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The Colombians had, however, learned era for Spain. His will conferred the sucto stand in action, and their cavalry even cession upon his daughter, and the regency to return to the charge after being routed. upon her mother. As the only hope of Their obstinacy in this respect, here dis preserving the crown to Isabella, and infiuplayed for the first time, routed the old ence to herself
, Christina summoned to Spanish cavalry, hitherto thought so supe. her counsels the liberals. They were of rior; and won the battle of Ayacucho, many shades; she chose the most mowhich dismissed to Spain all upholders of narchical ; but was gradually obliged to Spanish supremacy. The officers and gen- accept the counsels and aid of those who erals sent home under this capitulation, frankly meditated a liberal constitution. have been since known under the epithet The ousted prince, Carlos, appealed to the of Ayacuchos. Among them were Cante- farmers and the priesthood of the northern rac, Valdez, Rodil, Seoane, Maroto, Nar. provinces; the absolutist powers of the vaez, Carrabate, Alaix, Araoz, Villalobos. east supplied him with funds; and the war Espartero had been previously sent home began. with colors and the account of success in With very few exceptions, all the miliPeru ; successso soon reversed.
tary men embraced the side of the queen When these generals returned, there and constitution. The army felt no incliwere, of course, many prejudices against nation to undergo once more the yoke of them. They had taken no part in the lib- the priesthood. And even old royalist general movement at home, which had never-erals, such as Quesada and Sarsfield, turntheless begun in the ranks of the army.ed their arms willingly against the Carlists. Their having taken previous part in the The Ayacuchos, or officers, who had served war of independence, ought to have plead. in America, showed equal alacrity; espeed for them; but most of them had been cially those who, like Espartero, had eren too young to have been then distinguished on the other side of the Atlantic been fa. Riego and Quiroga were the military he- vorable to a constitution. Maroto was the roes of the day. The soldiers of the con- only one of them, who, at a later period, stitution made indeed but a poor stand took command under Don Carlos. against the French invading army; still The first constitutional general, Sarsfield, their efforts were not destined to be alto- was successful. He delivered Bilboa, the gether vain, and the country preserved its first seat of the insurrection, and ever aftergratitude towards them. On the other wards the key of the war, from the insur. hand, Ferdinand and his ministers showed gents. Espartero was appointed captainno inclination to favor or employ the Ayacu- general of the province. But the apparition chos; the royalist volunteers and the monks of Don Carlos in person, the funds he comwere the only militants that the old court manded, and the promises he made, gare trusted; and thus the largest body of offi. fresh importance and duration to the war. cers of experience were inclined to range The greatest and most effectual military themselves under the constitutional ban achievements are often those least talked ner, whenever it should again be hoisted. about or noticed. The general who can
The years from 1825 to 1830 were spent organize an army fitly, often does more by Espartero, as colonel of the regiment of than he who wins a battle; though indeed Soria, which was quartered the most part it is the organization that leads to the winof that time in the island of Majorca. Pre ning of the battle. The organization of the vious to going there he commanded the de- British army was the first and the greatest pôt of Logrono on the Ebro, where he be achievement of the Duke of Wellington; came acquainted with his present duchess, and it was for the Carlists the great act and Senora Jacinta de Santa Cruz. Her father, merit of Zumalacarreguy. Espartero did an old officer, brother of the late captain the same for the Spanish constitutional general in the south of Spain, was one of army, and thereby enabled it to overcome, the wealthiest proprietors of the banks of by degrees, and in partial encounters, the the Ebro, and Senora Jacinta was his only formidable and spirited bands opposed to it. child. The father was not willing to give Valdez, who commanded after Quesada, her to the soldier, however high his rank. and who had been the old commander in But the marriage took place, as such mar. Peru, committed the great blunder of fightriages do, the determination of the young ing a general action against mountaineers: overcoming the scruples of the old. The whom, if he beat, he did not destroy, wherepresent Duchess of Victory was renowned as their repulsing him was his ruin. Rodil, for her beauty and conjugal attachment. more cautious, ran about the hills to catch
The death of Ferdinand opened a new Carlos. Mina, with a regular army, waged
a war of partisans with peasants, who were another Biscay in the mountainous south. far better partisans than his troops. Cor. The indifference of the population caused dova, who succeeded, kept his army togeth- this to fail, and Don Carlos returned to the er; and handled the Carlists so roughly in north. The aim of his general was then one action, that they shrunk from attack turned to the possession of Bilboa and Saning him. But he conceived the same fears; tander, strong places, which if mastered, declared that the war could only be carried the Carlist insurrection might repose there on by blockading the insurgent provinces; and act on the defensive. To secure these and finally resigned.
points, more formidable intrenchments Espartero had, till then, distinguished were raised on the heights leading to these himself more as a brilliant cavalry officer, towns. Don Carlos hoped to form a Torres and a spirited general of division, than as Vedras on the hills of Ramales and Guara military leader of first-rate merit: but danimi. The great exploit of Espartero his honest, frank character, his abstinence was his series of successful attacks upon from the heat of political party, and the these intrenchments in May, 1839. He opinion that he wanted political genius and drove the Carlists from all of them with ambition, led to his appointment by the more very great loss; and from that moment liberal government which then took the the war drew to and end. The spirit of inhelm. The first care of the new com. surrection was broken, and justice allotted mander was to restore discipline, by a se. to Espartero the title of DUKE OF VICTORY. verity till then unknown in the constitu- The military struggle over, and the open tional army. His execution of the Chapel. rebellion put down, the parliamentary but gorris for plundering a church, is well re- scarcely more peaceful struggle between membered. His efforts to keep the army the two parties calling themselves constipaid, often compromised his own private tutional, became prominent. When the fortune ; and placed him in many quarrels emigration of the Spanish patriots took with Mendizabal and the finance ministers place in 1815 and 1823, in consequence of of the time. He certainly gained no pitch the absolutist reaction of Ferdinand, some ed battles: but from Bilboa round to Pam of the emigrants betook themselves to Engpeluna he kept the Carlists closely confined land, some to France. Though paid little to their mountain region, punished them attention to by the governments of either severely when they ventured forth, and country, the Spanish emigrants were cornever allowed himself to be beaten. dially received by the liberal opposition in
Nothing could be more advantageous both countries; and each came to admire than Zumalacarreguy's position; intrench- and adopt the ideas and principles with ed like a spider in an inaccessible and cen- which he was placed in contact. If Artral spot, from whence he could run forth guelles admired the frank school of English with all his force upon the enemy. Then, liberty, which allows popular opinion its by threatening Bilboa, the Carlist general full expression ; Toreno and Martinez de could, at any time, force the Christino gen- la Rosa adopted the more cautious tenets eral to take a most perilous march to its of the French doctrinaires," or moderate relief. Twice, indeed three times, were liberals, who were for giving freedom but the Christinos forced to make this perilous by handfuls, and who maintained that march-the second time the most critical, domination and influence should be confor then Bilboa certainly could not have fined to the enlightened few, and sparingly been saved but for the energy and aid of communicated to the ignorant many. One the British officers. To Lapidge, Wylde, can conceive the existence of such a conand others, was due the deliverance of servative party as this in England, where Bilboa. Espartero was then suffering such influence exists, and where the aristo. under a cruel illness. No sooner, however, cratic and well-informed classes do possess was the Luchana river crossed by British this influence. But the necessity of creboats, than he sprang on horseback, forgot ating and raising these classes, as was the bodily pain in martial excitement, and led case in Spain, and the impossibility of gethis troops through the Carlist cantonments ting churchmen and old aristocrats to act and intrenchments, once more to the gates moderate toryism when they had been of Bilboa.
steeped and bred in absolutism, rendered In despair, the Carlists then tried another the policy of the moderados a vain dream. mode of warfare. They left the northern They had no upper classes, no clergy, no provinces, and undertook expeditions throne behind them: for that of Isabella through all the rest of Spain, to gain re- required, rather than gave support. cruits and provisions if possible, and to find
Conscious of this weakness, and seeing
nothing Spanish around them on which municipal institutions of the country, and they could lean, the moderados placed to introduce a new and centralizing system their reliance on France, and trusted to in imitation of the French, and in lieu of that alliance to keep peace in Spain, and the old Spanish system of ayuntamientos. win recognition from Europe. Louis Phi. Their elected municipal body and magis. lippe had been enabled to do in France, trates were certainly the key of the parliasomething like what they labored to effect mentary elections, of the formation of the in Spain : although he had been obliged to national guard, of local taxation, and in fact abandon an hereditary peerage, and to base of all power. But to attack them was the his conservatism on the fears and prejudi- more dangerous; and the first mention of ces of the upper class of citizens and com- the plan raised a flame from one end of the mercial men. Spain wanted this class, yet peninsula to the other. The French court Count Toreno and his friends endeavored, pressed the queen regent to persevere, say. with less materials, to effect in Spain more ing that no sovereigo power could exist in than had been done in France.
unison with the present state of local and In the conflict between moderado and municipal independence: the queen regent exaltado, Espartero had remained com- did persevere, and obtained a vote of the pletely neutral. His sole anxiety during cortes. the war was to have his army well supplied. The Duke of Victory had, at that time, He saw that the exaltado minister did not peculiar opportunities for judging of the do this with due effect, and as his army ap- sentiments of the great towns of Aragon proached the capital in pursuit of the pre- and Catalonia and Valencia: his army was iender, he allowed it to remonstrate. This quartered amongst them, and his supplies very unwarrantable act overthrew the ex- were drawn in a great measure from them. altados, and brought back the moderados All these towns had made great sacrifices to power. It was generally believed, how. during the war, and their indignation was ever, to have been the result of an intrigue great at finding that the first result of that of the staff, who imposed upon the easy war should be a deprivation of their libernature of the general. Espartero was ties. The Duke of Victory, how much soknown, notwithstanding his anxiety to im- ever he had hitherto kept aloof from poliprove the supply of his army, to have re- tics, now wrote to the queen regent, and gretted the unconstitutionality of the step remonstrated with the ministry on the dadwhich produced this ministerial revolution. ger of persisting in the contemplated mea. The circumstance shows, at least, how lit. sures. His counsels were received with tle inclined was Espartero to pay court to secret derision ; but as the towns could not the ultra-liberals, or to aim at assumptions be repressed without the aid of the army, of power through their influence.
the general was told that no important reAfter the convention of Bergara, which solution should be taken without his conpacified the north, the war still continued currence. He, in consequence, quieted the in Aragon, and the army was kept actively apprehensions and agitation of the townsemployed under Espartero in that province men. and in Catalonia. There was no doubt, The ministry persisted not the less in however, as to the issue. The moderados, carrying out the law : but fearing the rein power, and delivered from the fear of sistance or neutrality of Espartero, they Carlos and absolutism, entered at once on begged the queen regent to go in person to the fufilment of their principles, and the Catalonia, under pretence of sea-bathing, establishment of more conservative bases in order to exercise her influence over of administration, than those which existed. what was considered the weak mind of the For this purpose they took the most im- Duke of Victory. The French envoy, inprudent step that could have been devised. deed, opposed this journey; and predicted, Had they attacked the press, and restrained with much truth, that if once the queen its license; had they checked the turbu- regent trusted herself to the army, and to lence of the lower classes, even by laws the population of the great and liberal towns against association; had they passed the of Saragossa, Barcelona, or Valencia, she most severe penalties against conspiracy-would be forced to withdraw the obnoxious the Spaniards would have borne all : but law. the moderados thought fit to attack the in- Christina and her ministers both persisted. stitution which is most truly Spanish, and Both knew Espartero's devotion to the that in which all classes of citizens, upper queen, and they reckoned on his chiraland lower, are most deeply interested. rous nature to fly in the face of danger, The moderados attempted to change the rather than shrink in prudence from it.
She set forth, and the Duke of Victory has that the Duke of Victory declared, that the tened to meet her at Igualada. Christina triple regency might be the best mode of recapitulated all the theoretic and doctrin- rule during the minority of the queen, but aire reasons of her ministers for humbling that for hinself, he was determined to make the pride and independence of the great no part of it. It would, he said, be a di.
. Spanish towns; the Duke of Victory re- vided, a squabbling, and a powerless triumplied that perhaps she was right, though it virate. The true patriots then saw the seemed ungrateful thus to repay the towns danger of setting aside the general and the for their late sacrifices and devotion to the army, the instant after both had saved the constitutional cause. But right or wrong, municipal liberties of the country; they another consideration dominated: and this saw the probable result of setting up three was the impossibility of enforcing the law not very eminent persons to perform to. without producing an insurrection of the gether the all-important office; and waving towns. "They could be easily reduced by their objections io Espartero, they agreed a few common shot and cavalry-charges." to vote him sole regent. The Duke of Victory replied, “That they Thus was the Duke of Victory appointed, might be so reduced, but that he refused to and he ever after showed his gratitude to be the instrument or the orderer of such the thorough liberal and patriotic party, measures. But he was ready to resign." who trusted him on this occasion. To
The queen and ministers knew, however, them he delivered up the ministry: to them that the resignation of Espartero then, he promised never to interfere with the would have led to a military insurrection; government, but to live as a constitutional for the soldiers and officers had already ruler, above the strife and struggles of parsuspected that they were about to be dis- ties. In this the Duke of Victory was missed, and without compensation. The wrong: he should have opened his palace, end of the interview was, that the Duke of lived in the throng, listened to the plaints, Victory must keep the command, at all the desires, the feelings of all parties, and events; and that Christina would consult made himself adherents amongst all. The her ministry, and, at least, not promulgate Spaniards tender eminence only on the the law with the royal sanction, till after condition of its being affable, and look further consultation and agreement with upon kings, as we said before, with a kind the commander-in-chief. Christina hast- of Arabic sentiment, as summary righters ened to Barcelona, met two of her minis- of wrongs, and controllers of all that is ini. ters, and forgot, in their exhortation, the quitously done by their servants adminisadvice of the general, and her promises to tering power. Espartero thought he acted him. The consequence was the double in the sovereign most fully by shutting himsurrection, first of Barcelona, and then of self in a small palace, by doing business Valencia, which compelled her to abdicate. regularly, and by eschewing all the pleas
Such were the events that produced the and representative part of his funcinterregnum, and left the regency to be fill. tions. He understood little of the minued by the cortes. It was evident from the tiæ of politics, and cared not to talk of first, that no one could fill that post to the them. He gave no dinners, no balls, no exclusion of the Duke of Victory; and yet tertullias, no card tables. In short, his it must be owned there was great repug- salary was clean lost to the courtiers and nance to elect him, on the part of a great placemen, and would-be placemen. The number of deputies. The honest patri- women declared him to be a very dull Re. ots dreaded to see a soldier at the head gent, and their condemnation was fatal. of a constitutional government, and de- The most inveterate enemies of the Remanded that one or two civilians should be gent were, however, the new and bastard associated with him in a triple regency; portion of the Liberals—those whom the but the greater number were of course the French ministerial papers called Young interested, the place and power-hunters; Spain ; men jealous of the old Liberals of these saw in a triple regency many more 1809 and 1821, vho looked upon Arguelles chances of rising by favor, and obtaining and Calatrava as out of date, and who considoffice, than under a single regent, a military ered themselves representatives of a new man, accustomed to order his aide-de-camp practical school of liberalism, superior to about, and utterly unskilled in appreciating any yet discovered. Caballero and Oloaddress in intrigue and skill in courtiership; zaga were the chiefs of the party : but they, therefore, also demanded the triple these gentlemen, however able as orators regency, and at first there was a decided and writers, had never succeeded in atmajority for this decision. It was then taching to them more than an insignificant
VOL. III. No. IV. 33
number of followers. Timid, tortuous and are at present cut off; promotion is now to time-serving, they were of that class of be had only by revolutions, siuce, if these politicians which can barass a ministry, are successful, the military abettors rise a but are incapable themselves of forming an step. Then there are court ways of rising administration. The Regent was sorely in the army; a handsome fellow attracting puzzled how to deal with them. Their the attention of the queen or of a lady in speeches in the Cortes were backed at whom king or minister is interested ; and times by a large number of votes; but all these chances were precluded by the when he summoned them to his presence, dull, moral regency of Espartero, to whose and bade them form a ministry, they al. self and family and ministers, such ways ways declined. They had a majority for and intrigues were utterly unknown. The opposition, they said, but not for power. young officers longed for the reign of the This might have puzzled a more experien- queens, young or old, and down with Es. ced constitutional sovereign than Espartero. partero' was first their wish, and then their Soldier-like, he bade them go about their cry. business. He was wrong. He ought, on Indeed, from the first the Spanish officers the contrary, like Louis Philippe in similar were disinclined to Espartero as general, circumstances, to have facilitated their for- and much preferred Cordova, a diplomatist mation of a ministry; he ought to have and a courtier ; but the soldiers on the smiled upon them; he ought to have lent other hand preferred the Regent. With them a helping hand; and then, after they this class, then, especially with the nonhad been fully discredited by a six months' commissioned officers, the efforts of the hold of power, he might easily have turn. conspirators were chiefly made. Calumed them adrift, as the king of the French nies were circulated, promises lavished, did M. Thiers.
the soldiers attached to the service were Secure in the affection and support of promised grades, the rest were promised the old stanch liberal party, the Regent dismissal to their homes: in fine, the army never dreamed that these could be over- was debauched, and when the Regent wani. come by men affecting to be more liberal ed to make use of it as a weapon of dethan they. But Spain was not left to itself. fence, it broke in his hands, and pierced The French court became exceedingly jeal- him. ous, at this time, of the Regent's intentions The condemnation on which Espartero's respecting the marriage of the young queen. enemies, the French, lay most stress, is his They sent an envoy, who was called a fam- want of skill in maintaining himself in powily ambassador, and who as such pretended er. Success with them covers every virto immediate and uncontrolled access to tue. The want of it, exaggerates every de. the young queen. The Regent resisted, fect. There was a discussion at Prince the envoy left, France was more irritated, Talleyrand's one evening, as to who was and then determined on the Regent's down the greatest French statesman in modern fall. Thirty journals were almost simulta- times. Each named his political hero. neously established in Madrid and different Talleyrand decided that Villèle was the parts of the peninsula, all of which set up the greatest man, on the ground that in a consame cry of the Regent's being sold to Eng- stitutional country he kept the longest hold land, and of Spain being about to be sa- of power : adding, that the best rope dancrificed in a treaty of commerce. Barce- cer was he who kept longest on the cord. lona, most likely to be affected by this bug. The great proof of political genius, acbear treaty, was of course the centre of cording to Talleyrand, was to stick longest opposition; and there, under the instiga- in place. The rule is a wretched one, and tion, and with the pay of French agents, yet Espartero would not lose by being even open resistance was organized, and insur- in that way judged: for no Spaniard has rection broke forth. The subsequent events kept such prolonged command and influare known; the bombardment, the reduc. ence, none have attained more brilliant tion, the lenity of the Regent, the impunity ends. The Treaty of Begara, and the Re. of the Barcelonese, and their perseverance gency, are two successes that might well even after defeat in braving authority. content a life. And after all Espartero was
The army was then tampered with ; at long enough Regent to allow Spain to enleast some regiments. The Spanish officer joy tranquillity under his rule, and to afford though brave is unfortunately a gambler every one a taste and a prospect of what and an idler, with little prospect of making Spain might yet become, under a free, a way in his profession by talent or by pro- peaceable, and a regular government. motion in war; all chances of the latter A greater and more rare example offered