refuse the golden offers of Shaddai, and trust to the lies and falsehoods of Diabolus? Think you when Shaddai should have conquered you, that the remembrance of these your carriages towards him, will yield you peace and comfort; or that, by ruffling language, you can make him afraid as a grasshopper? Doth he entreat you, for fear of you? Do you think that you are stronger than he? Look to the heavens, and behold, and consider the stars, how high are they? Can you stop the sun from running his course, and hinder the moon from giving her light? Can you count the number of the stars, or stay the bottles of heaven? Can you call for the waters of the sea, and cause them to cover the face of the ground? Can you behold every one that is proud, and abase him, and bind their faces in secret ?1 Yet these are some of the works of our King, in whose name, this day, we come up unto you, that you may be brought under his authority. In his name, therefore, I summon you again, to yield up yourselves to his captains.'

The town at a stand.

Diabolus makes

town; and endeavours to terrify it with the greatness

At this summons the Mansoulians seemed to be at a stand, and knew not what answer to make; wherefore Diabolus forthwith appeared, and took upon him to do it himself, and thus he begins, but turns his speech to them of Mansoul:'Gentlemen,' quoth he, and my faithful subjects, if it is true that this summoner hath a speech to the said concerning the greatness of their King, by his terror you will always be kept in bondage, and so be made of God. to sneak. Yea, how can you now, though he is at a distance, endure to think of such a mighty one? And if not to think of him, while at a distance, how can you endure to be in his presence? I, your prince, am familiar with you, and you may play with me as you would with a grasshopper. Consider, therefore, what is for your profit, and remember the immunities that I have granted you. Farther, if all be true that this man hath said, how comes it to pass that the subjects of Shaddai are so enslaved in all places where they come? None in the universe so unhappy as they, none so trampled upon as they.2 Consider, my Mausoul. Would thou wert as loth to leave me, as I am loth to leave thee! But consider, I say, the ball is yet at thy foot; liberty you have, if you know how to use it; yea, a king you have too, if you can tell how to love and obey him.'

Most of this language is from the book of Job.-(Ed.) 2 This old slander of the father of lies was well answered by the poor boy, while sweeping a chimney, who sung

'The sorrow of the mind, Be banish'd from this place, Religion never was designed,

To make our pleasures less.'

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worse worse.


Upon this speech, the town of Mansoul did again harden their hearts yet more against He drives Manthe captains of Shaddai. The thoughts soul into deof his greatness did quite quash them, and the thoughts of his holiness sunk them in despair.3 Wherefore, after a short consultation, they, of the Diabolonian party they were, sent back this word by the trumpeter, That, for their parts, they were resolved to stick to Mansoul grows their king; but never to yield to Shaddai.' So it was but in vain to give them any further summons, for they had rather die upon the place than yield. And now things seemed to be gone quite back, and Mansoul to be out of reach or call; yet the captains, who knew what their Lord could do, would not yet be beat out of heart. They therefore send them another summons, more sharp and severe than the last; but the oftener they were sent to, to be reconciled to Shaddai, the further off they were. 'As they called them, so they went from them: ' yea, though they called them to the most High.' Ho. xi. 2, 7.

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selves to prayer.

So they ceased that way to deal with them any more, and inclined to think of an- The captains other way. The captains, therefore, leave off summons, and did gather themselves together, to betake themhave free conference among themselves, to know what was yet to be done to gain the town, and to deliver it from the tyranny of Diabolus. And one said after this manner, and another after that. Then stood up the right noble, the Captain Conviction, and said, My brethren, mine opinion is this:

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First. That we continually play our slings into the town, and keep it in a continual alarm, molesting of them day and night; by thus doing we shall stop the growth of their rampant spirit. For a lion may be tamed by continual molestations.*

'Second. This done, I advise that, in the next place, we, with one consent, draw up a petition to our Lord Shaddai; by which, after we have showed our King the condition of Mansoul, and of affairs here, and have begged his pardon for our no better success, we will earnestly implore his Majesty's help, and that he will please to send us more force and power; and some gallant and well-spoken commander to head them; that so his Majesty may not lose the benefit of these his good beginnings, but may complete his conquest upon the town of Mansoul.'5

and unusual assaults of the tempter was my soul like a broken vessel, driven as with the wind, and tossed sometimes headlong into despair.'-Grace Abounding, No. 185.—(ED.)

This is exemplified in Grace Abounding, No. 139 and 140. -(ED.)

Paul may plant and Apollos water, but God alone can give the increase. To him, therefore, they wisely apply for further

3This is exemplified in Bunyan's experience. By the strong assistance.-(Burder.)

To this speech of the noble Captain Conviction, | it and read it, and because the contents of it pleased they, as one man, consented; and agreed that a petition should forthwith be drawn up, and sent by a fit man, away to Shaddai with speed. The contents of the petition were thus:—

Most gracious and glorious King, the Lord of the best world, and the builder of the town of Mansoul: We have, dread Sovereign, at thy commandment, put our lives in jeopardy, and at thy bidding made a war upon the famous town of Mansoul. When we went up against it, we did, according to our commission, first offer conditions of peace unto it. But they, great King, set light by our counsel, and would none of our reproof. They were for shutting of their gates, and for keeping us out of the town. They also mounted their guns, they sallied out upon us, and have done us what damage they could; but we pursued them, with alarm upon alarm, requiting of them with such retribution as was meet, and have done some execution upon the town. Diabolus, Incredulity, and Will-be-will are the great doers against us; now we are in our winter quarters, but so as that we do yet with an high hand molest and distress the town. Once, as we think, had we had but one substantial friend in the town, such as would but have seconded the sound of our summons as they ought, the people might have yielded themselves. But there were none but enemies there, nor any to speak in behalf of our Lord to the town; wherefore, though we have done as we could, yet Mansoul abides in a state of rebellion against thee. Now, King of kings, let it please thee to pardon the unsuccessfulness of thy servants, who have been no more advantageous in so desirable a work as the conquering of Mansoul is; and send, Lord, as we now desire, more forces to Mansoul, that it may be subdued; and a man to head them, that the town may both love and fear. We do not thus speak because we are willing to relinquish the wars-for we are for laying of our bones against the placebut that the town of Mansoul may be won for thy Majesty. We also pray thy Majesty for expedition in this matter, that, after their conquest, we may be at liberty to be sent about other thy gracious designs. Amen."

Mat. xxii. 5. Pr. i. 25-30. Zec. x. 11, 12.

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ceives it with gladness.

him well, he mended, and also in some things, added to the petition himself. So after he had made such amendments and additions as he thought convenient, with his own hand, he carried it in to the King; to whom when he had The King rewith obeisance delivered it, he put on authority, and spake to it himself.2 Now the King, at the sight of the petition, was glad; but how much more think you, when it was seconded by his Son? It pleased him also to hear that his servants that camped against Mansoul were so hearty in the work, and so steadfast in their resolves, and that they had already got some ground upon the famous town of Mansoul. Wherefore the King called to him Emmanuel his Son, who said, Here am I, my The King calls Father. Then said the King, Thou knowest, as I do myself, the condition of the town of Mansoul, and what we have purposed, and what thou hast soul, and he is done to redeem it. Come now, there- pleased at it. fore, my Son, and prepare thyself for the war, for thou shalt go to my camp at Mansoul. Thou shalt also there prosper, and prevail, and conquer the town of Mansoul.

his Son, and

tells him that he shall go to conquer the town of Man

Hesolaceth him

self with the thoughts of this work.

Then said the King's Son, Thy law is within my heart. I delight to do thy will. He. x. This is the day that I have longed for, and the work that I have waited for all this while. Grant me, therefore, what force thou shalt in thy wisdom think meet, and I will go, and will deliver from Diabolus, and from his power, thy perishing town of Mansoul. My heart has been often pained within me for the miserable town of Mansoul; but now it is rejoiced, but now it is glad. And with that he leaped over the mountains for joy; saying, I have not, in my heart, thought anything too dear for Mansoul; the day of vengeance is in mine heart for thee, my Mansoul; and glad am I that thou, my Father, hast made me the Captain of their salvation. He. ii. 10. And I will now begin to plague all those that have been a plague to my town of Mansoul, and will deliver it from their hand.

When the King's Son had said thus to his Father, it presently flew like lightning round about at court; yea, it there became the only talk what Emmanuel was to go to do for the famous town of Mansoul. But you cannot think how The highest peer the courtiers too were taken with this design of the Prince. Yea, so affected this design.

in the kingdom covets to go on

rather the sea, that feeds them, is our corrupted nature.'(Mason.)

2 Jesus Christ is our great advocate above. He receives, amends, and presents our prayers; and those petitions which have the glory of God for their object, cannot but be acceptable to him.-(Burder.)


were they with this work, and with the justness of | him, for his power, five noble captains and their the war, that the highest lord and greatest peer of the kingdom did covet to have commissions under Emmanuel, to go to help to recover again to Shaddai the miserable town of Mansoul.1

Then was it concluded that some should go and carry tidings to the camp that Emmanuel was to come to recover Mansoul, and that he would bring along with him so mighty, so impregnable a force, that he could not be resisted. But O, how ready were the high ones at court to run like lackeys to carry these tidings to the camp that was at Mansoul! Now when the captains perceived that the King would send Emmanuel his Son, and that it also delighted the Son to be sent on this errand by the great Shaddai, his Father, they also, to The camp shouts show how they were pleased at the they hear the thoughts of his coming, gave a shout that made the earth rend at the sound thereof. Yea, the mountains did answer again by echo, and Diabolus himself did totter and shake.

for joy when


For you must know, that though the town of Mansoul itself was not much, if at all, concerned with the project-for, alas for them, they were wofully besotted, for they chiefly regarded their Diabolus afraid pleasure and their lusts-yet Diaboat the news of lus their governor was; for he had his his coming. spies continually abroad, who brought him intelligence of all things, and they told him what was doing at court against him, and that Emmanuel would shortly certainly come with a power to invade him. Nor was there any man at court, nor peer of the kingdom, that Diabolus so feared as he feared this Prince.

The first was that famous captain, the noble Captain Credence. His were the red colours, and Mr. Promise bore them, and for a scutcheon he had the holy lamb and golden shield. And he had ten thousand men at his feet. Jn. i. 29. Ep. vi. 16.

The second was that famous captain, the Captain Goodhope. His were the blue colours, his standard-bearer was Mr. Expectation, and for a scutcheon he had the three golden anchors. And he had ten thousand men at his feet. He. vi. 19.

The third captain was that valiant captain, the Captain Charity. His standard-bearer was Mr. Pitiful, his were the green colours, and for his scutcheon he had three naked orphans embraced in the bosom. And he had ten thousand men at his feet. 1 Co. xiii.

The fourth was that gallant commander, the Captain Innocent. His standard-bearer was Mr. Harmless, his were the white colours, and for his scutcheon he had the three golden doves. He. x. 16.

The fifth was the truly loyal and well-beloved captain, the Captain Patience. His standardbearer was Mr. Suffer-long, his were the black colours, and for a scutcheon he had three arrows through the golden heart. He. vi. 12.


These were Emmanuel's captains, these their standard-bearers, their colours, and their scutcheons, and these the men under their command. So, as was said, the brave Prince took his march to go to the town of Mansoul. Cap- Faith and Patience tain Credence led the van, and CapFor if you re-tain Patience brought up the rear.

member, I showed you before that Diabolus had felt the weight of his hand already. So that, since it was he that was to come, this made him the more afraid. Well, you see how I have told you that the King's Son was engaged to come from the court to save Mansoul, and that his Father had made him the Captain of the forces. The The Prince ad- time, therefore, of his setting forth for his your being now expired, he addressed himself for his march, and taketh with

dresses himself


1 How honourable a work is it to make known the gospel! Every saint is thus honoured, if by his walk and converse he wins souls to Christ; all disciples are priests under the new covenant; they are made Kings and priests unto God.' The angels desire to look into these things. The highest peer in heaven covets to go on this design.' How does God honour his saints! The pious mother, nurse, or servant, the godly artizan or mechanic, the humble Christian merchant or nobleman 'that turn many to righteousness, shall shine as the stars for ever and ever?' Can we wonder that some proud men should vainly boast themselves as possessing a monopoly of this glory?(ED.)

2 The powerful influences, gifts and graces, of the Holy Spirit, Faith, Hope, Charity, Innocence, and Patience, under the immediate command of Christ, lead on the new covenant forces to conquer Mansoul, after it had been convinced and alarmed by the terrors of the laws.-(ED.)

do the work.

So the other three, with their men, made up the main body; the Prince himself riding in his chariot at the head of them.5

But when they set out for their march, O how the trumpets sounded, their armour glittered, and how the colours waved in the wind! The Prince's

armour was all of gold, and it shone Their march. like the sun in the firmament. The captains' armour was of proof, and was in appearance like the glittering stars. There were also

3The three golden anchors.' When Christiana was at the house of the Interpreter, she had a golden anchor given to her, for, said they, you shall have it with you, for it is of absolute necessity that you may lay hold of that within the veil, and stand steadfast in turbulent weather. Joel iii. 16; He. vi. 19. Here we find two golden anchors, but where is the third?—(ED.) * These standards are all scriptural: Faith in the holy Lamb that was slain; Hope, the anchor of the soul, He. vi. 9; Charity and the orphan Innocent with the doves; Patience and his arrows in the heart. Ps. xxxviii. 2. Bunyan had seen the use of standards in the civil war.—(ED.)

When Jesus comes to effect the conquest of the human soul, he is gloriously attended with these heavenly graces, faith, hope, love, innocence, and patience. Faith leads the van; patience brings up the rear; Jesus, the Captain of salvation, heads the noble army. Ride prosperously, gracious Majesty, conquering and to conquer.-(Burder.)

some from the court that rode reformades,1 for | colours, they were forced to shift and shift, and
the love that they had to the King Shaddai, and
for the happy deliverance of the town of Man-

Emmanuel also, when he had thus set forward to go to recover the town of Mansoul, took with him, at the commandment of his FaThe Holy Bible, containing 66 ther, forty-four battering rams, and books. twelve slings, to whirl stones withal. Every one of these was made of pure gold; and these they carried with them in the heart and body of their army, all along as they went to Mansoul. So they marched till they came within less than a league of the town. And there they lay till the first four captains came thither, to acquaint him with matters. Then they took their journey to go to the town of Mansoul, and unto Mansoul they But when the old soldiers that were in the camp saw that they had new forces to joined with join with, they again gave such a shout rejoicing. before the walls of the town of Mansoul, that it put Diabolus into another fright. So they sat down before the town, not now as the other four captains did, to wit, against the gates of Mansoul only; but they environed it round on every side, and beset it behind and before; so that now, let Mansoul look which way it will, it saw force and power lie in siege against it. Besides, there were mounts cast up against it.


The forces

Mansoul beleaguered round.


The Mount Gracious was on the one side, and Mounts cast Mount Justice was on the other; furagainst it. ther, there were several small banks and advance-ground—as Plaintruth Hill, and Nosin Banks-where many of the slings were placed against the town. Upon Mount Gracious were planted four, and upon Mount Justice were planted as many; and the rest were conveniently placed in several parts round about the town. Five of the best battering rams-that is, of the biggest of them were placed upon Mount Hearken; a mount cast up hard by Eargate, with intent to break that open.*

Now, when the men of the town saw the multitude of the soldiers that were come up against the place, and the rams and slings, and the mounts on which they were planted, together with the glittering of the armour and the waving of their

1 'Reformades,' angel volunteer officers, not attached to any troop or company.-(ED.)

2 No sigh, no murmur, his elect shall hear,
From ev'ry face he'll wipe off ev'ry tear;
In adamantine chains shall death be bound,
And hell's grim tyrant feel th' eternal wound.

The text states forty-four battering-rams and twelve slings, which the margin interprets to mean the sırty-six books of the Holy Bible. It would be a task for Aquinus to discover which are rams and which the slings. The whole of this paragraph is omitted in the second edition, 1684, but is re-inserted in

The heart of

Mansoul begins

again to shift their thoughts, but they hardly changed for thoughts more stout, but rather for thoughts more faint. For though before they thought themselves sufficiently guarded, yet now they began to think that no man knew what would be their hap or lot.

to fail.

hung out.

When the good Prince Emmanuel had thus beleaguered Mansoul; in the first place he hangs out the white flag, which he caused to The white flag be set up among the golden slings that were planted upon Mount Gracious. And this he did for two reasons: 1. To give notice to Mansoul that he could and would yet be gracious if they turned to him. 2. And that he might leave them the more without excuse, should he destroy them, they continuing in their rebellion.

So the white flag, with the three golden doves on it, was hanged out for two days together, to give them time and space to consider. But they, as was hinted before, as if they were unconcerned, made no reply to the favourable signal of the Prince. Then he commanded, and The red flag they set the red flag upon that mount hung out. called Mount Justice. It was the red flag of Captain Judgment, whose scutcheon was the burning fiery furnace, and this also stood waving before them in the wind for several days together. But look how they carried it under the white flag when that was hanged out, so did they also when the red one was, and yet he took no advantage of them.

Then he commanded again that his servants would hang out the black flag of defi- The black flag ance against them, whose scutcheon hung out. was the three burning thunder-bolts. But as unconcerned was Mansoul at this as at those that went before. But when the Prince saw that neither mercy, nor judgment, nor execution of judgment, would or could come near the heart of Mansoul, he was touched with much compunction, and said, Surely this strange carriage of the town of Mansoul doth rather arise from ignorance of the manner and feats of war, than from a secret defiance of us, and abhorrence of their own lives; or, if they know the manner of the war of their own, yet not the rites and cere monies of the wars in which we are concerned, when I make wars upon mine enemy Diabolus.'

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Christ makes not war as the world does.

later copies. In one printed at Edinburgh, 1742, the text is altered to fifty-four battering-rams,' and this emendation is contained in all the modern editions. Perhaps the error was in the printer mistaking Mr. Bunyan's figures, 22 for 12. This would make the 39 books of the Old Testament, with the Gospels and Acts, the 44 battering-rams, and the 22 Epistles and Revelations the slings. Mighty weapons for pulling down the strong holds of the devil.—(ED.)

The Lord, the eternal Spirit, must first give the hearing ear, and the understanding heart, cre any saving work can be begun.—(Mason.)

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Therefore, he sent to the town of Mansoul, to let | This town of Mansoul is mine also by their subjecthem know what he meant by those signs and tion. They have opened the gates of their town unto He sends to ceremonies of the flag, and also to me, they have sworn fidelity to me, and have openly know if they know of them which of the things chosen me to be their king. They have also given mercy or justice. they would choose, whether grace and their castle into my hands; yea, they mercy, or judgment and the execution of judg- have put the whole strength of Manment. All this while they kept their gates shut soul under me. with locks, bolts, and bars, as fast as they could; their guards, also, were doubled, and their watch made as strong as they could. Diabolus also did pluck up what heart he could to encourage the town to make resistance.

The townsmen also made answer to the Prince's messenger, in substance, according to that which follows:


'Great Sir, as to what by your messenger you The townsfolk's have signified to us, whether we will accept of your mercy or fall by your justice, we are bound by the law and custom of this place, and can give you no positive answer. For it is against the law, government, and the prerogative royal of our king, to make either peace or war without him. But this we will do, we will petition that our prince will come down to the wall, and there give you such treatment as he shall think fit, and profitable for us.'

When the good Prince Emmanuel heard this answer, and saw the slavery and bondage of the people, and how much content they were to abide Emmanuel grieved in the chains of the tyrant Diabolus, at the folly of it grieved him at the heart. And, indeed, when at any time he perceived that any were contented under the slavery of the giant, he would be affected with it.


But to return again to our purpose. After the town had carried this news to Diabolus, and had told him, moreover, that the Prince that lay in the leaguer1 without the wall, waited upon them for an answer, he refused, and huffed as well as he could, but in heart he was afraid. Then, said he, I will go down to the gates myself, and give him such an answer as I think fit.

Diabolus afraid.

So he went down to Mouthgate, and there addressed himself to speak to Emmanuel, but in such language as the town understood not, the contents whereof were as follows:

O thou great Emmanuel, Lord of all the world, Ilis speech to I know thee that thou art the Son of the Prince. the great Shaddai ! Wherefore art thou come to torment me, and to cast me out of my possession? This town of Mansoul, as thou very well knowest, is mine, and that by twofold right. 1. It is mine by right of conquest, I won it in the open field. And shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive be delivered? 2.

Moreover, this town of Mansoul hath disavowed thee; yea, they have cast thy law, thy name, thy image, and all that is thine, behind their back, and have accepted, and set up in their room, my law, my name, mine image, and all that ever is mine. Ask else thy captains, and they will tell thee that Mansoul hath, in answer to all their summons, shown love and loyalty to me; but always disdain, despite, contempt, and scorn to thee and thine. Now thou art the Just One, and the Holy, and shouldest do no iniquity; depart then, I pray thee, therefore, from me, and leave me to my just inheritance, peaceably.'

This oration was made in the language of Diabolus himself. For although he can, to every man, speak in their own language-else he could not tempt them all as he does-yet he has a language proper to himself, and it is the language of the infernal cave, or black pit.

Wherefore the town of Mansoul, poor hearts, understood him not, nor did they see how he crouched and 'cringed, while he stood before Emmanuel their prince. Yea, they all this while took him to be one of that power and force that by no means could be resisted. Wherefore, while he was thus intreating that he might yet have his residence there, and that Emmanuel would not take it from him by force, the inhabitants boasted even of his valour, saying, 'Who is able to make war with him?'

Well, when this pretended king had made an end of what he would say, Emmanuel, the golden Prince, stood up and spake, the contents of whose words follow:

[Emmanuel's answer to Diabol


Thou deceiving one,' said he, 'I have in my Father's name, in mine own name, and on the behalf and for the good of this wretched town of Mansoul, somewhat to say unto thee. Thou pretendest a right, a lawful right, to the deplorable town of Mansoul, when it is most apparent to all my Father's court, that the entrance which thou hast obtained in at the gates of Mansoul was through thy lies and falsehood. Thou beliedst my Father, thou beliedst his law, and so deceivedst the people of Mansoul. Thou pretendest that the people have accepted thee for their king, their captain, and right liege-lord, but that also was by the exercise of deceit and guile. Now, if lying wiliness, sinful craft, and all manner of horrible hypocrisy, will go in my Father's court for equity and right, in which court thou must be

1 Leaguer,' the camp and trenches in which a besieging tried, then will I confess unto thee that thou hast army are sheltered.-(ED.)

made a lawful conquest. But alas, what thief,

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