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JUDICIAL REGULATIONS. ART. 48. All justice emanates from the king; it is administered in his name by the judges, whom he nominates, and whom he institutes.
ART. 49. The judges named by the king are immovable.
ART. 50. The ordinary courts and tribunals existing are to be maintained, and there is to be no change but by virtue of a law.
Art. 51. The actual institution of the judges of commerce is preserved.
ART. 52. The office of justice of peace is equally preserved. The justices of peace, though named by the king, are not immovable.
ART. 53. No one can be deprived of his natural judges.
ART. 54. There cannot, in consequence, be extraordinary committees and tribunals created, under whatever title or denomination this ever might be.19
ART. 55. The debates will be public in criminal matters, at least when the publicity will not be dangerous to order and decency, and in that case the tribunal is to declare so by a distinct judgment.
ART. 56. The institution of juries is to be preserved; the changes which a longer experience may render necessary can only be effected by a law.
ART. 57. The punishment of confiscation of goods is abolished, and cannot be re-established.
ART. 58. The king has the right to pardon and to commute the punishment.
ART. 59. The civil code, and the actual laws existing
19 Art. 63 of the old charter:
In consequence there cannot be created extraordinary committees and tribunals. The juridictions prevôtales, if their re-establishment should be found necessary, are not comprised under this denomination.
that are not contrary to the present charter, will remain in full force until they shall be legally abrogated.
PARTICULAR RIGHTS GUARANTEED BY THE STATE. ART. 60. The military in actual service, retired officers and soldiers, widows, officers and soldiers on pension, are to preserve their grades, honors and pensions.
ART. 61. The public debt is guaranteed. Every sort of engagement made by the state with its creditors is to be inviolable.
ART. 62. The old nobility retake their titles. The new preserve theirs. The king creates nobles at his pleasure; but he only grants to them rank and honors, without any exemption from the charges and duties of society.
ART. 63. The legion of honor is to be maintained. The king shall determine its internal regulations and the decorations.
ART. 64. The colonies are to be governed by particular laws. 20
Art. 65. The king and his successors shall swear, at their accession, in presence of the two chambers, to observe faithfully the present constitutional charter. 21
ART. 66. The present charter, and the rights it consecrates, shall be intrusted to the patriotism and courage of the national guard and all the citizens.
ART. 67. France resumes her colors. For the future there will be no other cockade than the tri-colored cockade. 22
20 Art. 73 of the old charter: The colonies will be governed by particular laws and regulations. 21 Art. 74 of the old charter:
The king and his successors shall swear at the coronation, to observe faithfully the present constitutional charter.
22 Arts. 75 and 76 of the old charter are suppressed; they ran thus:
75. The deputies of the departments of France who sat in the
ART. 68. All the creations of peers during the reign of Charles X. are declared null and void.
Article 23 of the charter will undergo a fresh examination during the session of 1831.
ART. 69. There will be provided successively by separate laws, and that with the shortest possible delay, for the following subjects :
1. The extension of the trial by jury to offences of the press, and political offences.
2. The responsibility of ministers and the secondary agents of government.
3. The re-election of deputies appointed to public functions with salaries.
4. The annual voting of the army estimates.
5. The organization of the national guards with the intervention of the national guards in the choice of their officers.
6. Provisions which insure, in a legal manner, the state of officers of each grade, by land and sea.
7. Departmental and municipal institutions founded upon an elective system.
8. Public instruction and the liberty of instruction.
9. The abolition of the double vote; the settling of the electoral conditions, and that of eligibility.
ART. 70. All laws and ordinances, inasmuch as they are contrary to the provisions adopted by the reform of the charter, are from this moment annulled and abrogated.
We give it in command to our courts and tribunals, administrative bodies, and all others, that they observe and
legislative body, at the last adjournment, will continue to sit in the chamber of deputies, until replaced.
76. The first renewal of the fifth of the chamber of deputies will take place the latest in the year 1816, according to the order established.
maintain the present constitutional charter, cause to be observed, followed and maintained, and in order to render it more known to all, they cause it to be published in all municipalities of the kingdom and everywhere, where it will be necessary, and in order that this be firm and stable for ever, we have caused our seal to be put to it.
Done at the Palais-Royal, at Paris, the 14th day of the month of August, in the year 1830.
Signed LOUIS PHILIPPE.
By the king:
The Minister Secretary of the State for the department of the Interior.
Examined and sealed with the great seal:
The keeper of the seals, Minister Secretary of the State for the department of Justice.
Signed DUPONT (de l'Eure).
CONSTITUTION OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC.
ADOPTED NOVEMBER, 1848.
In presence of God, and in the name of the French people, the National Assembly proclaims :
I. France has constituted herself a republic. In adopting that definitive form of government, her proposed aim is to advance with greater freedom in the path of civilization and progress, to insure that the burdens and advantages of society shall be more and more equitably apportioned, to augment the comfort of every individual by the gradual reduction of the public expenses and taxes, and by the successive and constant action of her institutions and laws cause the whole body of citizens to attain, without farther commotion, a constantly increasing degree of morality, intelligence, and prosperity.
II. The French republic is democratic, one and indivisible.
III. It recognizes rights and duties anterior and superior to all positive laws.
IV. Its principles are Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.
V. It respects the nationality of foreign states, as it causes its own to be respected. It undertakes no wars with a view of conquest, and never employs its power against the liberty of any people.