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AUTUMN:

THE THIRD PASTORAL',

OR

HYLAS AND ÆGON.

TO MR. WYCHERLEY 2.

BENEATH the shade a spreading Beech displays,
Hylas and Ægon sung their rural lays;
This mourn'd a faithless, that an absent Love,
And Delia's name and Doris' fill'd the Grove.
Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred succour bring ;
Hylas and Ægon's rural lays I sing.

Thou, whom the Nine, with Plautus' wit inspire,
The art of Terence, and Menander's fire;

5

NOTES.

1 This Pastoral consists of two parts, like the vijith of Virgil : The Scene, a hill; the time at sun-set.-P.

His intrigues with the Duchess of Cleveland, his marriage with the Countess of Drogheda, Charles the Second's displeasure on this marriage, his debts and distresses, and other particulars of his life, are well related by Dennis in a letter to Major Pack, 1720. In Dennis's collection of Letters, published in two volumes, 1721, to which Mr. Pope subscribed, Lord Lansdown bas drawn his character, as a writer, in an elegant manner ; chiefly with a view of showing the impropriety of an epithet given to him by Lord Rochester, who called him Slow Wycherley ; for that, notwithstanding his pointed wit, and forcible expression, he composed with facility and haste.- Warton.

Ver. 7. Thou, whom the Nine,] Mr. Wycherley, a famous author of Comedies ; of which the most celebrated were the Plain-Dealer and Country-Wife. He was a writer of infinite spirit, satire, and wit. The only objection made to him was, that he had too much. However, he was followed in the same way by Mr. Congreve, tho' with a little more correctness.--P.

Surely with much more correctness, taste, and judgment.--Warlon.

Ver. 8. The art of Terence, and Menander's fire ;] This line alludes to that famous character given of Terence, by Cæsar :

“ Tu quoque, tu in summis, ô dimidiale Menander,

Poneris, et merito, puri sermonis amator :
Lenibus atque utinam scriptis adjuncta foret vis
Comica."

So

Whose sense instructs us, and whose humour charms,
Whose judgment sways us, and whose spirit warms!
Oh, skill'd in nature! see the hearts of Swains,
Their artless passions, and their tender pains.

Now setting Phoebus shone serenely bright,
And fleecy clouds were streak’d with purple light;
When tuneful Hylas with melodious moan,

15 Taught rocks to weep, and made the mountains groan.

Go, gentle gales, and bear my sighs away! To Delia's ear the tender notes convey. As some sad turtle his lost love deplores, And with deep murmurs fills the sounding shores; 20 Thus, far from Delia, to the winds I mourn, Alike unheard, unpity'd, and forlorn.

Go, gentle gales, and bear my sighs along ! For her, the feather'd quires neglect their song : For her, the limes their pleasing shades deny; 25 For her, the lilies hang their heads and die. Ye flow'rs that droop, forsaken by the spring, Ye birds that, left by summer, cease to sing, Ye trees that fade when autumn-heats remove, Say, is not absence death to those who love? 30

Go, gentle gales, and bear my sighs away! Curs'd be the fields that cause my Delia's stay;

NOTES.

So that the judicious critic sces he should have said—with Menander's fire. For what the Poet meant, was, that his friend had joined to Terence's art, what Cæsar thought wanting in Terence, namely, the vis comica of Menander. Besides,—and Menander's fire, is making that the characteristic of Menander which was not. He was distinguished for having art and comic spirit in conjunction, and Terence having only the first part, is called the half of Menander.Warburton.

Ver. 9. Whose sense instructs us,] He was always very careful in his encomiums not to fall into ridicule, the deserved fate of weak and prostitute fatterers, and which they rarely escape. For sense, he would willingly have said moral ; propriety required it. But this dramatic Poet's moral was remarkably faulty. His plays are all shamefully profligate both in the dialogue and action.—Warburton.

Ver. 25.) This rich assemblage of very pleasing pastoral images, is yet excelled by Shenstone's beautiful Pastoral Ballad, in four parts.-Warton.

35

40

Fade ev'ry blossom, wither ev'ry tree,
Die ev'ry flow'r, and perish all, but she.
What have I said? where'er my Delia flies,
Let spring attend, and sudden flow'rs arise;
Let op'ning roses knotted oaks adorn,
And liquid amber drop from ev'ry thorn.

Go, gentle gales, and bear my sighs along !
The birds shall cease to tune their ev’ning song,
The winds to breathe, the waving woods to move,
And streams to murmur, ere I cease to love.
Not bubbling fountains to the thirsty swain,
Not balmy sleep to lab'rers faint with pain,
Not show'rs to larks, nor sunshine to the bee,
Are half so charming as thy sight to me.

Go, gentle gales, and bear my sighs away!
Come, Delia, come; ah, why this long delay?

45

NOTES.

Ver. 43. Not bubbling] The turn of these four lines is evidently borrowed from Drummond of Hawthornden, a charming but neglected poct. He was born 1585, and died 1649. His verses are as smooth as Waller's, whom he preceded many years, having written a poem to King James, 1617, whereas Waller's first composition was to Charles I. 1625. His Sonnets are exquisitely beautiful and correct. He was one of our first, and best imitators of the Italian poets, and Milton had certainly read and admired him, as appears by many passages that might be quoted for that purpose.

The four lines mentioned above follow :
To virgins flow'rs, to sun-burnt earth the rain,
To mariners fair winds amid the main,
Cool shades to pilgrims, whom hot glances burn,

Are not so pleasing as thy blest return.
And afterwards again our author borrows in Abelard ;

The grief was common, common were the cries. I will just add, that Drayton's Pastorals, and his Nymphidia, do not seem to be attended to so much as they deserve.-Warton.

VARIATIONS.

Ver. 48. Originally thus in the MS.

With him through Lybia's burning plains I'll go
On Alpine mountains tread th' eternal snow :

IMITATIONS.
Ver. 37.

“ Aurea duræ Mala ferant quercus ; narcisso floreat alnus, Pinguia corticibus sudent electra myricæ.”

Virg. Ecl. viii.-P. Ver. 43, &c. “Quale sopor fessis in gramine, quale per æstum

Dulcis aquæ saliente sitim restinguere rivo.” Ecl. v.-P

Thro' rocks and caves the name of Delia sounds,
Delia, each cave and echoing rock rebounds. 50
Ye pow’rs, what pleasing phrenzy sooths my mind!
Do lovers dream, or is my Delia kind ?
She comes, my Delia comes !—Now cease my lay,
And cease, ye gales, to bear my sighs away!

Next Ægon sung, while Windsor groves admir’d; Rehearse, ye Muses, what yourselves inspir’d.

Resound, ye hills, resound my mournful strain!
Of perjur'd Doris, dying I complain :
Here, where the mountains, less'ning as they rise,
Lose the low vales, and steal into the skies :

60
While lab’ring oxen, spent with toil and heat,
In their loose traces from the field retreat :
While curling smoaks from village tops are seen,
And the fleet shades glide o'er the dusky green.

Resound, ye hills, resound my mournful lay! 65 Beneath yon' poplar oft we past the day: Oft' on the rind I carv'd her am'rous vows, While she with garlands hung the bending boughs: The garlands fade, the vows are worn away; So dies her love, and so my hopes decay.

70 Resound, ye hills, resound my mournful strain ! Now bright Arcturus glads the teeming grain, Now golden fruits on loaded branches shine, And grateful clusters swell with floods of wine;

NOTES.

Ver. 68. While she with garlands hung the bending boughs :) This line forcibly recalls the beautiful description of the “ Poor Ophelia.”

There with fantastic garlands did she come,
Of crow-flow’rs, nettles, daisies, and long-purples ;
There on the pendant boughs, her coronet weeds,
Clamb’ring to hang, an envious sliver broke.-Stevens.

VARIATIONS.

Yet feel no heat but what our loves impart,
And dread no coldness but in Thyrsis' heart.-Warburton.

IMITATIONS.
Ver. 52. “ An qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt ?”

Id. viii.-P.

Now blushing berries paint the yellow grove; 75 Just Gods ! shall all things yield returns but love?

Resound, ye hills, resound my mournful lay! The shepherds cry, " Thy flocks are left a prey”Ah! what avails it me, the flocks to keep, Who lost my heart while I preserv'd my sheep? 80 Pan came, and ask'd, what magic caus'd my smart, Or what ill eyes malignant glances dart? What eyes but hers, alas, have pow'r to move ! And is there magic but what dwells in love!

Resound, ye hills, resound my mournful strains ! 85 I'll fly from shepherds, flocks, and flow'ry plains, From shepherds, flocks, and plains, I may remove, Forsake mankind, and all the world--but love! I know thee, Love! on foreign mountains bred, Wolves gave thee suck, and savage tigers fed. 90 Thou wert from Ætna's burning entrails torn, Got by fierce whirlwinds, and in thunder born!

Resound, ye hills, resound my mournful lay! Farewell, ye woods, adieu the light of day! One leap from yonder cliff shall end my pains,

95 No more, ye hills, no more resound my strains !

the shepherds till th' approach of night, The skies yet blushing with departing light,

Thus sung

NOTES.

Ver. 97. Thus sung] Among the multitude of English Poets who wrote Pastorals, Fairfax, to whom our Versification is thought to be so much indebted, ought to be mentioned. He wrote ten or twelve Eclogues after the accession of James I. They were like those of the Mantuan and Spenser, allegorical, and alluded to the manners and characters of the times, and contained many satirical strokes against the King and his Court. They were lost in the fire that consumed the Banqueting House at Whitehall: but it is said that Mr. W. Fairfax, his son, recovered them

IMITATIONS.

66

Ver. 82. Or what ill eyes]

Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos.”—P. Ver. 89. “ Nunc scio quid sit Amor : duris in cotibus illum,” &c.— P.

This from Virgil is much inferior to the passage in Theocritus, from whence it is taken.-Warton.

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