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69, 70. I will ... good, I have no wish to offend you any further than is necessary to do so in order to right myself.

72, 3. Most true, service, in one sense you may well call me old dog,' for I have served you faithfully till now I am well worn out and, like a toothless hound, no longer capable of active work.

75. begin you ... me? do you fancy you may safely presume upon me in this way and hope to get the better of me? with a reference also to Orlando's growing to manhood.

76. your rankness, sc. of growth, i.e. insolence, presumption ; the metaphor in grow being carried on.

77. neither, “for our either' is in Shakespeare's manner, after a negative expressed or implied ” (Abb. § 128).

81, 2. importunes ... you, urgently desires to be allowed to see you.

83. 'Twill ... way, sc. of getting rid of Orlando, by suggesting to him to wrestle with Charles, the result, as he thinks, being certain that he will be killed, or at least badly crippled.

85. morrow, morning ; the termination of the M.E. morwe being changed to .ow.

86, 7. the new news ... court? what is the latest news at this court which has so lately come into existence ? said with a sneer. Furness doubts the genuineness of new court. “If," he says, “ Oliver was aware that there was a 'new' court, Charles's information ... would have been quite superfluous, and he would scarcely have referred to this banishment as 'old news.' More. over, in repeating a question he who is questioned naturally repeats the very words. Charles's failure, in the text, to do this when he repeats Oliver's question, not only casts an additional suspicion on 'new,' as I think, but also suggested to Lettsom to ask Ought we not to read, There's no new news, etc. ?'” It seems impossible that Oliver should be ignorant of the banishment of the Duke, and Charles is merely adding such items of gossip as he had to give to the one important and well. known fact of the change of government. Lettsoin's insertion appears therefore more likely than the omission of new before court.

92, 3. gives them ... wander, is by no means anxious to see them return.

97-9. that she ... her, that she would have followed her (Rosalind) had she gone into exile, or would have died had she (Celia) been obliged to stay behind ; to stay, the infinitive used indefinitely by staying, if staying ; see Abb. $ 350. 100, 1. and never ...

. do, and never were two ladies so fond of each other as these two are.

102. Where will ... live? where is it the intention of the old Duke to live?

103. the forest of Arden, “a forest of considerable extent in French Flanders, lying near the Meuse and between Charlemont and Rocroy

(Malone). 103, 4. a many, for other instances of the insertion of a before numeral adjectives see Abb. § 87.

105. Robin Hood, the outlawed Earl of Huntingdon, who, with a band of followers, took up his abode in the forest of Sherwood. There, living on the game they shot, spending their days in the practice of archery and other athletic sports, occasionally relieving wealthy travellers of their superfluous wealth, but treating the poorer ones with kindness and generous help, they passed some years of careless enjoyment and freedom.

106. fleet the time carelessly, cause the time to pass quickly in their lives so void of all care ; fleet, not elsewhere used by Shakespeare transitively, though frequently in an intransitive sense. For other verbs formed from adjectives, see Abb. § 290.

107. golden world, the days of the golden age; the age fabled by poets, when all was innocence and happiness, when men had no need to toil, no temptation to make wars.

109. Marry, a corruption of (by) Mary, the mother of Christ, used to avoid the penalties of the statutes against profane oaths.

109, 10. a matter, a certain matter; for other instances of a= a certain, see Abb. & 81.

110. I am given ... understand, it has been privately told me.

ill. a disposition, an inclination, intention ; cp. R. J. i. 3. 65, “How stands your disposition to be married ?"

112. to try a fall, to engage in a bout at wrestling ; to see whether he can throw me in wrestling.

114. shall ... Well, will have to prove himself a skilful wrestler; for shall, in this sense, see Abb. § 315.

115. to foil, to defeat, worst; from 0. F. fouler, to trample on, oppress.

116. if he come in, if he should venture to encounter me.

117. withal, therewith ; for the different senses of withal in Shakespeare, see Abb. § 196.

118, 9. or brook ... into, or not be displeased at such disgrace as he may incur, bring upon himself: in that, seeing that.

120. search, seeking. 123. by underhand means, indirectly ; by getting those to whose advice he was more likely to listen to argue him out of his intention.

124, resolute, obstinately determined.

125, 6. it is ... France, in all France there is not a young fellow his equal in obstinacy ; Wright points out that it is is here used with a contemptuous significance; of, belonging to : emulator, envier; so emulation frequently in Shakespeare with a bad sense.

127. parts, endowments, graces, accomplishments.

128. natural brother, brother according to the course of nature, by birth ; perhaps also with the idea of one whom he naturally ought to love ; cp. Cymb. iii. 3. 107, "Myself, Belarius, that am Morgan callid, They take for natural father,” i.e. not adopted; the sense of illegitimate ' is a later one : use thy discretion, act just as you please, do not spare him for my sake : I had as lief, I should be as willing ; literally, I should have as dear, A.S. leof, lióf, dear, pleasing.

129, 30. thou wert to't, and you will do well to take care in the matter, not treat it lightly. For this ungrammatical remnant of ancient usage, see Abb. $ 230.

130. any slight disgrace, i.e. one not sufficient to incapacitate him from plotting against you in revenge for his defeat.

131. grace ... thee, win honour at your expense : practise, plot; as very frequently in Shakespeare.

133. never leave thee, never cease to pursue you with his ani. mosity: indirect, underhand, secret.

136. but brotherly, with such qualification as my feelings as a brother dictate; not as plainly as I should if he were not my brother.

137. anatomize is, show him to you as he really is ; thoroughly dissect his character and lay it open to your view; cf. below, ii. 7. 56: must blush, should not be able to avoid blushing.

140. his payment, the chastisement he well deserves: go alone, walk without help, sc. of crutches or someone's arm.

141, 2. and so ... Worship, and with these words I take my leave, praying that God may, etc.

144. stir this gamester, incite this venturous young fellow to the combat.

145. than he, for other instances of he for him, see Abb. 8 206.

146. never schooled ... learned, one who, though he has had no education given him, is yet full of learning.

147. device, conceptions and aims” (Wright); of all ... beloved, loved by all classes as if there were in him some charm, spell, which they cannot resist; cp. Cymb. i. 6. 167, “such a

holy witch That he enchants societies into him”; A. C. i. 2. 132, “I must from this enchanting queen break off,” the queen who has like a witch thrown her spells around him.

147, 8. and indeed ... world, and indeed so completely has he made his way into the hearts of all mnen: people, dependants.

149. misprised, undervalued, despised ; cp. A. W. iii. 2. 33, “By the misprising of a maid too virtuous For the contempt of empire.

150. shall clear all, may be trusted to set everything to rights, remove all obstacles from my path, sc. by killing Orlando. Cp. W. T. iii. 1. 18, “The violent carriage of it Will clear or end the business.”

151. but that I, except for me: kindle, incite; cp. Macb. i. 3. 121.

152. go about, set about, busy myself in doing.


1. sweet my coz, for the transposition of the adjective, see Abb. § 13; coz, an affectionate abbreviation of cousin.

2. I show of, I display more mirth than I am really pos. sessed of.

3. and would ... merrier, and do you desire that I should be merrier still; for the transposition of yet, Furness compares 11. 146, 7, below, “I come but in " - I but come in.

4. learn, teach; cp. M. A. iv. 1. 31, “you learn me noble thankfulness."

5. remember, give my mind to; here used for the antithesis with forget.

8. so, provided that.

10. so wouldst thou, i.e. so would you have taught your love to take my father as yours.

10, l. if the truth ... thee, if your love was as truly and genuinely blended into conformity with mine as mine is with yours; if you thoroughly reciprocated my love to you.

12, 3. to rejoice, in order that I may be able to rejoice.

14. but I, cp. above, i. 1. 145: nor none, for the double nega. tive, see Abb. 8 406.

15. like, likely.
16. perforce, by forcible means.
17. in affection, out of the love I bear you.

21. what think ... love? what do you say to the idea of falling in love for the sake of amusement ?

23. good earnest, real earnest.

23-5. nor no further ... again, and even in sport do not allow yourself to be carried so far as not to be able to retreat with honour, preserving to yourself the right to blush with maidenly modesty, i.e. not having done anything to make you blush with a sense of shame. The idea is that of retreating from a combat in which, though everything else may have been lost, honour has been preserved.

26. then, i.e. if we are not to play at falling in love.

27, 8. mock ... equally, by our taunts and sarcasms drive For. tune from her wheel, by the revolutions of which, and according to no settled principle, she allots good and evil to mankind, so that henceforth she may distribute her gifts with a regard to men's deserts ; cp. H. V. iii. 6. 33-37, “Fortune is painted blind, ... and she is painted also with a wheel, to signify to you, that she is turning, and inconstant, and mutability, and variation”; good housewife, used either ironically, or possibly in a proleptic sense as likely to become a good housewife, i.e. a careful dispenser of her goods, if deprived of her wheel.

30. the bountiful blind woman, rich in her gifts which she dispenses so blindly ; Walker, however, thinks we should print and pronounce blindwoman.

31. in her gifts to, in what she bestows upon. 33. honest, virtuous, chaste ; so dishonest,” below v. 3. 4.

34. 111-favouredly, many editors alter this to “ill-favoured' but the affix -ly may perhaps have its original sense, like, i.e. of an ill-favoured kind. Delius thinks the adverbial form may be here used in a double sense ; ‘Fortune makes them ill-favoured,' and · Fortune makes them while she is in a bad frame of mind.'

36. Fortune ... world, Fortune's sphere of power is in the dispensing of worldly gifts, wealth, power, etc.

38. No? is that so ? is it not possible that when Nature, etc.

39-41. Though Nature ... argument ? as a further example of my suggestion (i.e. that when ... fire), I may point out to you that though by Nature we are endowed with wit to mock at Fortune, Fortune may, and does now, put a stop to our discussion by sending a fool to interrupt us.

42. too hard for, probably with the double sense of 'more than a match for' and too cruel towards.'

43. Nature's natural, one who is by nature, by birth, a fool ; for natural, as a substantive=fool, idiot, cp. Temp. iii. 2. 37, R. J. ii. 4. 96.

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