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Of this disgrace it may be easily supposed that he was much ashamed, and shame had its proper effect in producing reformation. He resolved from that time to study eight hours a-day, and continued his industry for seven years, with what improvement is sufficiently known. This part of his story well deserves to be remembered; it may afford useful -admonition and powerful encouragement to men, whose abilities have been made for a time useless by their passions or pleasures, and who having lost one part of life in idleness, are tempted to throw away the remainder in despair. In this course of daily application he continued three years longer at Dublin; and in this time, if the observation of an old companion may be trusted he drew the first sketch of his “Tale of a Tub.” When he was about one-and-twenty (1688), being by the death of Godwin Swift his uncle, who had supported him, left without subsistence, he went to consult his mother, who then lived at Leicester, about the future course of his life, and by her direction solicited the advice and patronage of Sir William Temple, who had married one of Mrs. Swift's relations, and whose father Sir John-Temple, Master of the Rolls in Ireland, had lived in great familiarity of friendship with Godwin Swift, by whom Jonathan had been to that time maintained. “: Temple received with sufficient kindness the nephew of his father's friend, with whom he was, when they conversed together, so much pleased, that he detained him two years in his house. Here he became known to King William, who sometimes visited Temple when he was disabled by the gout, and, being attended by Swift in the garden, shewed him how to cut asparagus in the Dutch way. - - - - King William's notions were all military; and he expressed his kindness to Swift by offering to make him a captain of horse. • When Temple removed to Moor-park, he took Swift with him; and when he was consulted by the Earl of Portland about the expedience of complying with a bill then depending for making parliaments triennial, against which King William was strongly prejudiced, after having in vain tried to shew the Earl that the proposal involved nothing dangerous to royal power, he sent Swift for the same purpose to the King. Swift, who probably was proud of his employment, and went with all the confidence of a young man, found his arguments, and his art of displaying them, made totally ineffectual by the predetermination of the King; and used to mention this disappointment as his first antidote against vanity. Before he left Ireland he contracted a disorder, as he thought, by eating too much fruit. The original of diseases is commonly obscure. Almost every boy eats as much fruit as he can get, without any great inconvenience. The disease of Swift was giddiness with deafness, which attacked him from time to time, began very early, pursued him through life, and at last sent him to the grave, deprived of reason. - Being Being much oppressed at Moor-park by this grievous malady, he wo advised to try his native air, and went to Ireland; but finding no benefit, returned to Sir William, at whose house he continued his studies, and is known to have read among other books, “Cyprian” and Irenaeus.” He thought exercise of great necessity, and used to run half a mile up and down a hill every two hours. It is easy to imagine that the mode in which his first degree was conferred left him no great fondness for the University of Dublin, and therefore he resolved to become a Master of Arts at Oxford. In the testimonial which he produced, the words of disgrace were omitted; and he took his Master's degree (July the 5, 1692) with such reception and regard as fully contented him. While he lived with Temple, he used to pay his mother at Leicester : yearly visit. He travelled on foot, unless some violence of weather drove him into a waggon, and at night he would go to a penny lodging, where he purchased clean sheets for six-pence. This practice Lord Orrery imputes to his innate love of grossness and vulgarity : some may ascribe it to his desire of surveying human life through all its varieties; and others, perhaps, with equal probability, to a passion which seems to have been deep fixed in his heart, the love of a shilling. In time he began to think that his attendance at Moor-park deserved some other recompence than the pleasure, however mingled with improve ment, of Temple's conversation; and grew so impatient, that (1694) he went away in discontent. . Temple, conscious of having given reason for complaint, is said to have made him Deputy Master of the Rolls in Ireland; which, according to his kinsman's account, was an office which he knew him not able to discharge. } Swift therefore resolved to enter into the Church, in which he had at first! no higher hopes than of the chaplainship to the Factory at Lisbon ; but being recommended to Lord Capel, he obtained the prebend of Kilroatin Connor, of about an hundred pounds a year. But the infirmities of Temple made a companion like Swift so necessary, that he invited him back, with a promise to procure him English preferment, in exchange for the prebend which he desired him to resign. With this request Swift complied, having perhaps equally repented their separation, and they lived on together with mutual satisfaction; and, in the four years that passed between his return and Temple's death it is probable that he wrote the o Tale of a Tub” and the “Battle of the Books." Swift began early to think, or to hope, that he was a poet, and wrote Pindarick Odes to Temple, to the King, and to the Athenian society.” knot of obscure men", who published a periodical pamphlet of answers”

* The Publisher of this Collection was John Dunton, E. - - questions

questions sent, or supposed to be sent, by Letters. I have been told that Dryden, having perused these verses, said, “ Cousin Swift, you will ne– “ver be a poet;” and that this denunciation was the motive of Swift's perpetual malevolence to Dryden. In 1699 Temple died, and left a legacy with his manuscripts to Swift, for whom he had obtained, from King William a promise of the first prebend that should be vacant at Westminster or Canterbury. That this promise might not be forgotten, Swift dedicated to the King the posthumous works with which he was intrusted; but neither the dedication, nor tenderness for the man whom he once had treated with confidence and fondness, revived in King William the remembrance of his promise. Swift awhile attended the Court; but soon found his solicitations hopeless. He was then invited by the Earl of Berkeley to accompany him into Ireland, as his private secretary; but after having done the business till their arrival at Dublin, he then found that one Bush had persuaded the Earl that a Clergyman was not a proper secretary, and had obtained the office for himself. In a man like Swift, such circumvention and inconstancy must have excited violent indignation. But he had yet more to suffer. Lord Berkeley had the disposal of the deanery of Derry, and Swift expected to obtain it; but by the secretary's influence supposed to have been secured by a bribe, it was bestowed oil somebody else; and Swift was dismissed with the livings of Laracor and Rathbeggin in the diocese of Meath, which together did not equal half the value of the deanery. At Laracor he increased the parochial duty by reading prayers on Wednesdays and Fridays, and performed all the offices of his profession with great decency and exactness. Soon after his settlement at Laracor, he invited to Ireland the unfortunate Stella, a young woman whose name was Johnson, the daughter of the steward of Sir William Temple, who, in consideration of her father's virtues, left her a thousand pounds. With her came Mrs. Dingley, whose

whole fortune was twenty-seven pounds a year for her life... With these la

dies he passed his hours of relaxation, and to them he opened his bosom ; but they never resided in the same house, nor did he see either without a witness. They lived at the Parsonage, when Swift was away; and when he returned, reihoved to a lodging, or to the house of a neighbouring clergyman. Swift was not one of those minds which amaze the world with early pregnancy: his first work, except his few poetical Essays, was the “Dis“sentions in Athens and Rome,” published in (1701) in his thirty-fourth

year. After its appearance, paying a visit to some bishop, he heard men

tion made of the new pamphlet that Burnet had written, replete with political knowledge. When he seemed to doubt Burnet's right to the work, - he he was told by the Bishop, that he was “a young man;" and, still persisting to doubt, that he was “a very positive young man.” Three years afterward (1704) was published “The Tale of a Tub:” of this book charity may be persuaded to think that it might be written by a man of a peculiar character, without ill intention; but it is certainly of dangerous example. That Swift was its author, though it be universally believed, was never owned by himself, nor very well proved by any evidence; but no other claimant can be produced, and he did not deny it when Archbishop Sharp and the Duchess of Somerset by shewing it to the Queen, debarred him from a bishoprick. When this wild work first raised the attention of the public, Sacheverell, meeting Smalridge, tried to flatter him, seeming to think him the author; but Smalridge answered with indignation, “Not all that you and I have “ in the world, nor all that ever we shall have, should hire me to write “ the Tale of a Tub.” The digressions relating to Wotton and Bentley must be confessed to discover want of knowledge, or want of integrity; he did not understand the two controversies, or he willingly misrepresented them. But Wit can stant, its ground against Truth only a little while. The honours due to Learning have been justly distributed by the decision of posterity. “ The Battle of the Books” is so like the “Combat des Livres” which the same question soncerning the Ancients and Moderns had produced in France, that the improbability of such a coincidence of thoughts without communication is not, in my opinion, balanced by the anonymous protestation prefixed, in which all knowledge of the French book is peremptorily disowned". For some time after Swift was probably employed in solitary study, gaining the qualifications requisite for future eminence. How often he visited England, and with what diligence he attended his parishes, I know not. It was not till about four years afterwards that he became a professed author; and then one year (1708) produced “The sentiments of a Church“ of England Man; the ridicule of Astrology, under the name of “Bic“ kerstaff;” the “Argument against abolishing Christianity;” and the defence of the “Sacramental Test.” . “ The Sentiments of a Church-of-England Man” is written with great coolness, moderation, ease, and perspicuity. The “Argument against “ abolishing Christianity” is a very happy and judicious irony. One passage in it deserves to be selected. “If Christianity were once abolished, how could the free-thinkers, the “ strong reasoners and the men of profound learning, be able to find ano“ ther subject so calculated, in all points, whereon to display their abilities?

* See Sheridan's Life, p, 451, where are some remarks on this passage, E,

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“What wonderful productions of wit should we be deprived of from “ those, whose genius, by continual practice, hath been wholly turned “ upon raillery and invectives against religion, and would therefore never be able to shine, or distinguish themselves, upon any other subject? We are daily complaining of the great decline of wit among us, and would take away the greatest, perhaps the only, topick we have left. Who would ever have suspected Asgill for a wit, or Toland for a philosopher, if the inexhaustible stock of Christianity had not been at hand to provide them with materials 2 What other subject, through all art or nature, could have produced Tindal for a profound author, or furnished him with readers ? It is the wise choice of the subject that alone adorns and distinguishes the writer. For had an hundred such pens as these been employed on the side of religion, they would have immediately sunk “ into silence and oblivion.” f The reasonableness of a Test is not hard to be proved; but perhaps it must be allowed that the proper test has not been chosen. The attention paid to the papers published under the name of “Bicker“staff,” induced Steele, when he projected the “Tatler,” to assume an appellation which had already gained possession of the reader's notice. In the year following he wrote a “Project for the advancement of Reli“gion,” addressed to Lady Berkeley; by whose kindness it is not unlikely that he was advanced to his benefices. To this project, which is formed with great purity of intention, and displayed with sprightliness and elegance, it can only be objected, that, like many projects, it is, if not generally impracticable, yet evidently hopeless, as it supposes more zeal, concord, and perseverance, than a view of mankind gives reason for expecting. He wrote likewise this year a “Vindication of Bickerstaff;” and an explanation of an “Ancient Prophecy," part written after the facts, and the rest never completed, but well planned to excite amazement. Soon after began the busy and important part of Swift's life. He was employed (1710) by the primate of Ireland to solicit the Queen for a remission of the First Fruits and Twentieth parts to the Irish Clergy. With this purpose he had recourse to Mr. Harley to whom he was mentioned as a man neglected and oppressed by the last ministry, because he had refused to co-operate with some of their schemes. What he had refused has never been told; what he had suffered was, I suppose, the exclusion from a bishoprick by the remonstrances of Sharp, whom he describes as “ the “ harmless tool of others hate,” and whom he represents as afterwards “suing for pardon." "... Harley's designs and situation were such as made him glad of an auxiliary so well qualified for his service; he therefore soon admitted him to familiarity, whether ever to confidence some have made a doubt; but it

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