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66

DECREE.

nitive constitution that is to be established in con. 66. The Council of State, having held an ex- which the throne and the nation shall hereafter

cert with the royal authority, as the ægis under traordinary meeting in the hall of their sittings, he placed. The extraordinary circumstances of on the 3rd (15th) of September, at four o'clock the country rendering the convocation of the NaA. M., unanimously deemed it expedient, under existing circumstances, before it should attend to

tional Assembly an urgent necessity, and not other business, to address—first, in the name of admitting of a new law of election being previthe country, warm thanks to the people, the gar

ously framed, your Majesty will permit your rison, and other corps of the army, for the admi- ministry.lo convoke that assembly agreeably to rable conduct which they exhibited on this occa- tion in vigor before 1833, with the sole difference

the spirit and provisions of the last law of elecsion, by acting on the one part with patriotism, that the electoral colleges shall elect their presiagreeably to the interest of the country, and on dents by a majority of votes. the other, by preserving the perfect order which the country now enjoys.

"The new ministry, invested with the full 6. The Council of State declares, in a special accord with the gravity of the circumstances

powers necessary to conduct the government in manner for the army, that the part which it has which led to its formation, shall render an actaken in that national movement was dictated by a sense of necessity and of the interests of the count of its acts to the National Assembly. nation-a sentiment entirely conformable to the evident manner from the wishes and wants so

"Sire, those measures emanate in the most honor, duty, and prescriptions of national assem- lively expressed by the Greek nation, and of blies; the army recollected that the soldier of a which the Council is at this moment the faithful free nation is a citizen before being a soldier. The Council of State expects that it will behave interpreter. They are an inevitable consequence similarly and with the same spirit of order in fu- of the legitimate exigencies, demanding the im

mediate realization of all the guarantees stipuzure, until the fate of the country be guaranteed, lated by preceding national assemblies, by the as respects the institution of its laws... To that acts of the triple alliance, and by the Prince himend the Council ordains that the entire army self who accepted the throne of Greece. shall take the following oath :6:"I take the oath of fidelity to the country Council of State, in accord with the nation, con

6. These are, in fine, the measures which the and to the constitutional throne. I swear that I siders in its conscience not only as urgent, but will remain invariably attached to the constitu- likewise as the only means of salvation under tional institutions framed by the National Assem- the present circumstances. May Heaven grant bly, convoked in consequence of the measures that your Majesty, becoming conscious of the adopted this day:

" The Council of State, moreover, declares necessity of what we have just exposed, may that the 3rd of September promising á glorious approve these measures, and direct their immeprospect to Greece, it has thought proper to class for the maintenance of public order and tran

diate execution, for the satisfaction of all, and it among the national festivities. " Athens, 3rd (15th) September, 1843.

quillity.

6. The Council of State respectfully entreats ADDRESS OF THE COUNCIL of state to the your Majesty to accede to the wishes it has ex

pressed, and subscribes itsell, &c.

"Conduriotis, President. 6. Sire,— The Council of State, concurring

Mavromichali. Vice-President completely in the wishes of the Greek people, "Panutzos Notoras. N. G. Theocharis, and accepting the extraordinary power which R. Church.

C. C. G. Praides. the irresistible force of things compels it to

A. Metaxa.

Rhigi Palamidis. assume for the consolidation of the throne and A. Monarchidis. Drozzo Mansola. for the salvation of the country, hastens re

B. N. Boudouris. Silivergos. specifully to submit to your Majesty the follow- A. Lidorikis.

A. Polyzoides. ing measures, which it trusts will be immedi- T. Manghine.

Anastasius Londos. ately and fully approved :-.

G. Eynian.

S. Theocharopoulos. Your Majesty will consider it expedient to N. Zacharitza. G. Psyles. appoint a new ministry without delay. The N. Rhynieri.

G. Spaniolakis. Council of State reconimend to the approbation C. Caradja.

C. Zographos. of your Majesty, as persons competent to form A. P. Mavromichali. André Londos. it, because of their enjoying public esteem and

P. Soutzo.

C. D. Schinas.' confidence, Messrs. André Metaxa for the pre

Paicos. sidency of the council of ministers, with the de

" The above address was carried to his Mapartment of foreign affairs; André Londos, for partment; Rhigas Palamidis, for the interior; chali, jun. ; G. Psyles, and Anastasius Londos. the ministry of war; Canaris

, for the navy de- jesty by a commission composed of Messrs. Con

duriotis, President; G. Eynian, A. P. MavromiMansolas for the finance; Leon Melas, for jus

“An hour afterwards the commission returnlice; and Michael Schinas, for public instruction ed with the following reply, signed by the King: and ecclesiastical affairs.

“Your Majesty will be pleased, at the same “ Otho, by the Grace of God King of Greece. time, to sign an ordinance, which will impose on “On the proposition of the Council of State, the new ministry, as its first duty, the convoca- we have decreed as follows: tion, within the delay of a month, of the National “A National Assembly shall be convoked Assembly, which will deliberate upon the defi-| within the space of thirty days, to the effect of

666

KING.

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drawing up, in conjunction with us, the consti- he, however, remained a prisoner only a few tution of the state. The electoral assemblies hours. shall take place agreeably to the provisions of “It appears that the King yielded with bad the last law of election promulgated previous to grace, when he found that all resistance on his 1833, with this sole difference, that those electo- part would be unavailing. It was 11 o'clock A. ral assemblies shall name their presidents by a M. when his obstinacy was subdued. The milimajority of votes.

tary bands were then playing the · Marseillaise ? «i« Our Council of Ministers shall be convoked and the ‘Parisienne,' which gave his Majesty

countersign this order and carry it into execu- cause to suppose that affairs might proceed to tion.

unpleasant extremities. On the 16th King Otho

took his customary airing, and was saluied as "Athens, September 3, (15) 1843."" he passed along the streets, with cries from the

people and soldiers of ‘Long live the constituThe Greek Observer adds: “The members of tional King! An exception had been made in the corps diplomatique having been informed of the decree of exclusion against foreigners, in fathe revolutionary movement which had just oc- vor of the old Philhellenes, who held office under curred, proceeded this morning, at break of day, the Government." to the palace, when, having applied to the com. mander of the military forces, they declared to him that the King's person and the inviolability of the palace rested on his own personal responsibility: “ This recommendation, which the represen

PHOTOGRAPHY — MM. Belfield and Foucault's tatives of the foreign powers may have consid- experiments in photography tend to show that the ered to be a duty imposed upon them, was com- film of organic matter which constantly forms on pletely useless, both on account of the admirable the prepared surface of the plate, and which M. spirit which constantly animated the population Daguerre considered a hindrance to the formation during the day, as well as the guarantees offer- of the image, is almost essential to its prodaction. ed by the honorable character of the chiefs of They think that a perfect daguerréotype could not the revolution. The whole of what passed in be obtained on a metallic surface chemically pure; the course of the day sufficiently proved it.

and that the usual preparation of silver extends "Shortly afterwards the corps diplomatique, over its surface uniformly an infinitely thin varnish. attired in their official costumes, returned to the Instead of the clearing and polishing a plate with palace, and asked to be presented to the King. nitric acid, they used a powder of dry lead and The same commander of the armed force replied fied. The evaporation of the volatile portion of

some drops of the essence of terebinibine unrectito them that the King was then engaged in a the essence left a resinous pellicle, which was aiconference with the Council of State, and that tenuated either with alcohol or mechanicalls with the palace would not be accessible to the foreign dry powders. Treated then with iodine in the representatives while those conferences lasted. usual way, the images were produced in the same The members of the corps diplomatique then re manner, and in the same time-Lit. Gaz. tired ; but having learned shortly afterwards that admittance into the palace would no longer be denied to them, they hastened to wait on the ConstanTINOPLE, Avg. 29.— (From a private King and his family, and they accompanied the Correspondent).— The English Ambassador is el. Monarch, when his Majesty showed himself ceedingly indignant at a horrid affair which wok with his new ministers at the balcony of the place in this great city last week. A young Arpalace. This evening, at six o'clock, the corps menian had given some offence to the Turks; fordiplomatique again repaired to the palace, giveness was promised if he would becoine a Mus

sulman. He could not be persuaded to do so, was where it remained upwards of an hour. “The students of the University joined in the death, by his head being cut off. His head and

sent to prison, cruelly punished, and at last pot to movement, and were remarkable for their patri- body were exposed three days in the fish-market of otism and moderation.

Constantinople, and then, according to the usual “Similar movements occurred at Chalcis and custom, thrown into the Bosphorus. Certainly the Nauplia.

Christian powers ought to remonstrate with the " Letters from Athens, of the 17th, state, that Turkish Government on such barbarous proceedall (oreigners holding offices under Governinentings. Sir Bruce Chichester and family are resident were to be dismissed, including even M. Lemai. at Therapia, as is also the family of Admiral Walk. tre and other Frenchmen employed in the ad. er. The admiral himself is at sea with the Turkish ministration of the national bank. The chiefs of fleet. At one of the hotels in this village, Lads the movement had adopted every precaution for Ellenborough has taken up her abode for some the safety of that establishment; the directors days. Mr. Smith, the architect, has arrived, and is were beforehand informed of the hour at which about to commence his operations for the erection

of a new palace for the ambassador; and I believe the movement was to take place, and 12 trusty

some alterations will be made in the chapel of the soldiers were sent thither during the night for English Embassy. We have had a sad set of thieves its protection, by M. Calergy. The revolution about Pera lately; they forced the chapel door, and was effected without any violence. The minis- stripped the desk, pulpit, and communion-table, ters were arı ested in their houses, but liberated &c, of their ornaments ; fortunately, the valuable on the next morning. An aide-de-camp of the communion plate was not in the chapel.

The King, M. Gardekeckte, a Bavarian, was also ap- summer has been delightful, and the vineyards be. prehended, and confined in the barracks, where I gin to look very fine.-Court Journal.

а

ESPARTERO.

more or less, is consequently to them of From the Foreign Quarterly Review.

little importance. They are too proud to

be vain. Galerie des Contemporains : ESPARTERO.

This part of the Spanish character exParis. 1843.

plains not a few of the political events of The military and political events which ihe countries inhabited by the race. In all terminated in the independence of the those countries, individual eminence is a United States, may be criticised as dila- thing not to be tolerated. It constitutes in tory, as fortuitous, and as not marked by itself a crime, and the least pretension to it the stamp of human genius. That revo- remains unpardoned. Even Bolivar, notlution produced more good than great withstanding his immense claims, and notmen. If the same may be said of the civil withstanding the general admission that wars of Spain, and its parliamentary strug. nothing but a strong hand could keep the gles after freedom, it should be more a unadhesive materials of Spanish American subject of congratulation than of reproach. republics together,-even he was the object The greatness of revolutionary heroes may of such hatred, suspicion, jealousy, and imply the smallness of the many; and, all mistrust, that his life was a martyrdom to things duly weighed, the supremacy of a himself, and his salutary influence a tyranCromwell or a Napoleon is more å slur ny to those whom he had liberated. upon national capabilities than an honor to There did exist in Spain, up to the com. them. Let us then begin by setting aside mencement of the present century, a grand the principal accusation of his French foes exception to this universal love of equality, against General Espartero, that he is of which is a characteristic of the Latin races. mediocre talent and eminence. The same And that was the veneration for royalty, might have been alleged against Wash- which partook of the oriental and fabulous ington.

extreme of respect. Nowhere is this more Moreover, there is no people so little in- manifest than in the popular drama of the clined to allow, to form, or to idolize su- country : in which the Spanish monarch periority, as the Spaniards. They have the precisely resembles the Sultan of the Arajealous sentiment of universal equality, im- bian Nights, as the vicegerent of Proviplanted into them as deeply as it is into the dence, the universal righter of wrongs, en. French. But to counteract it, the French dowed with ubiquity, omnipotence, and have a national vanity, which is for ever all-wisdom. Two centuries' succession of comparing their own country with others. the most imbecile monarchs greatly imAnd hence every character of eminence is paired, if not effaced, this sentiment. The dear to them; for though an infringement conduct of Ferdinand to the men and the on individual equality, it exalts them above classes engaged in the war of independence, other nations. The Spaniard, on the con- disgusted all that was spirited and enlighttrary, does not deign to enter into the ened in the nation. A few remote prominutiæ of comparison. His country was, vinces and gentry thought, indeed, that the in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the principle of legitimacy and loyalty was first in Europe ; its nobles the most wealthy, strong as ever, and they rose to invoke it the most magnificent, the most punctilious, in favor of Don Carlos. Their failure has the most truly aristocratic ; its citizens the taught them and all Spain, that loyalty, in most advanced in arts and manufactures, its old, and extreme, and chevalier sense, and comfort and municipal freedom ; its is extinct; and that in the peninsula, as in soldiers were allowed the first rank, its other western countries, it has ceased to be sailors the same, The Spaniards taught fanaticism, and survives merely as a ra. the existence of this, their universal superi- tional feeling. ority, to their sons; and these again to Royalty is however the only superiority their offspring; down to the present day. that the Spaniards will admit: and their And the Spaniards implicitly believe the jealousy of any other power which apes, tradition of their forefathers, not merely as or affects, or replaces royalty, is irrepressi. applied to the past, but as a judgment of ble. A president of a Spanish republic the present. They believe themselves to would not be tolerated for a month, nor be precisely what their fathers were three would a regent. The great and unpardonhundred years ago. They take not the able fault of Espartero was, that he bore least count of all that has happened in that this name. period : the revolutions, the changes, the Another Spanish characteristic, arising forward strides of other nations, the back from the same principle or making part of ward ones of their own. A great man, it, is the utter want of any influence on the

side of the aristocracy. For a Spanish the name of a constitution. They asteraristocracy does survive: an aristocracy wards compelled her to give the reality, as of historic name, great antiquity, monied well as the name. And it was they, too, wealth, and territorial possession. The who drove Don Carlos out of the country, Dukedoms of Infantado, Ossume, Mon- in despite of the tenacity and courage of tilles, &c., are not extinct ; neither are the his rustic supporters. He was driven from wearers of these titles exiled or proscrib- before Bilboa, and from every town of more ed; nor have their estates been confiscated respectability than a village. He was welor curtailed. But they have no influence; comed by the peasants and their lords, but and are scarcely counted even as pawns on every collection of citizens rejected him, the chessboard of Spanish politics. The and he and absolutism were obliged to fly Spaniards respect superiority of birth, but the country. their repect is empty. It is rather the re- There is one class, which at the close of spect of an antiquary for what is curious, revolutions is apt to turn them to its own than the worldly and sensible respect for profit, and becomes arbiter of all that surwhatever is truly valuable. The greatest vives in men and things. This is the army. efforts have been made by almost all Spanish In nations however which have no external legislators and politicians, to make use of wars, it is extremely difficult for the army the aristocracy as a weight in the political or its chiefs to win and preserve that mas. balance, and as a support of throne and tery over public opinion, which is needed constitution. But as Lord Eldon compared to ensure acquiescence in military usurcertain British peers to the pillars of the pations. The French revolution, as we all East London Theatre, which hung from the know, turned to a warlike struggle beroof instead of supporting it, such has been tween France and Europe ; in which France the condition of all Spanish peers or proceres was represented by her generals and armies, in any and every constitution. They sup- and in which these but too naturally took ported the government of the time being; the place of civilian statesmen and reprewere infallibly of the opinions diametri- sentative assemblies. In the more isolated cally opposite to those of the deputies; countries of England and Spain, the activity and increased the odium of the ministry, and the glory of the military termipated whether moderado or exaltado, without giv- with the civil war. The career of arms ing it the least support. The rendering was closed; the officers lost their prestige; the upper chamber elective, as was done and Cromwell, though tolerated as a de by the constitution of 1837, has not re- facto ruler, was never looked up to, eitber medied this. When Christina sell, the up- as the founder of a military monarchy, or per chamber was to a man in her favor; so of a new dynasty. A Cromwell would have did the whole upper chainber support Es. met with more resistance in Spain ; civilian partero, when he fell. In short, the attach-jealousy is there as strong as in England; ment of the peers in Spain is ominous; it and Cromwell there was none. The Duke betokens downfall.

of Victory's worst enemies could not seri. The crown and the clergy, in fact, had la- ously accuse him of such ambition. bored in unison to destroy and humble the Baldomero Espartero was born in the power of the aristocracy, as well as of the year 1792, at Granatula, a village of La middle classes. They succeeded but too Mancha, not far from the towns of Almagro well; and in succeeding, they also strength- and Ciudad Real. In his last rapid retreat ened that democratic principle of equality from Albacete to Seville, the regent could which is a monkish principle. But the crown, not have passed far from the place of his and the monasteries, and the aristocracy, nativity. His father is said to have been have all gone down together, whilst the a respectable artisan, a wheelwright, and a middle classes survive, and have become maker of carts and agricultural implements. regenerated with a second youth. It is This artisan's elder brother, Manuel, was only they who have any force in Spain. a monk in one of the Franciscan convents It is the cities, which take the initiative in of Ciudad Real, capital of the province of all changes and all revolutions. For any La Mancha. It is one of the advantages government to incur their displeasure, is at amongst the many disadvantages of mon. once to fall; none has been able to strug. asticity, that it facilitates the education and gle against them. These juntas raised the the rise of such of the lower classes as give war of independence, and performed the signs of superior intelligence. The friar Spanish part of their self-liberation. They Manuel took his young nephew, Baldomero, again it was who enabled Christina to es. and had him educated in his convent. Had tablish at once her daughter's rights and Spain remained in its state of wonted peace, the young disciple of the convent an engagement was not decisive. A great would in good time have become, in all deal of Indian force was enıployed, and in probability, the ecclesiastic and the monk. many respects, the Spaniards or SpanishBut about the time when Espartero attain. born came to resemble ihem in fighting. The ed the age of sixteen, the armies of Napo. chief feat of the action was one brilliant leon poured over the Pyrenees, and men charge, which, if successful or unsuccessful, aced Spanish independence. It was no decided the day. For, once put to the rout, time for monkery. So at least thought all the soldiers never rallied, at least on that the young ecclesiastical students; for these day, but fled beyond the range of immediate throughout every college in the peninsula pursuit, and often with so little loss that almost unanimously threw off the black the fugitives of yesterday formed an army frock, girded on the sabre, and flung the as numerous and formidable as before their musket over their shoulder. The battalions defeat. How long such a civil war would which they formed were called sacred. Nor have lasted, is impossible to say, had not was such volunteering confined to the foreigners enlisted in the cause, and formyoung. The grizzle-bearded monk him-ed legions, which not only stood the brunt self went forth, and, used to privation, of a first onset, but retreated or advanced made an excellent guerilla. The history regularly and determinedly. The foreign of the Spanish wars of independence and legion was the Macedonian Phalanx among of freedom tells frequently of monkish gen- the Colombians. Owing to it the Spaniards erals, the insignia of whose command were lost the fatal battle of Carabobo, and thencethe cord and sandals of St. Francis. forward made few effectual struggles

Young Espartero took part in most of against the independents, except in the the first battles and skirmishes in the south high country of Peru. of Spain, and made part of the Spanish Espartero had his share of most of these force, we believe, which was shut up and actions. As major he fought in 1817 at besieged by the French in Cadiz. He here, Lupachin, where the insurgent chief, La through the interest of his uncle, was re- Madrid, was routed. Next year he de ceived into the military school of the Isla feated the insurgents on the plains of Made Leon, where he was able to engraft a jocaigo, and in 1819, Espartero and Seoane useful military education on his former ec- reduced the province of Cochalamba. Soon clesiastical acquirements: for to be a sol. after, the revolution that had for its result dier was his vocation, and his wish was not the establishment of the constitution, broke to be an ignorant one. The war of inde- out in Spain ; and the political parties to pendence was drawing to a close when Es- which it gave rise, began to agitate the partero had completed his military studies, Spanish army in Peru. Then the viceroy, and could claim the grade of officer in a who held out for the absolute power of regular army. But at this same time, the Ferdinand, was deposed; and the other royal government resolved on sending an generals, La Serna, Valdez, and Canterac, experienced general with a corps of picked declared for liberty abroad, as well as at troops to the Spanish main, to endeavor tore home, though they still fought for preserv. establish the authority of the mother-coun- ing the links that bound the South Ameritry. Morillo was the general chosen. Es. can colonies to the mother country. Espartero was presented to him, appointed partero was of this liberal military party, lieutenant, and soon after the sailing of the and served as colonel in the division which expedition was placed on the staff of the under Canterac and Valdez defeated the general.

Peruvian independents at Torrata and Ma. The provinces of the Spanish main were quega, in January 1823: actions which led then the scene of awful warfare. It is to the evacuation of the Peruvian capital needless to inquire on which side cruelty by the congress. The Peruvians then sumbegan; the custom of both was almost in- moned Bolivar and the Colombians to their variably to sacrifice the lives, not only of aid, whilst the two parties in the Spanish captured foes, but of their relatives, young army, royalist and independent, divided, and aged. The war, too, seemed intermi- and began to war with each other, on the nable. A rapid march of a general often news arriving of the restoration of Ferdisubdued and apparently reduced a province nand. This afforded great advantage to in a few days, the defeated party flying Bolivar, and that chief pushed them with over sea to the islands, or to the other set. so much vigor, that the contending royalist tlements: but a week would bring them parties ceased their strife, and united to back, and the victors in their turn thought overwhelm, as they thought, the Colombifit to fly, often without a struggle. Even Jans under Paez, the lieutenant under Bolivar.

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