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spectors of ports, therein and therefor, as may be found necessary, and to assign to them, compensations proportionate to those heretofore, or which may hereafter be allowed, to the officers of the revenue. Provided, That if the appointment of such supervisors and inspectors cannot And appointbe made, during the present session of Congress, the President may, ment of superand he is hereby empowered to make such appointments, during the revisors, &c. cess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which will expire at the end of their next session.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That all spirits which shall be dis Spirits dig. tilled in the United States, in stills which shall not have been previously tilled in stills entered at some office of inspection, shall be liable, together with the not entered liastills or other vessels used in the distillation thereof, to seizure and forfeiture.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That no drawback of the duty Drawback not on distilled spirits, which shall be exported after the first day of July to be allowed

on less than 150 next, shall be allowed upon any quantity less than one hundred and fifty

gallons. gallons.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful to import On what con. into the United States, in the same ship or vessel in which they were dition certain exported, any spirits distilled therein, which shall have been previously spirits may be

imported, exported therefrom, on payment of the duties on spirits of equal proof, distilled in the United States, and of a sum equivalent to the duties established by law upon the raw materials, from whence they shall have been distilled; and all such importations shall be made, under the same regulations, and in such manner as is directed by law, in regard to the importation of foreign distilled spirits.

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That from and after the first day Before sale of of July next, on the sale of any emptied cask, vessel or package, which emptied casks has been or shall be lawfully marked, as containing foreign or domestic faced. distilled spirits, wines or teas, and prior to the removal thereof and to the delivery of the same to the purchaser, the marks or numbers which shall or may have been made thereon, by any officer of inspection, or by any person employed or authorized by any such officer, shall be defaced, cut off, or obliterated; and if any such cask, vessel or package shall be sold, removed, delivered or received prior to such defacing, cutting off or obliterating being made, every person concerned in the pur Forfeiture on chase, sale or delivery, shall forfeit and pay the sum of fifty dollars. neglect thereof. Sec. 6. And he it further enacted, That all stills without heads, or

In what man other vessels that shall be used as stills in the distillation of ardent spirits, ner stills shall shall be duly entered by the owner or owners thereof, in the manner prescribed in and by the second section of the act, intituled “An act 1792, ch. 32. concerning the duties on spirits distilled within the United States," passed on the eighth day of May, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, under the penalty of two hundred and fifty dollars, to be recovered and distributed as other forfeitures under this act, and the act, intituled “An act repealing, after the last day of June next, the duties 1791, ch. 15. heretofore laid upon distilled spirits imported from abroad, and laying others in their stead, and also upon spirits distilled within the United States, and for appropriating the same,” to which this is an amendment.

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That any person or persons, who Forfeiture on shall counterfeit the certificates for, or the marks or numbers to be set counterfeiting

certificate or upon any cask, vessel or package containing wines, teas, or foreign or

marks of casks, domestic distilled spirits, or upon stills, which the officers of inspection &c. are, or shall be authorized to make thereon, by and in pursuance of the laws concerning the same, or who shall fraudulently rub out or deface, prior to drawing off, or emptying the contents, any marks or numbers set upon any cask or package of wine or tea, in pursuance of law, shall, for every such offence, forfeit and pay the sum of one hundred dollars.

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That every owner, or worker of

be entered,

When owners a licensed still, shall be required to make oath or affirmation, previous of still shall

to any renewal of his license, that he hath not distilled therein, since make oath.

the commencement of the term specified in such license, excepting only

during the term for which it shall have been granted. What courts Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for to take cogni- the judicial courts of the several states, and of the territory of the United zance of certain actions,

States, northwest of the river Ohio, and of the territory of the United States, south of the river Ohio, to take cognizance of all and every suit and suits, action and actions, cause and causes, arising under or out of the laws for collecting a revenue upon spirits distilled in the United States, and upon stills, which may arise or accrue at a greater distance, than fifty miles from the nearest place established by law for holding a

district court. Proceedings Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That in case of the non-existence in case of non- of an office of inspection in any county of the United States, every owner office of inspec. or possessor of a still shall make entry thereof in the manner required tion.

by the “Act (of the eighth of May, one thousand seven hundred and 1792, ch. 32. ninety-two) concerning the duties on spirits distilled within the United

States,” at some other office of inspection, comprehended in the division

or survey, in which the said still shall be; and that it shall and may be And power of lawful for the President of the United States, to provide offices of inspecthe President herein.

tion in special cases, provided the expense thereof shall not exceed ten

thousand dollars. Duty of recti. Sec. 11. And be it further enacted, That every rectifier of low wines, fiers of low

or other distilled spirits, and every distiller of cordials and strong waters wines, &c.

therefrom, shall enter at some office of inspection, all or any such low wines or other distilled spirits, prior to the removal of them to his distil

lery or rectifying house, and prior to his beginning the rectifying, imUnder what proving, or altering the quality, flavour, or proof thereof, under the penalty for ne. penalty of one hundred dollars for every cask of one hundred gallons, glect thereof.

and in the same proportions, for every greater or less quantity. Supervisors Sec. 12. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for &c. may appoint the supervisors and inspectors of the revenue, at their own expense, to deputies.

appoint deputies to aid them in the execution of their duties, in cases of

occasional and necessary absence, or of sickness, and not otherwise. President of Sec. 13. And be it further enacted, That the President of the United the U. States to States be authorized to make such additional allowances, for the space make additional allowance to in.

of one year, and from thence until the end of the next session of Conspectors, &c. gress, to the inspectors and collectors of revenue from distilled spirits, subsequent to for their respective services subsequent to the thirtieth day of June next, June next.

as he shall deem reasonable and proper, so as that the additions to be made to the said allowances shall not exceed, in the whole, the sums

heretofore allowed, by more than one third. Supervisors Sec. 14. And be it further enacted, That from and after the first and inspectors day of October next, no supervisor or inspector of the revenue of the prohibited from

United States, shall be concerned or interested in any foreign trade or trading in cer.

merchan- commerce, in the goods or merchandise, to which the duties of his office dise after first relate, or in the sale of any wines, distilled spirits, or teas; and if any

Under what such supervisor or inspector shall be so concerned or interested, every penalty. such person shall be disqualified from holding such appointment, for the

term of seven years, and shall, moreover, forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars, for every month, which he or they shall be so interested in such foreign trade, or in the sale of such wines, dis

tilled spirits or teas. Privilege to Sec. 15. And be it further enacted, That any proprietor of a still, proprietors of

the capacity of which does not exceed one hundred gallons, may be percertain stills.

mitted to enter such still, for any term of time less than one year, and not less than one month, paying at the same rate as per month, any thing in any former law to the contrary notwithstanding.

tain

Sec. 16. And be it further enacted, That a personal demand of the How collector proprietor or proprietors of any still, of the duties due, or a notice in may demand writing of the amount thereof left at his dwelling by the collector, shall duties on stills, have all the effect of a demand made, as required by the twenty-third section of the act, intituled “An act repealing after the last day of June next, the duties heretofore laid upon distilled spirits imported from abroad, and laying others in their stead; and also upon spirits distilled 1791, ch. 15. within the United States, and for appropriating the same.

Sec. 17. And be it further enacted, That all fines, penalties, and for And certain feitures, which shall have been incurred by force of any present or future fines, &c. may law of the United States for the laying, levying and collecting of any remitted. duties or taxes, other than duties on goods, wares and merchandise imported, and on the tonnage of ships and vessels, shall and may be mitigated or remitted, by the like ways and means, and upon and under the like conditions, regulations and restrictions, as are contained, prescribed, authorized and directed, in and by the act, intituled “An act to provide 1790, ch. 12. for mitigating or remitting the forfeitures and penalties accruing under the revenue laws in certain cases therein mentioned," touching fines, penalties, and forfeitures ineurred or accruing in relation to the cases therein mentioned; which act, and every clause, matter and thing therein contained, shall be of like force and effect, for the mitigating or remitting of fines, penalties and forfeitures, which shall have been incurred in reference to the said other duties and taxes, as if the same were repeated and re-enacted, in the several and respective laws for laying, levying and collecting the said other duties and taxes. Sec. 18. And be it further enacted, That the judicial courts of the

How state several states, to whom, by this act, a jurisdiction is given, shall and judiciat a courts may exercise all and every power, in the cases cognizable before them, tigation of fines, for the purpose of obtaining a mitigation or remission of any fine, penalty &c. or forfeiture, which may be exercised by the judges of the district courts, in cases depending before them: The said state courts first causing reasonable notice to be given to the person or persons claiming such fine, penalty or forfeiture, and to the attorney, who may, under warrant from the attorney of the district, prosecute, for the United States, in such court, that each may have an opportunity of showing cause against the mitigation or remission thereof.

Sec. 19. And be it further enacted, That the act, intituled “An act Provisions of repealing, after the last day of June next, the duties heretofore laid upon certain act exdistilled spirits imported from abroad, and laying others in their stead, tended for reco and also upon spirits distilled within the United States, and for appro- ties, &c, under priating the same;" and the act, intituled "An act concerning the duties this. on spirits distilled in the United States,” shall extend to, and be in full force, for the recovery and distribution of the penalties and forfeitures

1791, ch. 15. herein contained, and, generally, for the execution of this act, as fully 1792, ch. 32. and effectually, as if every regulation, restriction, penalty, provision, clause, matter and thing, therein contained, were inserted in, and reenacted by this present act, subject only to the alterations hereby made.

APPROVED, June 5, 1794.

STATUTE I.

Cuap. L.-An Act in addition to the act for the punishment of certain crimes June 5, 1794.

against the United States.(a) SECTION 1. Be it enacted and declared by the Senate and House of Act of April Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 30, 1790, ch": That if any citizen of the United States shall, within the territory or 1800, ch. 35.

(a) Illegal outfit of vessels in the ports of the United States.-Where a vessel had been built in New York, for the purpose of employing her in a war with England, if a war had broken out, and was afterwards sold to a French citizen, who used her as a privateer, the Supreme Court refused to hear counsel

Repealed by jurisdiction of the same, accept and exercise a commission to serve a Asts. April.20, foreign prince or state in war by land or sea, the person so offending shall Punishment on be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall be fined not more than persons accept- two thousand dollars, and shall be imprisoned not exceeding three years. against the allegation that this was an original construction or outfit of the vessel for the purposes of war. Moodie v. The Alfred, 3 Dall. 307; 1 Cond. Rep. 135.

A French privateer had taken out her guns, masts, and sails, which remained on shore until the general repairs were completed, and they were again put on board ; after which she sailed on a cruise, and captured a British vessel, which she sent into Charleston. On a claim of restitution on the ground that the vessel had been originally fitted out in the United States, in a neutral port, the court decided that the mere replacement of her force could not be considered as an augmentation ; even if an augmentation of force should be considered a cause for restoration. Moodie v. The sloop Phæbe Ann, 3 Dall. 319; 1 Cond. Rep. 139.

A neutral nation may, if so disposed, without a breach of her neutrality, grant permission to both belligerents to equip their vessels of war within her territories. But without such permission, the subjects of such belligerent powers have no right to equip vessels of war, or to augment their force, either with arms or men, within the neutral territory. The Alerta v. Blas Moran, 9 Cranch, 359 ; 3 Cond. Rep. 425.

Such unauthorized acts violate the sovereignty of a neutral nation. All captures made by such equipments are illegal in respect to such nation, and it is competent for her courts to punish the offenders; and if prizes are brought within their jurisdiction, to order and cause them to be restored. Ibid.

It is immaterial whether the persons taken on board at the neutral port were native American citizens or foreigners domiciled in the United States. Neither the law of nations, nor the act of Congress recognizes any distinction, except to the subjects of the state in whose service they were enlisted transiently in the United States. Ibid.

An augmentation of force, affects only captures made during the original cruise. The offence terminates at the end of the voyage, and does not affect subsequent transactions. But as to captures made during the same cruise, the doctrine has been long established, that such illegal augmentation of force is a violation of the law of nations, as well as of our own municipal laws; and as a violation of our neutrality, it affects the captures subsequently made with the character of torts; and justifies and requires a restitution of the property to such persons as have been injured by such misconduct. The Santissima Trinidad, 7 Wheat. 283; 5 Cond. Rep. 284.

The practice is now fully established, that prizes made by vessels which have violated the acts of Congress enacted for the preservation of the neutrality of the United States, if brought within her territory shall be restored. The Gran Para, 7 Wheat. 471; 5 Cond. Rep. 328.

It has never been held that the offence adheres to the vessel under whatever change takes place; nor that it does not terminate when the voyage, for which the illegal outfit was made, shall have ended. But if this termination was merely colourable, and the vessel was equipped with the intention of being employed on the cruise during which the capture was made, the violation is not purged. Ibid.

Property belonging to a friendly power, captured on the high seas by a privateer, armed and fitted out by citizens of the United States, in the waters of the United States, as a vessel of war, and commanded by a citizen of the United States, is illegally captured ; and must be restored to its owner, if brought within our jurisdiction. The Fanny, 9 Wheat. 658; 5 Cond. Rep. 722.

A French privateer fitted out in the United States, and commissioned as a privateer by the French minister residing in the United States, being proscribed by the President of the United States, dismantled and sold in Charleston, was afterwards fitted out for war in a foreign port, and was commissioned by France. Captures made by her are not illegal, and are no violation of the neutrality of the United States. Williamson 0. The Betsey, Bee's Admiralty Decisions, 67.

The laws of neutrality and nations do not, in any case, interdict vessels from going to sea armed and fitted for defensive war. Bee's Adm. Decisions, 69.

It is a violation of the act of June 5, 1794, to concert an expedition from the United States to commit hostilities against a power at peace with the United States, and it is unimportant that such expedition originated beyond seas, if carried on from this country. It is unimportant whether the persons engaged in such a purpose, engage the whole vessel to themselves, or depart as passengers. 1 Peters's C.C. R. 487.

The previous knowledge or approbation of the President of the United States, of the illegal act of a citizen, can afford him no justification of the breach of a constitutional law. Trial of Smith and Ogden, 237.

To bring a case within the 5th section of the act of June 5, 1794, made perpetual by the act of April 24, 1800, prohibiting any person within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States from providing or preparing the means of a military expedition or enterprise to be carried on from thence, against the territory or dominions of any foreign prince or state, with whom the United States are at peace, it is immaterial whether or not the vessel, at the identical time of sailing, is in complete readiness for hostile engagement. If the vessel sailed with the means or intent to carry it on, such an enterprise is within the act. Ibid.

Indictment under the 3d section of the act for the punishment of certain crimes against the United States, passed April 20, 1818. The indictment charged the defendant with being knowingly concerned in fitting out in the port of Baltimore, a vessel with intent to employ her in the service of a " foreign people," "The United Provinces of Buenos Ayres,” against the subjects of the emperor of Brazil, with whom the United States were at peace. The vessel went from Baltimore to St. Thomas, and was there fully armed. She afterwards cruised under the Buenos Ayrean flag. Held :--To bring the defendant within the words of the act, it is not necessary to charge him with being concerned in fitting out and arming the vessel. The words are, fitting out or arming; either will constitute the offence. It is sufficient if the indictment charges the offence in the words of the act. The United States v. John B. Quincy, 6 Peters, 445.

The law does not prohibit armed vessels, belonging to citizens of the United States, from sailing out of our ports. It only requires the owner of such vessels to give security, that such vessels shall not be employed by them to commit hostilities against a foreign power at peace with the United States. Ibid.

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Sec. 2. And be it further enacted and declared, That if any person ing certain comshall within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States enlist or

missions.

On enlisting, enter himself, or hire or retain another person to enlist or enter himself

, &c. to go beyond or to go beyond the limits or jurisdiction of the United States with intent jurisdiction of to be enlisted or entered in the service of any foreign prince or state as United States. a soldier, or as a marine or seaman on board of any vessel of war, letter of marque or privateer, every person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not exceeding three years. Provided, That Proviso. this shall not be construed to extend to any subject or citizen of a foreign prince or state who shall transiently be within the United States and shall on board of any vessel of war, letter of marque or privateer, which at the time of its arrival within the United States was fitted and equipped as such, enlist or enter himself or hire or retain another subject or citizen of the same foreign prince or state, who is transiently within the United States, to enlist or enter himself to serve such prince or state on board such vessel of war, letter of marque or privateer, if the United States shall then be at peace with such prince or state. And provided further, That if any person so enlisted shall within thirty days after such enlistment voluntarily discover upon oath to some justice of the peace or other civil magistrate, the person or persons by whom he was so enlisted, so as that he or they may be apprehended and convicted of the said offence; such person so discovering the offender or offenders shall be indemnified from the penalty prescribed by this act.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted and declared, That if any person Punishment shall within any of the ports, harbors, bays, rivers or other waters of the on fitting out United States, fit out and arm or attempt to fit out and arm or procure issuing certain to be fitted out and armed, or shall knowingly be concerned in the fur- commissions. nishing, fitting out or arming of any ship or vessel with intent that such ship or vessel shall be employed in the service of any foreign prince or state to cruise or commit hostilities upon the subjects, citizens or property of another foreign prince or state with whom the United States are at peace, or shall issue or deliver a commission within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States for any ship or vessel to the intent that she may be employed as aforesaid, every such person so offending shall upon conviction be adjudged guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the court in which the conviction 1797, ch. 1. shall be had, so as the fine to be imposed shall in no case be more than five thousand dollars and the term of imprisonment shall not exceed three years, and every such ship or vessel with her tackle, apparel and furniture together with all materials, arms, ammunition and stores which may have been procured for the building and equipment thereof shall be forfeited, one half to the use of any person who shall give information of the offence, and the other half to the use of the United States.

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted and declared, That if any person On increasing shall within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States increase or or augmenting

force of any augment, or procure to be increased or augmented, or shall be knowingly ship, &c. concerned in increasing or augmenting the force of any ship of war, cruiser or other armed vessel which at the time of her arrival within the United States, was a ship of war, cruiser or armed vessel in the service of a foreign prince or state or belonging to the subjects or citizens of such prince or state the same being at war with another foreign prince or state with whom the United States are at peace, by adding to the number or size of the guns of such vessel prepared for use, or by the addition thereto of any equipment solely applicable to war, every such person so offending shall upon conviction be adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the court in which the conviction shall be had, so as that such fine shall not exceed one thousand dollars, nor the term of imprisonment be more than one year.

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