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ed upon it the countries now inhabited; that, since the revolution, those few individuals whom it spared, have been spread and propagated over the lands newly left dry, and, consequently, it is only since this epoch that our societies have assumed a progressive march, have formed establishments, raised monuments, collected natural facts, and combined scientific systems.

"But the countries now inhabited and which the last revolution left dry, had been before inhabited, if not by mankind, at least by land animals; consequently, one preceding revolution, at least, had overwhelmed them with water; and if we may judge by the different orders of animals whose remains we find therein, they had perhaps undergone two or three irruptions of the sea." p. 179.*

The coincidence of time between the age of the world since this last revolution, as indicated by the inspection of the strata, and the date of the same event, according to the sacred writings, is remarkable. Our author asserts that this revolution did not occur further back than between five and six thousand years; it may have occurred at a later period. The age of the world since the deluge of Noah, according to the Septuagint, is about five thousand four hundred years; according to the Samaritan text, near four thousand nine hundred-according to the Hebrew text, near four thousand two hundred. Its probable date, then, was not earlier than the most ancient of these, and may have been as late as either.

Fossil osteology is entirely a new science, yet so prolific has been its results, that naturalists, at the head of whom is the Baron Cuvier himself, "have determined and classed the remains of more than one hundred and fifty mammiferous and oviparous quadrupeds" of the extinct races.

"Considered relatively to the species, more than ninety of these animals are certainly unknown to present naturalists; eleven or twelve have so exact a resemblance to known species, that there can scarcely be any doubt of their identity; others present, with the known species, many points of similarity, but the comparison has not been made with sufficient accuracy to remove all scruples.

"Considered with regard to genera, amongst the ninety unknown species, there are nearly sixty which belong to new genera; the other species belong to known genera.

Of the hundred and fifty species, about a fourth are oviparous quadrupeds, and all the others are mammiferous. Amongst these, more than half belong to non-ruminating hoofed animals." p. 66.

Presuming that it would not be uninteresting to some of our readers to become acquainted with the natural history of the *This translation is extremely careless. 11

VOL. VIII.—NO. 15.

strange and monstrous beings which inhabited our continents, before the deluge-as demonstrated by their skeletons discovered in the ancient formations, and brought to light by the indefatigable exertions of our author, Dr. Buck land and otherswe shall notice a few of those which have seemed to us most remarkable.

With respect to these animals and the strata to which they belong, it must be kept in mind that though there probably have been, as supposed by the Baron, three grand inundations of the world; yet it is conceded on all hands by geologists, that there have been numerous partial deluges, which have desolated particular regions only. This is as clearly proved by the state of the strata, as any fact in the whole history of the earth. Some of these animals may have been destroyed by these partial revolutions, the rest of the race still existing elsewhere.

The Ichthyosaurus, discovered by Sir Everard Home, and the Plesiosaurus, an account of which was rendered by Mr. Conybeare to the Geological Society of London, some years ago, are very remarkable for the strangeness of their forms. Four species of the Ichthyosaurus have been detected; the common exceeding twenty feet in length, and a much larger species which had enormous eyes, a short neck, a long tail, and broad and flat paddles like a turtle. The Plesiosaurus of which an almost entire skeleton is said now to be in the possession of the Duke of Buckingham, was sometimes twenty feet in length. It is most extraordinary for being unlike all quadrupeds and mammalia, in the length of its neck, the number of cervical vertebræ of all such animals being only seven, while the Plesiosaurus had more than thirty. Unlike the former animal, it had, with this enormous neck, a short tail. It was like that, an aquatic, perhaps a marine animal; it bad no shell, and its head was very small. Like the turtle it was capable of moving on land, but probably with an awkward motion. "May it not, therefore, be concluded," says Mr. Conybeare," (since, in addition to these circumstances, its respiration must have required frequent access of air) that it swam upon or near the surface, arching back its long neck like the swan, and, occasionally, darting it down at the fish which happened to float within its reach." The Quarterly reviewer of 1826, thinks that it must have very closely resembled the Testudo ferox, of Savannah-river, of South-Carolina and Florida. But we are certain that whoever has seen this animal will scarcely detect a resemblance to the ante-diluvian monster. We are not acquainted with the anatomy of the

"Testudo ferox,"* but we doubt much, though its head protrudes further from the shell than the other varieties, whether it has more cervical vertebræ. It does not arch its neck, but stretches it forward like other turtles. We would be glad if some of our comparative anatomists would determine the question.

The Megalosaurus was discovered by Dr. Buckland, in England, but its bones have been also found in France and Germany. "With the shape of lizards and particularly of the monitors," it is supposed to have been of the height of an elephant, and at least sixty or seventy-feet in length.

"But the most remarkable animals (says the Baron) which are deposited in these lime-stone schists are the flying lizards, which I have named, Pterodactyli. They are reptiles with very short tails, very long backs, muzzle greatly extended, and armed with sharp teeth, supported on high legs, the anterior extremity has an excessively elongated claw, which probably supported a membrane which sustained it in the air, together with four other toes of ordinary size, terminated by hooked claws." p. 196.

From the above account they must have been as strange and hideous, considering also the size of many of them, as any that the wildest imagination could have framed. Indeed, many of these extinct animals could not have been very unlike the fabled monsters of romance.

The Megatherium was a species of sloth, of the size of the rhinoceros. The Megalonyx first described by Mr. Jefferson, as "found at the depth of two or three feet in one of the caverns of the calcareous mountains of Green Briar, in Western Virginia," has also been an object of M. Cuvier's researches. It was also a species of sloth, about the size of an ox. Mr. Jefferson imagined this animal to be carnivorous, and of the genus Felis; but the Baron has proved that it was an animal coustituting an intermediate genus between the bradypi and ant-eaters, and herbivorous after the manner of the sloths.

The "unguical phalanx" of another unknown animal has been discovered, which is supposed to have belonged to the genus Pangolin. But, supposing the general proportions to have been nearly analogous to the Pangolin, it must have been twenty-four feet in length.

"It is impossible to avoid remarking here," says the English 'editor of the Animal Kingdom, "nor can it be too often im'pressed on the mind of the reader, how scientific a character

It appears that the description of the animal, referred to, called the "Testudo ferox" was by Dr. Garden of this country.

'fossil osteology has received under the hands of Cuvier. We 'find from the instance just now mentioned, that a single fragment, certainly a characteristic part, is sufficient to determine 'the order and genus of an animal with a precision amounting 'almost to mathematical certainty; we arrive, too, by the same ' means, at least, to a strong probability regarding the dimen'sions of the skeleton."

"The least prominence (says the author) of the bone--the smallest apophysis have a determined character relative to the class, the order, the genus, and even the species to which they belong, so that whenever we have only the extremity of a well preserved bone, we may, by scrutinizing it, and applying analogical skill and close comparison, determine all these things as certainly as if we had the whole animal."-Rev. of the Globe. p. 65.

The Mastodontes are too well known to trouble our readers with a description, and there are many other animals of very extraordinary form and magnitude which we have not time here to notice. Should any feel curious on the subject, we would refer them to the Baron's great work, which will amply repay any time or trouble they may devote to it.

It remains for us to offer a few remarks on the probable extent of the deluge. Whether the whole globe was at once overwhelmed by it we cannot say, but believe it cannot be doubted, that our present continents, as our author affirms, were covered. That man existed (in spite of some bold assertions to the contrary) previous to that event, is certain. How could we otherwise have had any account of it unless we make the very improbable supposition, that it was all a random guess? It seems not less certain that this last grand deluge of geologists must be the same as the Noachic deluge of the sacred writings, for the identity of time in the two accounts renders it not probable that it could have been any other. No one has ever heard that two such events occurred near enough to that period, to start a reasonable doubt on the subject, neither is it physically likely. We protest as decidedly as any one, against the disposition manifested by many of the well meaning but injudicious friends of religion, to warp the facts of philosophy so as to make them chime in with all the historical records of holy writ. If the facts, when ascertained, differ, decidedly, from the scripture account, let them be plainly stated, for this can be no impeachment of the authority of revelation as the harbinger of moral amelioration and peace among men. No one ever imagined that Moses ought to have been a complete geologist, or David an astronomer, neither is it to be supposed, that the inspired

writers were endued with superior lights to other men, except within the sphere of their divine commission. So far from this being the fact, the scripture itself presents a continual record of their errors, both in morals and knowledge. It never treats them as perfect characters. It was not necessary for any object connected with their mission, that they should be skilled in these departments of knowledge. Still, however, we should recognize them-though utterly deficient on all these points, which, nevertheless, was far from the truth-as prophets, as men designated especially to deliver to mankind the unquestioned will and revelation of the Supreme Being-men endued with more than human knowledge on the subjects of their divine commission, and enabled, and entitled, to declare to the world, what it would never otherwise have known, and to prescribe to them a scheme of innocence and rectitude of life, which, from their own lights they could never have devised. And where is the wonder and the miracle of all this? Does the sceptic doubt the existence of the mountain, because he cannot well fancy a power strong enough to up-heave it? Or does he doubt the existence or original formation of the world, because he cannot well conceive, in the stretch of his capacity, a power sufficiently consummate in thought to have planned, or equal in ability to the execution of such an amazing series of means adapted to ends without failure or fault?

In the natural world he is forced to acknowledge at every step, this direct agency of a superintending power, if he is not worse than a fool. If, then, this agency is so apparent in the natural world-in the formation or destruction of a new world, or of new races of organized beings, its inhabitants-where is the difficulty even with the most fastidious, in supposing this agency, acting in like manner in the moral?

If that power sees fit to set in motion a new order of life, a new animal, without stooping to reveal the cause, shall he not do the same thing or as much, in the sphere of human morality and thought, without entitling us to doubt? All that we have to inquire is, are these things for good, are they calculated to produce the end proposed? Do they bear the stamp of a more than human hand? If satisfied on these points, we are bound as much to believe in this agency in the moral as in the physical department of nature.

Although we should heartily protest against injudiciously seeking to measure the truth of philosophy by the standard of the scriptures, inasmuch as this is not plainly within their intention, still we cannot too strongly reprobate the antagonist

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