give him a gripe,

ob practice, and that hundreds of years these ago. But what saith the Word of

* This was attempted when Bunyan was released from his God ? •I will punish all those that ment included the names of nearly five hundred sufferers ; and

cruel imprisonment by the King's pardon, which one instruleap on the threshold, which till their masters' because the fees upon a pardon were twenty pounds, “the covetous houses with violence and deceit.' Zep. I. 9.

clerks did strive to exact upon us,' says Whitehead, ' by demandMr. Badman also had this art; could he get a ing that sum upon every name. Further application to the King

to (.) man at advantage, that is, if his chapman durst 2 When the labourer's wages were eightpence or tenpence

go from him, or if the commodity he wanted per day, in 1683, wheat averaged forty-five shillings per quarter. could not for the present be conveniently had else- low comparatively happy is the present state of our agricui.

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