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USH0077,20
U570071 20 (1852)

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by

GEORGE P. SANGER, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

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P R E F A C E.

The twenty-ninth volume of the Ainerican Almanac, being the ninth volume of the third series, is now offered to the public. Unwearied pains has been taken to collect full, authentic, and varied information concerning the complex affairs of the general and State governments; and a mass of official documents and private correspondence has been digested relating to the government, finances, legislation, public institutions, internal improvements, and resources of the United States, and of the several States. It is hoped that the present volume will be found equal to its predecessors in fulness and accuracy, and that it will sustain the high character of the American Almanac as a trustworthy manual for reference and a full repository of useful knowledge.

The Astronomical Department has been prepared by Mr. George P. Bond, Assistant Observer at the Cambridge Observatory. The article upon “Terrestrial Magnetism” is concluded from last year. There is an interesting paper upon Stellar Photography. A page is devoted to the climate of Bengal.

In the Second Part of the volume will be found full lists of the Executive and Judiciary of the General Government, including the chief officers and clerks of the several Departments, and of the Court of Claims; of Collectors of Customs, of Postmasters in the principal places, of Army and Navy Pension Agents, and of the Indian Superintendents and Agents; of the Inspectors of Steamboats and their Districts; of the Army, and the various Military Departments and Posts under the new organization; of the Navy, the public vessels, and the Marine Corps; of our Ministers and Consuls in Foreign Countries, and of Foreign Ministers and Consuls in the United States. In the Navy List will be found the Navy Officers dropped or retired under the recent law. These lists have been corrected from official sources to the latest dates possible for publication. Later changes are noted in the “Additions and Corrections,” at the end of the volume. The titles Commerce and Navigation, and Revenue and Expenditure, published each year in the Almanac, are full and complete abstracts of the public documents of the same name, and the tables connected therewith, and, with the Post-Office, Mint, and Public Lands, show the receipts and expenditures of the Government under their several heads, the public debt, the imports, exports, tonnage, coinage, sales of land, and the operations of the Post-Office Department, for each year since the adoption of the Federal Constitution. The Quantity and Value of the Cotton, Rice, Tobacco, and Breadstuffs, exported each year, since 1820 ; the imports from and exports to Canada, &c., since 1851; the Cost of Custom-Houses and Revenue-Cutters, and other Expenses of the Collection of Customs; the Gross Revenue from Customs since 1825; the Cost of Coinage at the Mint and

Branches since 1794 ; and the Statement of the Marine Hospital Fund, by States, – are given in the Tables. The rates of postage, with the inland and foreign mail service, are believed to be complete and correct. The Titles and Abstracts of the Public Laws and Joint Resolutions have been carefully prepared, and are sufficiently full, except for professional use. Among those this year of special interest are the Acts relative to the dropped Officers of the Navy; to enforce the Attendance of Witnesses before Congressional Committees, and to compel them to give Testimony; to increase the Pay of Army Officers ; relative to Foreign Coins, and the Coinage of Cents; enabling Minnesota to form a State Government; to expedite Telegraphic Communication; relative to the exploration of the Parana and the tributaries of the Paraguay; to Grants of Land for Railroad Purposes ; reducing the Duties on Imports; and for the Punishment of Certain Crimes. The Tariff of 1857 is digested and alphabetically arranged, and the decisions of the Secretary of the Treasury are added. Tables of Railroads in this country and in Canada, and of the surveyed routes to the Pacific; of Colleges and Professional Schools in the United States; of the Population of the several States at the decennial periods ; of the Debts, Property, and Expenses of the States; and of the times of the

State Elections and the meetings of the State Legislatures, are given. The information concern. ing the Individual States is as full as in former years. It is believed that nowhere else can be found collected such full details respecting the Executive and Judiciary, the finances, schools, charitable institutions, and pauperism and crime, of the several States. Should any one note inaccuracies or deficiencies therein, he is urgently requested to correct them. The European part of the work, revised from the best authority to the latest dates, gives the several States of Europe, with their form of government, the name, title, and date of accession of the reigning sovereigns, the area and population of the several countries. It also gives the Royal Family, the Ministry, and the Judiciary of England, and the Ministry of France. The Obituary Notices and Chronicle of Events have been prepared with care. The space is so limited, that many names and events which otherwise would be given are necessarily omitted.

The thanks of the Editor are particularly due to the Heads of Depart. ments at Washington, and to his many contributors and correspondenis, to whom the work is indebted for a great part of its value. A continuance of their favors is respectfully solicited. A work embracing such a multitude of facts must necessarily contain errors; persons who may detect any are earnestly requested to communicate them to the Editor. It is particularly desirable that these communications should not be anonymous. It is frequently a source of regret to the Editor, that he cannot suitably acknowledge the valuable hints and assistance of anonymous correspondents. It is a matter of some public interest, that a periodical which circulates so widely, both in Europe and America, and which is so universally trusted as a manual for reference, should be rendered as accurate as possible; and this end can be obtained only by the co-operation of many individuals. Communications should be addressed to the i. Editor of the American Al.

manac,” Boston.

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CONTENTS.

PAGE

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U. S. Expenditure from 1789 to 1856, 153 Rates of Postage in United States, . . 184

U. S. Revenue from 1789 to 1856, 154

Privilege of Franking,

186

Imports, Exports, Debt, for 67 Years, 155 Rates of Foreign Letter and News.

II. Commerce and Navigation,

156

paper Postage, &c.,

187 - 195

Value of Imports, 1855 – 56,

Foreign Magazine and Pamphlet

Value of Imports for five Years,.... 159 Postage,...

195

Value or Exports, 1853 - 1856, 160 Registration or Lellers,..

196

Imports from and Exports to Foreign Receipts and Expenses from and for

Countries in 1855 - 56, .

162 Postages in each Slate in 1856, .. 196

Tonnage of Vessels in Foreign Trade. 163 Carriers and dead lcilers,

197

Quantity and Value of Exports of 14. Congress,..

197

Cotton, Rice, Tobacco, and Bread-

Senate,

198

sluffs, since 1820,..

161 House of Representatives,..

200

Imports and Exports of each State, 165 Alphabetical List of Representatives, 203

Vessels built in U. States, and their 15. Court of Claims,...

204

Tonnage, in 1856,

165 16. Seventh Census of United States,.... 205

Comparative View of Tonnage from 17. Colleges in the United States, 206

1815 to 1856, .

166 Annual College Expenses,

209

Commercial Marine of United States, 166 Theological Schools,..

Vessels built, and their Tonnage, since

Law Schools,

210

1815, and 'Tonnage sold in 1856,.. 167 Medical Schools, ....

211

Imports from German Zoll Verein, &c. 168 18. Smithsonian Institution,

211

Exports and Imports lo and from 19. Religious Denominations,.......... 212

Canada. &c., from 1851 to 1856,.. 168 20. State Elections, Legislatures, &c.,.. 212

Cost of Custom Houses, Revenue 21. Governors of States and Territories, . 213

Cullers, and of Collection of Cus. 22. Population of the United States,..... 214

loms; Gross Revenue from Cus. 23. Slaves in the United States,

214

toms since 1825. Cost of Coinage 21. Population of some Principal Cities, 215

at Mint, &c....

169 25. Mint,

215

Marine Hospital Fund,

169 Officers of Mint,

12. Tariff of 1957...

170 Coinage in 1856 and 1857,..

216

Decisions of Secretary of Treasury, 177 Coinage of the Mint since 1792, 169-217

13. Posl-Office Department,

178 26. Finances of the States, ........

218, 219

Mail-service for 1856,

179 27. Banks in the United States,

........ 220

No. of Post Offices, &c. since 1790,.. 180 23. Public Lands,...

222

Foreign Mail Service, .

181 29: Railroads in the United States, . 224 - 227

Revenue and Expenditure,...

183 Railroads in Canada,...

228

Compensation of Postmasters,...... 184 Surveys for Railroad to Pacific, 228

INDIVIDUAL STATES.

1. Maine,

229 21. Arkansas,

306

2. New Hampshire,.......

233 22. Tennessee,

309

3. Verinont,

236 23. Kentucky,

311

4. Massachusetts, ................... 239 21. Ohio,

314

5. Rhode Island, .................... 251 25. Michigan, .......

318

6. Connecticut, .....................

255 26. Indiana,.

........... 320

7. New York, ......................

259 27. Illinois,

325

8. New Jersey,

269 28. Missouri,

326

9. Pennsylvania,

272 29. Iowa,

329

10. Delaware,

279 | 30. Wisconsin,

333

11. Maryland,

280 31. California,

335

12. Virginia, .

284 32. Oregon Territory,

............. 337

13 North Carolina,

287 33. Minnesota Territory,

338

14. South Carolina, .

239 | 31. Ulah Territory,..

338

15. Georgia,

292 35. New Mexico Territory,

339

16. Florida,

291 36. Washington Territory,

339

17. Alabama,

296 | 37. Kansas Territory,.

................ 339

18. Mississippi,

293 33. Nebraska Territory,

339

19. Louisiana,

300 39. District of Columbia,

310

20. Texas,

303)

AMERICAN STATES.

Governments of North America......... 340 Governments of South America,........ 311

West Indian Governments,

341 | Population of the Globe,

341

EUROFE.

Rcigning Sovereigns of Europe,

312 | Great Britain,.

344

States of Europe, .

... 313 | Ministry of France,

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