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all their wickedness, and that in that very plat | also that they shall continue in their station, being where they have committed it. Wherefore the day therein confirmed by Jesus Christ, .by whom all appointed for this is set, and he will, and shall things consist.' Col i. 17. come quickly to do it. For however the time may 7. It is said their faces were inward,' looking scem long to us, yet, according to the reckoning one to another, yet withal somewhat ascending, to of God, it is but a little while since he went into show that the angels both behold and wonder at the holiest to intercede. • A thousand years with the mysteries of grace, as it is displayed to usward the Lord is as one day;' and after this manner of from off the mercy-seat. The faces of the cheru. counting, he has not been gone yet full two days bims ‘shall look one to another; towards the mercyinto the holiest. • The Lord is not slack concern- seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.' Ex. XI. 20. ing his promise, as some men count slackness;' 2 Ch. iii. 13. 1 Pe. 1. 12. Ep. iii. 10. he will come quickly, and will not tarry.' 2 Pe. iii. (1.) . Towards the mercy-seat.' They are desir

ous to see it, and how from hence, I say, mercy

doth look towards us. LXIX. Of the cherubims, and of their being placed

(2.) They look one towards another,' to show over the mercy-seat in the inner Temple.

that they agree to rejoice in the salvation of our There were also cherubims in the most holy souls. Lu. xv. 10. place, which were set on high above the mercy- (3.) They are said to stand above the mercyseat. See 1 Ki, vi. 23—28.

seat, perhaps to show that the angels have not 1. These are called by the apostles, "the cheru- need of those acts of mercy and forgiveness as we bims of glory shadowing the mercy-seat.' He. ix. 5. have, who stand below, and are sinners. They

2. These cherubims were figures of the angels stand above it; they are holy. I do not say they of God, as in other places we have proved. have no need that the goodness of God should be

3. It is said these cherubims were made of extended to them, for it is by that they have been image work, and that in such manner, as that they and are preserved; but they need not to be forcould, as some think, move their wings by art ; given, for they have committed no iniquity. wherefore it is said, they stretched forth their (4.) They stand there also with wings stretched wings;' the wings of the cherubims spread them out, to show how ready, if need be, the angels are selves;' and that the cherubims spread forth their to come from heaven to preach this gospel to the wings over the place of the ark, - and the staves world.' Lu. ii. 9—14. thereof above.' 1 Ki. vi. 27. 2 Ch. iii. 13; v. 8.

(5.) It is said in this, that thus standing, their 4. I read also of these cherubims, that they had wings did reach from wall to wall; from one side chariots and wheels; by which is taught us how of this holy house to the other; to show that all ready and willing the angels are to fetch us when the angels within the boundaries of the heavens, commanded, unto the paradise of God; for these with one consent and one mind, are ready to come chariots were types of the bosoms of the angels ; down to help and serve, and do for God's elect at and these wheels, of the quickness of their motion his command. to come for us when sent. • The chariots of God It is said, also, that their wings are stretched are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels; the on high, to show that they are only delighted in Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place.' those duties which are enjoined them by the high 1 Ch. xxviii. 18. Eze. I. 9, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20. 2 Ki. vi. 17. Ps. lxviii. 17. and lofty One, and not inclined, no not to serve the 2 Ki. ii. 11. Da, ix. 2.

saints in their sensual or fleshly designs. It may 5. What difference, if any, there is between be also to show that they are willing to take their cherubims and seraphims, into that I shall not now flight from one end of heaven to the other, to serve inquire; though I believe that there are diverse God and his church for good. Mat. xiii. 41, 49; xxiv. 31; orders and degrees of angels in the heavens, as xxv. 31, 2 Th. i 7, 8. there are degrees and diverse orders

among men in the world. But that these cherubims were figures

LXX. Of the figures that were upon the walls of the of the holy angels, their being thus placed in the

inner Temple. holy oracle doth declare; for their dwelling-place The wall of the inner temple, which was a type is heaven, though they, for our sakes, are conver- of heaven, was, as I have already told you, ceiled sant in the world. He. i.

with cedar from the bottom to the top. Now by 6. It is said that these cherubims, in this holy the vision of Ezekiel, it is said this wall was carved place, did stand upon their feet, to show, 1. That with cherubims and palm trees. So that a palm the angels of heaven are not fallen from their sta- tree was between a cherub and a cherub, and every tion, as the other angels are. 2. To show also cherub had two faces; so that the face of a man that they are always ready, at God's bidding, to was toward the palm tree on the one side, and the run with swiftness to do his pleasure. 3. To show face of a young lion toward the palm tree on the

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Ps. lxxx. 1. Is. xxxvii. 16.

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other side. It was made through all the house 6. Nor were the habitations which the fallen round about ; from the ground unto above the door angels lost, excepting that which was excepted bewere cherubims and palm trees made.' Eze. xli. 18-20. fore, at all inferior to theirs that stood; for their

1. As to these cherubims and palm trees, I have captain and prince is called son of the morning, for already told you what I think them to be figures he was the antitype there. Is. xiv. 12. of. The cherubims are figures of the holy angels, 7. Thus, you see, they were placed from the and the palm trees of upright ones; we therefore ground up to above the door; that is, from the here are to discourse only of the placing of them lowest to the highest angel there. For as there in the heavens.

are great saints and small ones in the church on 2. Now you see the palm trees in the holiest earth, so there are angels of divers degrees in are placed between a cherub and a cherub, round heaven, some greater than some; but the smallest about the house, which methinks should be to sig- saint, when he gets to heaven, shall have an angel's nify that the saints shall not there live by faith dignity, an angel's place. From the ground you and hope, as here, but in the immediate enjoyment find a palm tree between a cherub and a cherub. of God; for to be placed between the cherubims, 8. And every cherub had two faces- so here; is to be placed where God dwells; for Holy Writ but I read in Eze. 2. 14, that they had four faces says plainly, He dwells between the cherubims, apiece. The first was the face of a cherubim; the even where here it is said these palm trees, or up- second, the face of a man; the third, the face of right ones are placed. 1 Sa iv. 4. 2 Ki. xix. 15. 1 Ch. xii. 6. a lion; and the fourth, the face of an eagle.

The church on earth is called 9. They had two faces apiece; not to show that God's house, and he will dwell in it for ever; and they were of a double heart, for their appearances heaven itself is called God's house, and we shall and themselves' were the same, and they went dwell in it for ever, and that between the cheru- every one straight forward.' Eze. x. 22. These two biins. This is more than grace, this is grace and faces, then, were to show here the quickness of glory, glory indeed.

their apprehension, and their terribleness to exe3. To dwell between the cherubims may be also cute the mind of God. The face of a man signifies to show that there we shall be equal to the angels. them masters of reason; the face of a lion, the Mark, here is a palm tree and a cherub, a palm terribleness of their presence. 1 Co. xiii. 12. Ju. xiii. 6. tree and a cherub. Here we are a little lower, but In another place I read of their wheels; yea, there we shall not be a whit behind the very chief that themselves, their whole bodies, and their of them. A palm tree and a cherub, an upright backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the one between the cherubs, will then be round about wheels were full of eyes round about.' Eze. i. 18; X. 12. the house; we shall be placed in the same rank; And this is to show us how knowing and quick* neither can they die any more, for they are equal sighted they are in all providences and dark disunto the angels.' Lu. Xr. 36.

pensations, and low nimble in apprehending the 4. The palm trees thus placed, may be also to mischievous designs of the enemies of God's church, show us that the elect of God shall there take up and so how able they are to undermine them. And the vacancies of the fallen angels; they for sin forasmuch also as they have the face of a lion, we were cast down from the holy heavens, and we by by that are showed how full of power they are to grace shall be caught up thither, and be placed kill and to destroy, when God says, Go forth and between a cherub and a cherub. When I

say

Now, with these we must dwell and cotheir places, I do not mean the fickleness of that habit, a palm tree and a cherub; a palm tree and state, that they for want of electing love did stand a cherub must be from the ground to above the in while in glory; for the heavens, by the blood door, round about the house—the heavens. of Christ, is now to us become a purchased pos- •So that the face of a man was toward the palm session ; wherefore, as we shall have their place tree on the one side, and the face of a young lion in the heavenly kingdom, so, by virtue of redeeming toward the palm tree on the other side. By these blood, we shall there abide, and go no more out; two faces may be also showed that we in the for by that means that kingdom will stand to us heavens shall have glory sufficient to familiarize us unshaken. He. ix. 12; xii. 22—24, 28. Re. iii. 12.

to the angels. Their lion-like looks, with which they 5. These palm trees, I say, seem to take their used to fright the biggest saint on earth, as you places who for sin were cast from thence. The have it, Ge. xxxii. 30. Ju. xiii. 15, 22, shall then be accomelect therefore take that place in possession, but a panied with the familiar looks of a man. Then better crown for ever. Thus 'Israel possessed that angels and men shall be fellows, and have to do of the Canaanites;' and David, Saul's kingdom; with each as such, and Matthias, the place, the apostleship of Judas. Thus you see something of that little that I have Ac. i. 20—26.

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Tuat part of Palestine in which the celebrated no man could say of him that 'much learning mountains of Lebanon are situated, is the border has made thee mad.' Bunyan’s is the plain comcountry adjoining Syria, having Sidon for its sea- mon-sense scriptural account of this building; but port, and Land, nearly adjoining the city of Da- he differs greatly from almost all our learned commascus, on the north. This metropolitan city of mentators—they imagining that this house was Syria, and capital of the kingdom of Damascus, near the temple of Jerusalem. The Assembly of was strongly fortified; and during the border con- Divines, in their valuable annotations, flicts it served as a cover to the Assyrian army. it was so called because great store of trees, as Bunyan, with great reason, supposes that, to keep in Lebanon, were planted about it; and gardens, them in check, Solomon built a tower house and orchards, and all manner of delightful things were palace, well furnished with munitions of war, called added thereto:' to aid this conjecture, they quote the house in the forest of Lebanon.

Ec. ii. 4, 6. Poole says that it was a house so called, As the magnificent temple at Jerusalem was the either, first, because it was built in the mountain seat of public worship appointed by God, it was and forest of Lebanon, for recreation in summer considered typical of the gospel dispensation, which time; but generally held to have been near Jeruwas intended to supersede it. All its parts and salem; or rather, secondly, from some resemblance utensils, sacrifices and services, have been de- it had with Lebanon for its pleasant shades and scribed, in their typical meaning, in Solomon's groves.' Diodati considers it the same with SoloTemple Spiritualized; but as the lovely system of mon's palace, but called the house of Lebanon by the gospel had, with slow and irresistible steps, to reason of the groves planted about it; or of the conquer the prejudices, passions, and wickedness great number of cedar columns brought from Lebof mankind, those who bore the brunt of this battle anon, and used in its construction. Even Bunyan's were considered as the church militant in the favourite translation, made at Geneva by the Puriwilderness: and Bunyan has, in this treatise, en-tans, while it gives two wood-cuts of • The King's deavoured to show that this palace and fortress house in the wood of Lebanon,' a marginal note was typical of the churches of Christ while in a is added—*For the beauty of the place, and great state of holy warfare, defending their Divine dis- abundance of cedar trees that went to the building pensation, and extending the line of defence by thereof, it was compared to Mount Lebanon.' progressive spiritual conquests. While the churches Calmet, in his very valuable translation, accomare surrounded by enemies, they have inexhaust- panied by the Vulgate Latin, gives the same idea : ible internal comfort, strength, and consolation. Il bâtit encore le palais appellé la maison du Like the house in the forest of Lebanon, they are Leban, à cause de la quantité prodigeuse de cedres also pleasantly, nay, beautifully situated. If Mount qui entroient dans la structure de cet édifice.' Zion was the joy of the whole earth, the moun- Bishop Patrick places this house in or near to tains of Damascus were a picture of the earthly Jerusalem, in a cool, shady mountain, which paradiso. So beautiful is the scenery, and balmy made it resemble Mount Lebanon.' Dr. Gill was the air, that one part is called Eden, or the gar- of opinion that this house was near Jerusalem; den of the Lord. It is described by Arabian poets because it was a magazine of arms, and a court as always bearing winter far above upon his head, of judicature, and had its name from being built spring on its shoulders, and autumn in his bosom, of the cedars of Lebanon, and among groves of while perpetual summer lies sleeping at his feet. trees. Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, It was upon this beautiful spot, called by Isaiah book viii. chap. vi. s. 5, states that when the Queen the glory of Lebanon,' that Solomon built his of Sheba came to Judea, she was amazed at the house in the forest.

wisdom of Solomon, and surprised at the fineness This is the plain matter of fact which Bunyan and largeness of his royal palace; but she was establishes from the sacred Scriptures, but he was, beyond measure astonished at the house which was as to lettered lore, an unlearned man; at all events, called the forest of Lebanon.' Matthew Henry

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follows the opinion of Bunyan; “I rather incline vent the approach of enemies to the temple, is to think it was a house built in the forest of Leb- intended as a type of the Christian warfare, is anon itself, whither, though far distant from Jeru- left to the impartial consideration of the reader. salem, Solomon having so many chariots and horses, There is very little reason to doubt but that we and those dispersed into chariot cities, which pro- shall adopt Bunyan's view; if we consider the tembably were his stages, he might frequently retire ple to be typical, we shall consider the house in with ease.

Express notice is taken of Lebanon, the forest of Lebanon to be typical also. as the place of a warlike building, in 2 Ki. xix., and It has been said, by an author of very great rein Ca. vii. 4.

pute (Addison), that had Bunyan lived in the times The tower of Lebanon is described as looking of the Christian fathers, he would have been as towards Damascus. The ruins of this house and great a father as the best of them. He stands tower, in the forest of Lebanon, are probably those unrivalled for most extraordinary mental powers seen by Benjamin of Tudela, who describes the for allegory and for spiritualizing, but to comparo stones of which it was built as twenty palms long, him with the best of the fathers is faint praise and twelve wide. Gabriel Sionita describes the indeed. He was as much their superior, as the tower as an hundred cubits high, and fifty broad. blaze of the noon-day sun excels the glimmer of a Maundrel saw the ruins in the mountains of Leb- rushlight. anon at a distance. The objections made by our In this treatise we find many very admirable commentators to the plain testimony of the Scrip- illustrations of two important subjects. One is, that tures are, that Solomon would not have built this temporal governors have nothing to fear from the beautiful house at so great a distance from the spread of vital godliness: the other is upon the capital—that he would not have risked so much nature of the strife and antipathy felt by the world treasure nor the munitions of war in a forest against Christ and his spiritual seed. They are and that he would not, on the extreme border of sweet-scented; the fragrant smell of their graces the kingdom of Judea, have set up a throne, or excites the enmity of Satan and his followers, who seat of judgment. The answer to these objections would burn these cedars, because they are pillars appears to me to be conclusive. Lebanon possessed of, and angels for, the truth. Reason, history, the most commanding sites for a border fortress, and experience all confirm this truth; that a people, and therefore an admirable depot for arms, to en- whose profession is directly in opposition to the able the Jewish warriors to keep out their most devil

, and antichrist, and to all debauchery, inhuvigilant and dangerous enemies, the Assyrians. manity, profaneness, superstition, and idolatry,'p. 529. The wealth that was deposited in this house was will be hated, persecuted, and, if possible, destroyed calculated to excite greater vigilance to protect so by Satan and his adherents. The secret is, that important a pass, while it would divert the atten- the world cannot bear such 'living epistles, known tion of an enemy from the still more wealthy tem- and read of all men,' which reflect so severely by ple and fortress at Jerusalem. A throne of justice their conduct upon the vice and profligacy of tho was well placed there, to save a long journey to worldling. This was a stinging censure upon the capital, for the trial of offenders, and the settle the profligate court of Charles II., and therefore ment of disputes on the borders of the empire. It the Nonconformists were hated and persecuted ; appears to me that common sense and the soundest while conformity to soul-benumbing rites and cereevidence supports the view which Bunyan took, monies was cherished and rewarded. To render which was far in advance of the age in which he persecution perfectly unjustifiable, Bunyan scriplivcd,

turally and plainly exhibits the harmlessness of The way in which this building, with the pur- the Christian character bearing with meekness poses for which it was intended, is spiritualized, is the injuries heaped upon it; followers of him who, very ingenious, and admirably carried through in when reviled, reviled not again, but suffered patientthe following treatise. Whether it was intended ly. It is a grievous mistake to suppose that vital by the Holy Ghost to be typical, must be left to godliness caused the great rebellion, and consethe judgment of the impartial reader. That Leb-quent beheading of King Charles I. It was frightanon is used figuratively by the inspired writers ful and most insupportable tyranny that drove a there can be no doubt. •Lebanon is ashamed and nation, headed by their parliament, to arms. Tho hewn down,' must be intended as a type of the King levied severe taxes without the consent of the church, when under the malice of her enemies. people's representatives ; he perverted justice by So also when Babylon, a type of Antichrist, fell, the abominable decisions of the King's judges in the

the cedars of Lebanon rejoiced;' doubtless re- court of Star Chamber; and attempted to introduce ferring to the joy of God's saints when relieved Popery through the medium of the Queen and her from the oppressor. Whether the fine old trees, licentious court, composed principally of the worst or the splendid house built as a defence to pre- class of foreign Papists. And when Leighton,

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Prynne, Bastwick, and some of the most virtuous, is no burthen to the body, nor clog to the mind,
and enlightened citizens, justly but firmly remon- and it being only spiritual, the slaughter must needs
strated, they were seized and tortured in a way be spiritual also.' • All her privileges are soul
that the heart sickens with the narrative. It was concerns, they make no infringement upon any
an attempt to reduce the whole nation to the most man's liberties. Let but faith and holiness walk
abject slavery of both body and soul, that roused the streets without control, and you may be as
the spirit of the people to resistance. The solemn bappy as the world can make you.' • Let not
league and covenant was taken, Cromwell appeared, kings, and princes, and potentates be afraid; the
and the country was, by Divine aid, saved from saints that are such indeed, know their places, and
utter desolation. It was not a war of religious are of a peaceable deportment; the earth God
sects; the Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, hath given to the children of men, and his kingdom
and others, could never have coalesced; it was a to the sons of God.' p. 536. The Christian is a
war for liberty or despotism, and the principal of the pilgrim bound to a far more glorious inheritance:
warriors on both sides were attached to the religion with so bright and glorious a prospect, he may
that was by law established. It is true that many well apply the encouraging language of Bunyan to
Episcopalians, in the reign of Charles II., charged his own soul; • I have a bad master, but I have
the Puritans, not only as being the mainspring, but only a year to serve under him, and that makes
as possessing the overwhelming force in that awful me serve him with patience. I have but a mile
struggle, forgetting that the Nonconformists were to go in this dirty way, and then I shall have my
then but a handful of men, neither possessed of path pleasant and green, and this makes me tread
wealth nor influence. To attribute victory to so small the dirty way with patience.' p. 537.
a band, must refer it to the immediate interposition This treatise is one of the ten 'excellent manu.
of the Most Iligh, as in the case of Gideon in his scripts' which Bunyan had prepared for the press,
victory over the Assyrians. But it was no sectarian when his unexpected decease prevented his pub-
fight, except those two great sects of freemen against lishing them. It first appeared in the folio volume
despots. Bunyan fully proves that no state has of his works, printed under the care of Charles
anything to fear from religion: ‘She moveth no Doc, in 1692. It has since been re-published in
sedition, she abideth in her place; let her temple- every edition of Bunyan's works, but with the omis-
worshippers but alone, and she will be as if she sion of the Scripture references, and many errors.
were not in the world;' • neither she nor her Jesus It is now accurately corrected by the first edition,
are for doing them any hurt." p. 516. God's armour

Geo. ОFFOR.

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THE HOUSE OF THE FOREST OF LEBANON.

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'In the fourth year,' saith the text, 'was the CHAP. I.

foundation of the house of the Lord laid in the As Solomon built a house for Pharaoli's daughter, month Zif;' and in the eleventh year in the month and that called the temple of the Lord; so he Bul, which is the eighth month, was the house built a house in Lebanon, called the house of the finished throughout all the parts thereof, and acforest of Lebanon.' 1 Kl. vii. 2.

cording to all the fashion of it; so he was seven Some, I perceive, have thought that this house, years in building it.' •But Solomon was building called the house of the forest of Lebanon,' was his own house thirteen years, and he finished all none other than that called the temple at Jerusalem, his house. He built also the house of the forest and that that was called the house of the forest of Lebanon,' &c. 1 Ki. vi. 37, 38 ; vii. 1, 2. of Lebanon,' because built of the wood that grew Can there now be any thing more plain? Is there. But that Solomon built another than that, not here the house of the forest of Lebanon meneven one in Lebanon, called the house of the tioned as another besides the temple ? he built the forest of Lebanon,' is evident, and that from these temple, he built his own house, he built also the

house of the forest of Lebanon. First, That in the forest of Lebanon is mentioned Second. It is evident by the difference of their as another, besides that called the temple of the measures and dimensions. The length of the temple Lord; and that too when the temple and its finishi- was threescore cubits; but the length of the house ing is spoken of; yea, it is mentioned with an 'also,' of the forest of Lebanon was an hundred cubits; as an additional house, besides the temple of the

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1 The second month in the Hebrew calendar began April Lord.

7.-(ED.)

reasons:

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