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1944 TH

hold its sessions, and will direct the number and description of the military forces which shall be appointed for its security, and have them at its order.

ART. 33. Representatives may be re-elected.

ART. 34. The members of the national assembly are the representatives, not of the department which nominates them, but of the whole of France.

ART. 35. They cannot receive imperative instructions.

Art. 36. The persons of the representatives of the people are inviolable. They cannot be pursued, accused, nor condemned, at any time, for opinions uttered within the assembly.

ART. 37. They cannot be arrested for criminal offences, excepting when taken in the very fact, nor prosecuted, until after permission granted for such purpose by the assembly. In case of an arrest in the very fact, the matter shall immediately be referred to the assembly, which shall authorize or refuse the continuation of the prosecution. The above regulation to apply also to the case of citizens imprisoned at the time of being named representatives.

ART. 38. Every representative of the people is to receive a remuneration, which he is not at liberty to renounce.

ART. 39. The sittings of the assembly are to be public. Nevertheless, the assembly may form itself into a secret committee, on the requisition of a number of representatives, as settled by the rules. Each representative has the right of initiating parliamentary measures, which he will do according to the forms determined by the regulations.

Art. 40. The presence of half the members, and also one over, is necessary to vote on any law.

ART. 41. No bill (except in cases of urgency) shall be passed till after it has undergone three readings, at intervals of not less than five days between each reading. • ART. 42. Every proposition, the object of which is to

declare the urgency of a measure, must be preceded by an explanation of motives. If the assembly is of opinion to accede to the proposition, it will fix the time when the report upon the necessity of the case shall be represented. On this report, if the assembly admit the urgency of the case, it will declare it and fix the time of the debate. If it decides against the urgency of the case, the motion will have to go through the usual course.

CHAPTER V.

Of the Executive Power. ART. 43. The French people delegate the executive power to a citizen, who shall receive the title of president of the republic.

ART. 44. The president must be born a Frenchman, thirty years of age at least, and must never have lost the quality of Frenchman.

Art. 45. The president of the republic shall be elected for four years, and shall not be eligible for re-election until after an interval of four years. Neither shall the vice-president, nor any of his relations or kindred of the president, to the sixth degree inclusive, be eligible for re-election after him, within the same interval of time.

ART. 46. The election shall take place on the second Sunday in the month of May. If, in the event of death or resignation, or from any other cause, a president be elected at any other period, his power shall expire on the second Sunday of the month of May, in the fourth year following his election. The president shall be elected by secret ballot, and by an absolute majority of votes, by the direct suffrage of all the electors of the French departments and of Algeria

ART. 47. The records of the electoral operations shall be transmitted immediately to the national assembly, which

shall determine without delay upon the validity of the election, and shall proclaim the president of the republic. If no candidate shall have obtained more than one-half of the votes given, and at the least two millions of votes, or if the conditions required by article 44 are not fulfilled, the national assembly shall elect the president of the republic by an absolute majority, and by ballot, from among the five candidates eligible who shall have obtained the greatest number of votes.

ART. 48. Before entering upon his functions, the president of the republic shall, in the presence of the assembly, take an oath of the tenor following: “In presence of God, and before the French people, represented by the national assembly, I swear to remain faithful to the democratic republic, one and indivisible, and to fulfil all the duties which the constitution imposes upon me."

ART. 49. He shall have the right of presenting bills through the ministers in the national assembly. He shall watch over and secure the execution of the laws.

ART. 50. He shall have the disposal of the armed force, . without ever being allowed to command it in person.

ART. 51. He cannot cede any portion of the territory, nor dissolve or prorogue the national assembly, nor suspend the operation of the constitution and the laws.

ART. 52. He shall annually present, by a message to the national assembly, an exposition of the general state of the affairs of the republic.

ART. 53. He shall negotiate and ratify treaties. No treaty shall be definitive until after it has been approved by the national assembly. .

ART. 54. He shall watch over the defence of the state, but he shall not undertake any war without the consent of the national assembly. Art. 55. He shall possess the right of pardon; but he

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shall not have the power to exercise this right until after he has taken the advice of the council of state. Amnesties shall only be granted by an express law. The president of the republic, the ministers, as well as all other persons condemned by the high court of justice, can only be pardoned by the national assembly.

ART. 56. The president of the republic shall promulgate the laws in the name of the French people.

Art. 57. Laws of emergency shall be promulgated three days after, and other laws one month after their passing, counting from the day on which they were passed by the national assembly.

ART. 58. Previous to the day fixed for the promulgation, the president may, by a message assigning reasons therefor, demand a reconsideration of the law. The assembly shall then reconsider it, its resolution becomes definitive, and shall be transmitted to the president of the republic. In such a case, the promulgation shall be made within the delay allowed to laws of emergency.

Art. 59. In default of the promulgation of laws by the president, within the period fixed by the preceding articles, the president of the assembly shall provide for their due promulgation.

ART. 60. The credentials of envoys and ambassadors from foreign powers shall be addressed to the president of the republic.

ART. 61. He shall preside at all national solemnities.

ART. 62. He shall be furnished with a residence at the expense of the republic, and shall receive an allowance of six hundred thousand francs per annum.

ART. 63. He shall reside in the place in which the national assembly holds its sessions, and may not leave the continental territory of the republic without being authorized by law so to do.

ART. 64. The president of the republic shall have power to appoint and revoke the appointment of the ministers. He shall appoint and revoke, in a council of ministers, the diplomatic agents, commanders-in-chief of the armies of the republic by sea and land, prefects and the chief commandant of the national guards of the Seine, the governors of Algeria and the other colonies, the attorney-general and all other functionaries of superior rank. He shall appoint and dismiss, at the suggestion of the competent minister, according to the terms and conditions fixed by law, all other officers and functionaries of the government of secondary rank.

ART. 65. He shall have the right of suspending, for a period not exceeding three months, the agents of the executive power elected by the people. He shall not be able to dismiss them unless by the advice of the council of state. The law will determine the case in which agents, having been dismissed, may be declared not to be eligible again for the same office. Such a declaration of ineligibility can only be pronounced by a formal judgment.

ART. 66. The number of ministers and their several powers, duties and emoluments shall be settled by the legislative power.

Art. 67. The acts of the president, excepting those by which he appoints or dismisses the ministers of the republic, shall be of no effect, unless countersigned by a minister.

ART. 68. The president of the republic, the ministers, the agents, and all the other depositaries of public authority, shall be responsible, each in so far as he is concerned, for all the acts of the government and of the administration. · Every measure by which the president of the republic shall dissolve or prorogue the assembly, or interpose any obstacle to the exercise of its public trust, shall be deemed a crime of high treason. By this sole act, the president becomes divested of his functions, and the people are bound not to

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