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leaders of any lofty undertaking; and, through their influence, to secure to it the protection of royalty. But, alas, for New England ! No, Sir, happily for New England, Providence works not with human instruments. Not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many poble, are called. The stars of human greatness, that glitter in a court, are not destined to rise on the lowering horizon of the despised Colony. The feeble company of Pilgrims is not to be marshalled by gartered statesmen, or mitred prelates. Fleets will not be despatched to convoy the little band, nor armies to protect it. Had there been honors to be worn, or pleasures to be enjoyed, or plunder to be grasped, hungry courtiers, mid-suinmer friends, godless adventurers, would have eaten out the heart of the enterprise. Silken Buckinghains and Soipersets would have blasted it with their patronage. But, safe amidst their unenvied perils, strong in their inoffensive weakness, rich in their untempting poverty, the patient fugitives are permitted to pursue unmolested the thorny paths of tribulation; and, landed at last on the unfriendly shore, the hosts of God, in the frozen mail of December, encamp around the dwellings of the just;
Stern famine guards the solitary coast,
And winter barricades the realms of frost.' “ While Bacon is attuning the sweetest strains of bis honeyed eloquence to soothe the dull ear of a crowned pedant, and his great rival, only less obsequious, is on his knees to deprecate the royal displeasure, the future founders of the new republic beyond the sea are training up for their illustrions mission, in obscurity, hardship, and weary exile in a foreign land.
“ And now,- for the fulness of time is come, - let us go up once more, in imagination, to yonder hill, and look out upon the November scene. That single dark speck, just discernible through the perspective glass, on the waste of waters, is the fated vessel. The storm moans through her tattered canvass, as she creeps, almost sinking, to her anchorage in Provincetown harbour; and there she lies, with all her treasures, not of silver and gold, (for of these she has done, but of courage, of patience, of zeal, of high spiritual daring. So often as I dwell in imagination on this scene; when I consider the condition of the Mayflower, utterly incapable, as she was, of living through another gale; when I survey the terrible front presented by our coast to the navigator who, unacquainted with its channels and roadsteads, should approach it in the stormy season, I dare not call it a mere piece of good fortune, that the general North and South wall of the shore of New England should be broken by this extraordinary projection of the Cape, running out into the ocean a hundred miles, as if on purpose to receive and encircle the precious vessel. As I now see her, freighted with the destinies of a continent, barely escaped from the perils of the deep, approaching the shore precisely where the broad sweep of this most remarkable headland presents almost the only point, at which, for hundreds of miles, she could, with any ease, have made a barbour, and this, perhaps, the very best on the seaboard, I feel my spirit raised above the sphere of mere natural agencies. I see the mountains of New England rising from their rocky thrones. They rush forward into the ocean, settling down as they advance; and
VOL. XLIX. — No. 105. 63
there they range themselves, a mighty bulwark around the Heavendirected vessel. Yes, the everlasting God himself stretches out the arm of his mercy and his power, in substantial manifestation, and gathers the meek company of his worshippers as in the hollow of his
8.- Observations on the Typhoid Fever of New England. Read
at the Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Medical Sociely, May 29th, 1839. By Enoch Hale, M. D., Attending Physician to the Massachusetts General Hospital.
The nature of diseases, involving the question of their identity or diversity, was formerly considered as depending on their symptoms, or the external signs which they exhibit, and which are cognizable by our senses. But the modern habits of investigating disease have furnished an ulterior ground for the discrimination of morbid affections, founded not so much upon the symptoms, as upon the anatomical changes which take place in important organs of the body, and of which changes the symptoms are merely consequences.
The anatomical character of many diseases is well established and undoubted. Thus pleurisy is an inflammation of the membrane which lines the chest, and phthisis is a tuberculous disease of the lungs. But there are other diseases, the precise structural changes accompanying which, are, at the present day, unknown.
The continued fevers, especially those of temperate climates, have been regarded as obscure in their anatomical character, and have afforded fertile themes of discussion and controversy. From the circumstance of their pervading every part of the body, and affecting all its functions, they have been considered as dependent on no particular lesion, or morbid change, of any part or organ, and they have, therefore, been denominated idiopathic fevers by the English, and fièvres essentielles by the French.
For some time past, the patient and accurate researches of the French pathologists have been bringing this question very near to its point of settlement. And, after the successive approximations of various observers, it has been determined by the observations of the indefatigable Louis, that the common continued fever of Paris depends on, or rather is connected with, certain changes, in the elliptical patches of the ilium, commonly called Peyer's glands ; and that these changes are also accompanied with a morbid alteration of the corresponding
mesenteric glands, and, likewise, in most cases by a change in the size and consistence of the spleen.
Soon after this discovery became known in this country, it was found, that the continued fevers, in and about Boston, exhibited the precise characters which had been pointed out by Louis; and similar observations were made, to a certain extent, in Philadelphia and in Great Britain, and elsewhere. So that the anatomical character of our most common continued fever, was considered, for a time, as definitively settled.
But at length it was observed, in some parts of Great Britain and Ireland, that patients died of continued fever, in whom no morbid change whatever could be detected in the organs which have been alluded to ; so that the faith of medical men began to be shaken in the infallibility of the criteria laid down by the great French pathologist. The mystery was not solved, until it was found, by more extensive observation, that the symptoms, which occurred in the cases where Peyer's glands were affected, were different from those which existed in the cases where these glands were not affected. The final result has been the admission of the existence of two distinct diseases, one of which, called typhus, is a contagious fever, occurring in the British islands, and observed also in Philadelphia, and which is especially prone to affect dense masses of population, as in prisons, ships, and crowded habitations of the poor ; the other, called typhoid fever, which is the common fever of Paris and of New England, appearing also in various other parts of the United States and of England, and which is, for the most part, sporadic and non-contagious.
Dr. Hale's Discourse is an able and intelligent exposition of the pathology of the Typhoid fever of New England, as exhibited in its physical signs and anatomical appearances. Besides results derived from his private practice, he has given the analysis of one hundred and ninety-seven cases, that have occurred, within the last six years, in the Massachusetts General Hospital, of which one hundred and seventy-five terminated in recovery. In addition to his lucid and instructive account of typhoid fever, he has bestowed a brief notice on the recent works which relate to the fevers of Great Britain, and has furnished an account of typhus, founded on the successive observations of Doctors Lombard, Staberoh, West, Stokes, &c. in Europe, and of Doctor Gerhard in this country.
In respect to the treatment of typhoid fever, Dr. Hale's authority is added to the growing mass of testimony in favor of the mild and expectant plan, over that which has consisted in violent and fruitless efforts to force the disease to a speedy termination.
TO ARTICLE V. OF THE PRESENT NUMBER.
The last accounts from Upper Canada would seem to threaten a less peaceable state of things for the coming winter, than we have been anticipating. “In September or October,” say the high Tory papers, "the invasions are to commence. Winter is not to be waited for, this time; and the attack is to be as much more formidable than before, as it is earlier.” An un. likely tale enough. Still, its authors claim to speak on authority ; and there are not wanting ambiguous intimations to the same effect, from parties on this side the line, supposed to be in all the secrets of the “Patriot” cause.
In 1837, the Canadian insurgents doubtless carried with them the honest sympathies of a very large proportion of our frontier population. The British nation feels no shame for its sympathy with Greece and Poland ; and ours need feel none, for this their early interest in the supposed parallel case of Canada. As for the Navy Island and other movements of that winter, they are quite another thing. The honest sympathy we speak of gave opportunity for them, but was not their cause. The leaders in these affairs belonged to a class, whose sympathies are of a very different stamp ; and their doings, and the number and general character of their followers, were worthy of their motives. Last winter's movements had little or no connexion with any general popular feeling on Canadian affairs. This feeling, indeed, was fast subsiding, and could hardly then be called a popular feeling at all. Take them for all in all, the “Hunters' lodges" were as thorough a hoax, on a large scale, as has been played off these many years. Of the many, whose names figured on the lodge-books, a small number, only, ever thought to raise a finger “ in the beaten way" of fighting; and, even of that small number, the zeal of most needed little cooling. The hostility of the Upper Canadians was no sooner proved, than it was found efficient to this end. Sir George's spies, by the information they gave, cost Canada a world of useless alarm, and Great Britain a goodly amount of gold. Less than half the arming, drilling, marching, and paying, that grew out of it, would amply have sufficed to secure the provinces from any second Prescott expedition.
As regards the coming winter, two things are tolerably certain ; first, that there is now no general feeling of interest in the Patriot cause, even along our frontier, and no approach to it in any other part of the country; and, second, that in Canada, as well as on our frontier, there is a class of men who desire war, and are bent on mischief. On our side, these men take the name of “ Patriots.” Some of them, — by no means a majority, — are from Canada ; very few, Canadians or Americans, are of a character to do any honor to any cause. The better class of refugees and emigrants from Canada (and this class is far from small) have no dealings with them. In Canada, no party is more averse to the war-clamor, or more sincerely deprecates “patriot” expeditions, than the intelligent liberal party of the Upper Province. Engaged in a political struggle, in which success is all-important to them, and with a fair prospect, to say the least, if they can but have fair play, they see in this brigand movement the one great obstacle in the way of their success. The High Church Oligarchy, and their adherents, are the only party that gain by it. It gives them what they most stand in need of, - a hold on the public mind. It casts an odium on the cause they fear and hate, and enables them to vilify and harass the friends of liberal and good government in the province, by ascribing to them the actions they most deprecate. No wonder it is this party, that is ever most ready with false rumors of fresh risings and invasions. The friends of liberal principles will surely not be guilty of the folly of playing into their hands.
Of the general result of the discussions, at present going on in the provinces, provided they are left to their natural course, no great doubt can be entertained. The four lower provinces have each a House of Assembly, pledged by their past course, to support the Durham recommendation of “responsible government”; and in each the great body of the people holds, and has long held, the same doctrine. Lower Canada has, strictly speaking, no political parties at all. The English race, in general, for the present, looks at the “responsible government” project with disfavor ; but this is just because, in times past, the other race has demanded it. Unite the provinces, and so put their race in the majority ; and in a very short time they will be the ârst to insist upon it. In Upper Canada, all parties may, in point of fact, be said to insist on it already. The high Tories object to it in name, and that with no little clamor ; but they are as warm, as any of their neighbours, against Imperial interference, the moment it affects themselves. Au reste, the open secession of their allies of all shades, -- the allies by whose aid alone they were victorious at the last election, - threatens their party with political annihilation at the next.
The British government, we have remarked, has pronounced itself against the concession of this principle of " local in