glory. A covenant is made, ordered in all things effectual; the gates remain closed against her King and sure, to save Mansoul; and from this emanates and God. The thunders of Sinai and the voice of the vast, the costly design of her deliverance. To the prophets may alarm, but cannot conquer Manetfect this great object, the Mosaic dispensation-soul.

soul. The thundering, terrifying captains appeal the Law, with all its terrors, is sent, in fearful to the celestial court, and Emmanuel—God with array, to conquer or destroy. This is allegorically us---condescends to fight the battle, and secure the represented under the similitude of an army of victory. The angelic hosts desire to look into forty thousand warriors, stout, rough-hewn men, these things—they are the peers of the heavenly fit to break the ice, and make their way by dint realm—the news • flew like lightning round about of sword.' They are under the command of four the court'-and the greatest peers did covet to captains, each with his ensign-Boanerges and have commissions under Emmanuel. The captains Thunder, Conviction and Sorrow, Judgment and that accompany him in this grand expedition are Terror, Execution and Justice. To resist this Faith, Hope, Charity, Innocence, and Patience. force, Diabolus arms the town, hardens the con- Mansoul is to be won by persuasion to receive her science, and darkens the understanding. He places Saviour. The cost of the enterprise is vast inat Eargate a guard of DEAF MEN, under old Mr. deed; the army is numerous as our thoughts, and Prejudice, and plants over that important gate who can number the multitude of his thoughts ?' two great guns, Highmind and Heady. He arms The battering rams and slings, we are told by the Mansoul with the whole armour of Satan, which margin, mean the books of Sacred Scripture, sent is very graphically described. Summons after to us by the influence of the Holy Ghost. Ensummons is unheeded. The death of friends, sick- manuel is irresistible—Mansoul is taken-Diabolus ness, and troubles, pass by apparently without any is dragged out, stripped of his armour, and sent to good result. They will not hearken to the voice the parched places in a salt land, ‘seeking rest, of charmers, charming never so wisely.' At length, but finding none.' the town is assaulted, conscience becomes alarmed, The heart at first trembles lest punishment but the will remains stubborn. The beleaguering should be justly poured out upon her for treason, of the town-planting the ensigns—throwing up but it becomes the throne of its lawful King; and batteries—the slings casting, with irresistible force, instead of God's anger, his pardon and blessings portions of the Word into the mind—the battering- are proclaimed, and Mansoul is filled with joy, rams beating upon the gates, especially Eargate - happiness, and glory. exciting alarm under the fear of the just and awful Reader, can you call to mind the peace and punishment due to sin—all are described with an holy enjoyment which took possession of your soul, extraordinary knowledge of military terms and when-having passed through the fears and hopes, tactics. The episode of the three volunteers who the terrors and alarms, of the new birth—you sat enlisted under Shaddai, into Captain Boanerges's down, for the first time, at the table of the Lord, company-Tradition, Fsuman-wisdom, and Man's to celebrate the wonders of his grace? Then you invention--are inimitably beautiful. When they rejoiced in hope full of immortality; then you could were caught in the rear, and taken prisoners—as exclaim, “0 tidings! glad tidings! good tidings they did not live so much by religion as by the of good, and of great joy to my soul!' • Then they fates of fortune'- they offer their services to leaped and skipped upon the walls for joy, and Diabolus, and are joined to Captain Anything's shouted, Let Emmanuel live for ever!' And then company. After a few sharp assaults, convictions you fondly thought that happiness was secure for of sin alarm the conscience, and six of Diabolus's the rest of your pilgrimage, until your glorified new Aldermen are slain with one shot. Their spirit should enter into the celestial city. names are well worthy an attentive consideration, Alas! your enemies were not dead. They inshowing what open vices are abandoned upon the sidiously seized an unguarded moment. Remiss in soul being first terrified with the fear of retribution watchfulness, and formal in prayer, Carnal-security --Swearing, Whoring, Fury, Stand-to-lies, Drunk- invaded the mind. Your ardent love is cooled — enness, and Cheating.

intercourse with heaven is slighted—and by slow Alarms are continued by day and night, until it degrees, and almost unperceived, Emmanuel leaves is said of Mansoul, · Upon all her pleasant things Heart-castle; and the prince of the power of the there was a blast, and burning instead of beauty; air promotes the treason, and foments rebellion, with shows of the shadow of death.' Thus was it by the introduction of loose thoughts, under the with David— My soul is cast down within me: name of harmless mirth. The news soon reach deep calleth unto deep at the noise of thy water- Diabolus, and an infernal conference, or dialogue spouts; all thy waves and thy billows are gone of devils, is revealed by our author; who had over me.' Ps. xlii. 6, 7.

watched the course and causes of spiritual declenAll the assaults of Moses and the Law are in- ' sion, and was not ignorant of Satan's devices.'

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The malignant craft and subtilty displayed in like sin to devour Mansoul; while we will send Satan's counsel, are described in a manner far against it an army of twenty or thirty thousand beyond an ordinary imagination. They display sturdy terrible doubters. Sin renders Mansoul the almost unbounded resources of genius and in- sick and faint, while doubts are by it made fierce vention so richly possessed by the prince of alle- and strong.' At length Diabolus and his army of gorists, John Bunyan. It reminds us of the dia- doubts march from Hellgate Hill to Mansoul: the logue between Lucifer and Beelzebub, in that rare order in which they are placed, and the names of work by Barnardine Ochine, a reformer, published the officers, are very instructive, as well as curious. in 1549, called, A Tragedy or Dialogue of the un- Election-doubters, under Captain Rage-Vocationjust usurped Primacy of the Bishop of Rome. In doubters, commanded by Captain Fury-Gracethis is represented, in very popular language, the doubters, led by Capt. Damnation-Faith-doubters, designs of Lucifer to ruin Christianity by the under Captain Insatiable-Perseverance-doubters, establishment of Popery. Lucifer thus addresses led by Captain Brimstone-Resurrection-doubters, his diabolical conclaveI have devised to make by Captain Torment–Salvation-doubters, under a certain new kingdom, replenished with idolatry, Captain Noease-Glory-doubters, commanded by superstition, ignorance, error, falsehoods, deceit, Captain Sepulchre–Felicity-doubters, led by Capcompulsion, extortion, treason, contention, discord, tain Pasthope. Incredulity was Lord-general, and tyranny, and cruelty; with spoiling, murder, ambi- Diabolus was King and Commander-in-chief. The tion, filthiness, injuries, factions, sects, wickedness, roaring of the drum—their alarming outeries, Helland mischief; in the which kingdom all kinds of fire ! Hell-tire !-their furious assaults—the mul. abomination shall be committed. And notwith titude of doubts—and the perplexity of poor disstanding that it shall be heaped up with all kinds tracted Mansoul, are admirably and truly narrated. of wickedness, yet shall the (professed] Christian The town makes a sortie in the ght, but Diamen think it to be a spiritual kingdom, most holy bolus and his legions, experienced in night work, and most godly. The supreme head of this king- drive them back, and severely wound Captains dom shall be a man which is not only sinful, and Faith, Hope, and Experience. Again the gates an abominable robber and thief, but he shall be are assaulted, and Diabolus and his doubters gain sin and abomination itself; and yet, for all that, an entrance, by the senses, into the town, but shall be thought of Christian men a God in earth, cannot force the heart; and Mansoul is reduced and his members, being most wicked, shall be to the greatest straits and sadness. In this excalled of men most holy. God sent his Son into tremity, prayers are incessantly onered up to Emthe world, who, for the salvation of mankind, hath manuel; but, for a long time, they can obtain no humbled himself even to the death of the cross. satisfactory answers. Both parties are on the The Pope the I will send my son into the world, who, alert; but Diabolus finds it impossible, either by

for the destruction and condemnation treachery, or by storming with his legion of doubts, of mankind, shall so advance himself that he shall to gain possession of Heart-castle. Being worsted take upon him to be made equal with God.' 'I in a general engagement, the doubters are slain, will, by craft and diligence, shadow and cover and are buried with their armour; yea, all that superstition and idolatry with a fair face, and did but smell of a Diabolonian doubter. The archbeauty of holy ceremonies, that men shall be made fiend now enters upon a new mode of assault_he so drunken and so amazed with this outward pomp sends for a reinforcement, to try the effect of perand show, that they shall not be able to discern secution; and obtains an army of fifteen thousand truth from falsehood, when they be drowned in the bloodmen, from the province of Loathgood. To flood of idolatry and superstition.' 'I will cause these were added ten thousand new doubters, under them to be most cruel tyrants and butchers of their commander old Incredulity. These bloodChrist and his members, under a pretence of zeal men were .rugged villains, and had done feats to the house of God. They shall hide their un- heretofore;' they were mastiffs, and would fasten cleanness and filthy behaviour with an exceeding upon father, mother, brother, yea, upon the Prince wide cloak of hypocrisy, and with glorious shining of princes. Among their officers is Captain Pope, titles.' Thus this intrepid reformer opened up the whose colours were the stake, the flame, and the origin, the development, the desolations, of Popery; good man in it.' To these I would humbly suggest and, with a similar knowledge of Satan's devices, the propriety of adding one more—it is Captain the Nonconformist Bunyan shows the means by State-religion, upon whose standard should be rewhich Diabolus urges the young Christian into a presented the Nonconformist John Bunyan in a backsliding state. • Let our Diabolonian friends damp dreary dungeon, writing his · Pilgrim's Proin Mansoul draw it into sin, for there is nothing gress,' with his poor blind child at his feet. 0

persecutor, whether you burn or imprison a NonFrom a copy in the Editor's library.

conformist, or harass him in Ecclesiastical courts, VOL. III.

devii's son.


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or seize his goods to support forms or ceremonies object of attack and defence—one human body, which he believes to be Antichristian, your com- containing one immortal Mansoul; but if the reader mander is old Incredulity-your king is Diabolus ! reflects that every soldier represents a thought, The bloodmen send a summons to Mansoul “as who can number then ? At one time, by the hot as a red hot iron,' threatening fire and sword, sin-sickness, eleven thousand—men, women, and and utter destruction; but the God who visited children—died in Mansoul! this is interpreted by our pious author in prison, and cherished and com- Bunyan to mean, that the men represented “good forted him in his twelve years' sufferings under thoughts'—the women, 'good conceptions'—and persecution, came to the relief of Mansoul. The the children, ‘good desires.' The town is assaulted Diabolonian army is routed—the doubters are slain, by thirty or forty thousand doubts, very curiously excepting a few who escaped—the bloodmen or and methodically arranged. persecutors were not to be slain, but to be taken The value of the marginal notes is very great, alive. The prisoners are brought to trial, with all throwing immediate light upon many difficult pasthe forms and solemnities of law; and the narra- sages. Every

ader should make free use the tive concludes with a most admirable charge from key which lieth in the window.* The

* The margin. Emmanuel to keep Mansoul in a state of the most value of this key is seen by a few prayerful vigilance. Enemies still lurk within, to quotations. Thus, when Diabolus beat a charge keep her humble; that she may feel her depend against the town, my Lord Reason was wounded ence upon God, and be found much in communion in the head—the brave Lord Mayor, Mr. Underwith him.

• Believe that my love,' says Emman- standing, in the eye—and many also of the inferior uel, “is constant to thee. Watch, hold fast, till sort were not only wounded, but slain outright.' I come.'

The margin explains this as meaning . Hopeful In the whole detail of this war, very singular thoughts.”? When the enemy broke into the town skill is manifested. A keen observer of all that at Feelgate, during a night of terror, and got passed before him, aided by a most retentive me- possession, it is described as being accompanied mory, and a fertile imagination, enabled our pil- by all the horrors of war-by atrocities probably grim forefather to gain much knowledge in a short even greater than those perpetrated by Rupert's time. He had been engaged, as a private soldier, cavaliers at Leicester. • Young children were in the Civil war; and was at the siege of Leices- dashed in pieces, yea, those unborn were destroyed.' ter, when it was taken by Prince Rupert. This • The women were beastlike abused.' This is gave him a knowledge of the meaning of trumpet interpreted by two marginal notes— Good and or bugle sounds; so that, when the trumpeters tender thoughts,' Holy conceptions of good.' made their best music, in the expectation of Em- The storming of Leicester took place in the manuel's speedy assistance to help Mansoul, Dia- night, and furnished Bunyan, who was an eyebolus exclaims, “What do these madmen mean? witness, with a correct notion of raising the stanthey neither sound to boot and saddle, nor horse dard, beleaguring the city, and forcing the gates, and away, nor a charge.'

and a lively view of the desolations he describes. Bunyan had been released from his tedious and Awful as is his account of the sacking of Mancruel imprisonment for conscience sake about ten soul, with its murders and desolations, yet it may years, when he published the Holy War.' In prove to be a good description of the conduct of this interval of time, although labouring inces- Prince Rupert and his cavaliers at the storming santly to win souls to Christ, being a very popular of Leicester. Strike out the name of Diabolus, preacher, yet he must have found time to gratify and insert Rupert, and put Leicester instead of his incessant thirst for knowledge; gaining that Mansoul, and the account of the brutal conduct of he might communicate, and in imparting it, re- the Royal army will be found accurately described. ceiving into his own mind a rich increase. This Lord Clarendon, who wrote to gain the smiles of would doubtless lead him to read the best of royalty, plainly tells us that, when Prince Rupert our Puritan and Nonconformists' works, so that and the King took Leicester, The conquerors we find him using the Latin words primum pursued their advantage with the usual license of mobile, carefully noting in the margin that he rapine and plunder, and miserably sacked the meant the soul;' and from hence he must have whole town, without any distinction of scraped acquaintance with Python, Cerberus, and places. Churches and hospitals, as well as other the furies of mythology, whom he uses in this houses, were made a prey to the enraged and war, describing accurately their names and qua- greedy soldier, to the exceeding regret of the lities.

King.' Clarendon goes on to account for the At first sight, it may seem strange that the exceeding regret of Charles: it was because many armies, both within and without the city, should be so numerous, as it is but one man who is the

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persons and human powers

of his faithful friends had suffered, in the confu- so many souls struck down every day by Satan.' sion of this murderous scene of rapine and plunder. Thus this learned Greek father very eloquently

In the ‘Holy War,' Bunyan has not been, nor represents the great battle of Satan and his hosts, can he ever be, charged with copying from any against all mankind. But for a description of the author who preceded him. Erasmus, Gouge, and internal conflict, Diabolus and his army of doubters many other of our Reformers, Puritans, and Non- and bloodmen arrayed against the powers of Manconformists, commented upon the Christian's arm- soul, Bunyan stands alone and most beautifully our and weapons. Benjamin Keach, about the resplendent. time that the Iloly War' appeared, published his In this war there is no combination of souls to War with the Devil, or, The Young Man's Conflict resist Satan, nor can any


any with the Powers of Darkness. It is a series of way assist us in the trying battle. Here, 0 ny admirable poetical dialogues on the corruption and reader, you and I must stand alone far from the vanity of youtlı, the horrible nature of sin, and aid of our fellow-men. We must call upon all the deplorable condition of fallen man; with the rule resources of our minds, and while there is unity of conscience and of true conversion. It has now within, no resisting or treason—while the Holy thing allegorical in it, but is replete with practical Spirit strengthens and inclines the will, the underwarnings and exhortations. No one had ever at standing, the conscience, the affections, and all our tempted, under the form of an allegory, to describe powers are united to resist Satan, God fights for the internal conflict between the powers of dark- us, and the heart is safe under the gracious smileg ness and of the mind in the renewed man; the of our Emmanuel. May we never forget that our introduction of evil thoughts and suggestions, their spiritual life is totally dependent upon him, in unnatural union with the affections, and the off-whom, as to the body, we live, and move, and have spring of such union, under the name of Diabolo- our being. But when doubts enfeeble us, and nians, who, when Mansoul is watchful unto prayer, bloodmen harass us, there is no help from man. lurk in the walls ; but when in a backsliding state, No pope, cardinal, archbishop, minister, or any are tolerated and encouraged openly to walk the human power can aid us ; ALL our hope is in God streets. Some have supposed that there is a slight alone; every effort for deliverance must be by fersimilarity between the description, given by John vent prayer and supplication, from the heart and Chrysostom of the battle between the hosts of hell conscience, directly to God. Our petitions must and mankind, and John Bunyan's “Iloly War.' It be framed by the Holy Ghost, and presented unto is not at all probable that Bunyan was acquainted Shaddai, not by priest or prelate, but by our with Chrysostom on the Priesthood, which was then Emmanuel, Jesus Christ, the only intercessor and locked up in the Greek language, but has been mediator. since translated into English. Nor can we find any The attentive reader of Bunyan's works will similarity between the work of the pious apostolically notice the difference between the trial of Faithful descended tinker, and the learned Greek father. in the Pilgrim's Progress,' and that of the priChrysostom's picture of the battle is contained in soners brought to the bar as traitors in the • Holy n letter to Basil, urging him to become a minister War.' The judge and jury are particularly overof the gospel. It is in words to this effect:—Pent bearing to Faithful, much more so than to the up in this body, like a dungeon, we cannot discern Diabolonians. Still there is one very strong feathe invisible powers. Could you behold the black ture in which they all agree. The prisoners aro army of the devil and his mad conflict, you would all brought to their trial, not that their guilt or witness a great and arduous battle, in which there innocence might be proved, but in order to their is no brass or steel," no horses or wheeled chariots, condemnation and execution. All are brought up no fire and arrows, but other instruments much more in chains, a custom which then was very prevalent, formidable. No breastplates, or shields, or swords, if not universal, but which is now only read of as or darts. The very sight of this accursed host a cruel practice of a bygone age. is alone sufficient to paralyze a soul which is not There are a few riddles or questions arising out imbued with courage furnished by God, and with of this narrative, the solving of which may afford even greater foresight than valour. Could you instructive amusement to the reader. What is calmly survey all this array and war, you would meant by the drum of Diabolus, which so terrified see, not torrents of blood or dead bodies, but fallen Mansoul ? Refer to Ga lil 10. He. vi. 4–8. 1 Jn. v. 16. He. souls! You would see wounds so grievous, that xii. 29. Why were the troops numbered at forty human war, with all its horrors, is mere child's thousand, that came up to alarm and convince play or idle pastime, in comparison to the sight of Mansoul of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment,

while Emmanuel's army is not numbered ? See * All Diabolus's army are by Bunyan clothed in steel armour.

Jos. 1v. 13. He. xii. 22. When the doubters are slain or -(ED.)

driven from Mansoul, after her conversion, they go


numerous notes.


straggling up and down the country enslaving the its redemption! May the desire of every reader barbarous people (the margin informs us that the be, O that my soul may be engaged in this holy unbeliever never fights the doubters). Why do they war, my ears be alarmed by the infernal drum of go by fives, nines, and seventeens? Do these odd Diabolus, that my Heart-castle may receive the numbers refer to the nine companies of doubters, King of salvation, and Christ be found there the and eight of bloodmen, who were under the com- hope of glory. Then may we feel the stern necesmand of five fallen angels—Diabolus, Beelzebub, sity of incessant watchfulness and prayer against Lucifer, Legion, and Apollyon? Fearful odds carnal security, or any other cause of backsliding, against a poor fallen sinner, five evil spirits, or with its consequent miseries. vine classes of doubts, or these nine doubts united Well may the world wonder, how a poor travelto eight kinds of bloodmen or persecutors. liug tinker could gain the extraordinary know

In a work so highly allegorical, and founded ledge, which enabled him to become the greatest upon a plain narrative of facts in the experience allegorical writer that the world ever saw. The of the author, the editor deemed it needful to add reason is obvious, he lived and moved and had his

These contain all that appeared being in the atmosphere of God's revealed will. to be explanatory or illustrative in other commen- It was this that enabled him to take the wings taries, with many that are original; obsolete terms of the morning, and fly not only to the utiermost and customis are explained ; references are given to parts of the visible but of the invisible world; to about fifty passages in the Grace Abounding,' enjoy scenes of light and glory, such as Gabriel that the reader's attention may be constantly contemplated when he came from heaven to Nazdirected to the solemin truths which are displayed areth, and revealed to Mary her high destinyunder this delightful allegory. The editor has that her Son should be the promised Saviour, who the consolation of hoping that the result of great should bear the government of the universe upon labour can do no injury. Those whose deep expe. his shoulders—whose name was Wonderful-Coun. rience in the spiritual warfare enables them to un- sellor—the Mighty God—the everlasting Fatherderstand and enjoy the allegory, can pass them by; the Prince of Peace-Emmanuel, God with us. while many of the poor but immortal souls engaged Bunyan's industry and application must have in this warfare, who are not deeply experienced, been intense, he could not by possibility for a single may receive aid and encouragement to persevere, moment say, ‘soul take thine ease,' inglorious, deuntil they shall exclaim, The battle is fought, the structive ease.

His hands had to labour for his victory is one, eternal praises to the great and bread, and to provide for a most exemplary wife gracious Emmanuel.

and four childern, one of them blind. There was Reader, I must not detain you much longer from no hour of his life when he could have said to his the pleasure of entering upon a narrative so deeply soul, Let all thy noble powers be absorbed in eating, interesting to all who possess the understanding drinking, being merry-mere animal gratifications. heart—an allegory, believed by very many to be The Holy War, the solemn results depending upon the most beautiful and extraordinary that mereit

, salvation or eternal ruin, the strong desire to human genius ever composed in any language. glorify Emmanuel, the necessity to labour for his O consider the worth of an immortal soul! God household—that blessed industry left him no opsent his servants, Moses and the prophets, with portunity for weaving a web of unmeaning casuistic their slings and battering-rams, their great and subtilties, in which to entangle and engulph his precious promises to the early prophets, who have soul, like a Puseyite or a German Rationalist. The faithfully handed them down to us; and then came thunders and lightnings of Sinai had burnt up Emmanuel and his heavenly army, and all this to this wood, hay, and stubble, and with child-like conquer Mansoul! Without the shedding of blood, simplicity he depended upon the Holy Spirit, while there is no remission of sin. The blood of bulls drawing all his consolations and all his spiritual and of goats cannot wash out our stains. We must supplies from the sacred Scriptures. be found in Christ as part of his mystical body, Bunyan's narrative of the Holy War, from its and thus in perfection obey the Divine law, and commencement in the fall of man to that splendid then, through the sin-atoning offering of Emmanuel, address of Emmanuel with which it concludes, has God's equal, eternal Son, a fountain is opened for been the study of the Editor for more than forty sin and uncleanness, in which our souls, being puri- years, and he hopes that no future year of the fied, shall be clothed with the garment of salvation. residue of his life will be spent without reading Who can calculate the worth of his immortal soul, this solemn, soul-stirring, delightful narrative. that God himself should pay so costly a price for HACKNEY, April 1851.

GEO. OfroR.


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