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THE ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. weakest. This he accurately accomplished ; and
we may note, that the large space of Atlantic From the Literary Gazelle.
Ocean so traversed possesses the least magnetic We congratulate the country on the happy intensity of any like portion of the surface of the return of one of the most memorable expeditions globe. The position of the line, presumed to be ever recorded in English history; an expedition proceeding towards the north, being thus ascerfortunate in every respect, in the outfit provision tained, it will be easy in all tuture time to mark made for its success, in the intrepidity and skill its progress, and establish a certain law upon the of its conduct throughout, in the perfect accom- subject. (Vide Transactions of the Royal Soplishment of all its scientific objects, in the con- ciety for 1842.). The position of the line of notinued health and preservation of the human dip or magnetic equator was also determined, beings exposed to its perils and privations, in and fixed grounds laid for subsequent observathe harmony which has never for a moment tion of the changes to which it may be liable. been interrupted among officers and men by The magnetic observatory at St. Helena havjealousies or misbehavior, and finally, in its au- ing been set on foot, and the officers and instruspicious arrival at home, after four years of ments landed, the expedition sailed again Feb. brave and unwearied exertion, in safety, to be 8, and, March 17, arrived at the Cape of Good crowned with the rewards and honors so nobly Hope, where similar services were performed. earned from an admiring and grateful nation. A series of daily experiments was made on the
Justly may Great Britain be proud of this temperature and specific gravity of the sea, at achievement; and sure we are that its glory will the depths of 180, 300, 450, and 600 fathoms, and not be felt by Britain alone, but be acknowledged at length soundings at the bottom of the ocean by the whole civilized world, to which, as well were struck by the plummet. From all which, as to ourselves, its interesting and important re- the physical condition of this element will come sults in science belong. The exemplary human to be better understood. . ity and prudence of Captain James Ross, Cap- April 3. The Cape was left behind, and the tain Crozier, and their gallant companions system of magnetic observation sedulously and intrusted with the command and direction of zealously continued, to connect the voyage with the undertaking, are above all praise; and the the observatories established in other parts of reciprocating steadiness and devotedness of the the world. Kerguelen's Land was reached on crews of the two vessels are no less creditable to the 12th of May; and on the 29th, (the day prethe national character. Three fine fellows were viously fixed for simultaneous observations, the lost by accident within the four years; but such magnetometric instruments were noted every 21 was the effectual care and management bestow- minutes, for 24 hours; and, fortunately, one of ed during all that time, under every circumstance the magnetic storms which have been noticed in of toil and danger, that the first natural death various parts of Europe occurred, and its aflectoccurred at Rio, on the homeward voyage, and ing the instruments, as at Toronto, afforded comthe first and only corpse was there committed to plete proof of the vast extent of magnetic inthe earth. Highly as we must think of what has fuences, pervading the earth's diameter with a been done in other respects, the attention paid velocity equal to light or electricity. to the comfort and welfare of the men, and ihus
Geological and geographical investigations restoring them to their country in robust health were carried on here. Large fossil-trees were and vigor, must, in our opinion, demand the found in the lava, and indicated the igneous warmest tribute of applause, and redound most origin of these islands. Extensive seams of coal signally to the honor of their leaders.
were also imbedded in the volcanic mass, which But we will not detain our anxious readers may, with great benefit, be employed for the any longer by introductory remarks, from the purposes of steam-navigation in this quarter of account of this expedition, which we have the the world, and be of immense importance to the good fortune to be able to lay before them; the commerce of India. sailing of which, its equipments, experiments, and other particulars, imparied much interest to the columns of The Literary Gazette four
From Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land, the years ago, when its Editor bade farewell to his expedition proceeded to Auckland Islands, and friends on board the Erebus, as they sailed on completed a perfect series of magnetic observatheir long and adventurous career. easy to express the delight he experiences in 1840. The anticipatory attenipts* of the Ameri
It is not tions on the important term-day of November welcoming their return. We may, in order to make the statement more modore D'Urville, having become known to our
can Lieutenant Wilkes, and the French Comcomplete, run over the journal from the period countrymen, Captain Ross wisely used his disto which we have alluded.
The Erebus, Captain James Ross, and the cretionary power in altering his route from that Terror, Captain Crozier, left England on the his course for the utmost south, at about the
originally intended. He accordingly directed 29th of September, 1839, and made observations 170th deg. of east longitude, by which the isodyat Madeira, Port Praya, St. Paul's Rocks, and namic oval and the point exactly between the Trinidad. On the last day of January 1810 the expedition reached St. Helena, Captain Ross having been desirous, in taking this course, to paration of the English expedition to explore these
* This was a paltry proceeding, when the predetermine the important point of minimum mag-seas, antarctic and southern pole, was so fully netic intensity, and the nature of the curve con- known. To try to be beforehand with it was only necting those points in which that intensity is worthy of failure.-Ed. L. G.
two foci of greater magnetic intensity might be Here strong southerly gales, thick fogs, and passed over and determined directly between the perpetual snow-storms impeded them; but they iracks of the Russian navigator Bellinghausen continued to examine the coast to the southward, and our own illustrious Cook. He then proposed and on the 27th again landed on another island, to steer S. W. towards the pole, rather than at- in lat. 76° 8' S. and long. 168° 12' E.; like the tempt its approach directly from the north on the former, all of igneous rocks. On the 28th a unsuccessful footsteps of preceding voyagers. mountain 12,400 seet above the level of the sea
On the 12th of December he quitted Auckland was seen emitting fame and smoke in grand Islands, touched at Campbell Island, and, passing, profusion; which splendid volcano received the through numerous icebergs to the southward of appropriate name oi Mount Erebus. Its posi63° lat., made the Pack-Edge, and entered the tion is lat. 77° 32' S. long. 167° 0' E.; and an Antarctic Circle on New Year's day 1841. This extinct crater to the eastward of it was named pack was not so formidable as represented by though not quite so fitly—Mount Terror. * the French and Americans, but a gale and other Continuing to follow the mainland in its southunfavorable circumstances prevented the vessels ern trending, a barrier of ice, stretching off from from entering it at the time. A gale from the a prominent cape, and presenting a perpendicular northward blew them off; and it was not till the face of above 150 feet, far above the mast-heads 5th that they regained it, about 100 miles to the of the vessels, shut up the prospect of further adeastward, in lat. 66° 45' S., and long. 174° 16' | vance in that direction. They could just discern E., when, though the wind was blowirg and the beyond, the tops of a range of very lofty mounsea running high directly upon it, the entrance tains towards the S.S. E., and in lat. 79° S. This was achieved without the slightest injury to either barrier they explored to the eastward, till, on the ship. After advancing through it a few miles, 2d of Feb., they reached lat 78° 4' S., the highthey were able to make their way to the south est they were at any time able to attain; ward with comparative ease and safety. Thick the 9th, having traced its continuance to the fogs, however, ensued, and, with light winds, long. of 191° 23 in lat. 78° S., a distance of more rendered their course more difficult as well as than 300 miles, their farther progress was stoptedious; and constant snow-showers impeded ped by a heavy pack pressed closely against it
, their operations. Whenever a clear glimpse and the narrow lane through which they had could be obtained, they were nevertheless en- hitherto found their way being now completely couraged by seeing a strong water-sky to the covered by rapidly forming ice, nothing but the S. E.; and on the morning of the 9th, after sail- strong breeze which they fortunately had with ing above 200 miles through the pack, they them put it in their power to retrace their course. gained a perfectly clear sea, and bore away At the distance of less than half a mile they had S. W. for the magnetic pole!
soundings on a bed of soft blue mud, with 318 Jan. 11, lat. 70° 47' s. and long. 172° 36' E., fathoms. The temperature was 20° below the land was discovered at the distance of nearly freezing point; and aught more here being im100 miles, directly in their course and between practicable, they bore away for the westward, them and the pole-the southernmost known land and again reached lat. 76° S. (that of the magever discovered, though somewhat nearly ap- netic pole) on the 15th of February. They found proached by the Russians twenty years ago. the heavy ice partially dristed away, but iis place As those who accomplished this honor for their supplied by more, recently formed, through which country approached, it was seen to rise in lofty they got a few miles nearer the pole-lat. 76° mountain peaks of from 9,000 to 12,000 feet in 12 s., and long. 164°, the dip 88-40, and variaheight, entirely covered with eternal snow, and tion 109-24 E., -thus only 157 miles from the the glaciers projecting from the vast mountain pole. The nature of the coast rendered it imbrows for many miles into the ocean. By and possible to lay up the ships and endeavor to by exposed patches of rock were visible ; but the reach this interesting point by land; but it is ehore was so lined with bergs and pack-ice, with satisfactory to know that it was approached some a heavy swell washing over them, that a landing hundreds of miles more nearly than ever it was could not be effected. They therefore steered before, and that from the multitude of observa10 the S. E., where were several small islands; tions made, in so many different directions, its and on the 12th Captain Ross landed, accom- position can be determined with almost as much panied by Captain Crozier and a number of offi- certainty as if the spot had been actually visited. cers of each ship, and took possession of the The advanced period of the season in this country in the name of our gracious queen Vic- high latitude now rendered return advisable; toria. "The island is composed altogether of but yet they made another effort to land on the igneous rocks, and lies in lat. 71° 56' S. and north part of the coast, which was defeated by long. 171° 7' E.
The east coast of the mainland trended to the * The volume of smoke ejected by the volcano southward, and the north took a north-westerly was in sudden jets, and attained an altitude of direction; and Captain Ross resolved on penė- 2000 feet; the diameter at the crater’s mouth was trating as far as he could to the south, so that he about 300 feet, and it gradually assumed the shape might, if possible. pass beyond the magnetic pole, of an inverted cone till it was 5 or 600 feet in which the combined observations had placed in diameter at its highest elevation. The smoke then 76° S. dearly, and thence proceed westward till gradually dispersed and left the crater quite clear, he completed its circumnavigation: They ac: the face of the meridian sun. The permanent
tilleil with intensely bright flame flashing even in cordingly steered along this magnificent land ; snow extends to the very edge of the crater, and and on the 23d of January reached 74° 15 S., no appearance of lava-streams could be detected the highest southern latitude that had ever been lon the surface.- Ed. L. G. previously attained !
the heavy pack-ice. They found it terminate Islands, and passing by the Chatham Islands abruptly in lat. 70° 40' S., and long. 165° E., bore away to the eastward to examine the sup trending considerably to the southward of west
, posed position of the focus of greater magnetie and presenting an immense space, occupied by intensity, and, favored with fine weather, oba dense pack, so firmly cemented together by the tained a series of observations which demonnewly formed ice, as to defy every attempt to strated the error of the assigned position. They penetrate it. The whole southern land thus accordingly proceeded to the south to resume iraced extends from nearly the 70th to the 79th the examination of the antarctic seas. degree of latitude, and was distinguished by the Dec. 18. In lat. 62° 28' S. and long. 146° 57 name of our beloved sovereign.
W., they made the pack 300 miles farther Their way from hence lay near the chain of north than before ; which unexpected obstruction islands discovered by Balleny in 1839, and showed that they were too early for the season. more extensively explored by the American They entered, however, and pursued their and French expeditions in the following year. voyage for 300 miles, when it became so close On the 4th of March they recrossed the ant- that they could push the ships no more to the arctic circle, and being necessarily close by the southward. With untiring zeal and unflincheastern extrenie of those patches of land which ing fatigue of officers and men, it was again Lieut. Wilkes has called the Antarctic Conti- new-year's day, 1842, before they could cross nent," and having reached their latitude on the the antarctic circle. The intense brightness of 5th, they steered directly for them; and at noon the sky foreshowed them that they would still on the 6th, the ships being exactly over the cen- have to encounter vast bodies of ice in that tre of this mountain range, they could obtain no direction, whilst more encouraging appearances soundings with 600 fathoms of line; and having held out inducement to try their fortune to the traversed a space of 80 miles in every direction westward. By Jan. 19th they had succeeded in from this spot, during beautifully clear weather, reaching within a few miles of the open water, which extended their vision widely around, were when a violent gale sprung up and placed them obliged to consess that this position, at least, of in a situation of appalling jeopardy. The rudthe pseudo-antarctic continent, and the nearly der of the Erebus was shattered, and that of the 200 miles of barrier represented to extend from Terror was soon after utterly destroyed; and it, have no real existence!!*
violent shocks against the ice for twenty-six Continuing to bear westward, the expedition hours, as they rolled deeply among its heavy approached the place where Prof. Gauss sup- masses, severely tried their strength and threatposed the magnetic pole to be, which was ened their existence. On the 21st the gale proved, by extended investigation, to be errone- abated; and though driven back far into, and ous; and they then, April 4, departed for Van closely beset by, the pack, they went to work to Diemen's Land.
repair damages and prepare for new etforts. No disease or casualty of any kind attended Their condition was very helpless, and their their first labors, and there was not one indi- vexation the greater, as the last days were fast vidual in either ship on the sick-list! Sir John shortening, and the season drawing to a close. Franklin, too, the estimable friend and arctic They had, however, gone through the pack in a companion of Ross, was still at the opposite direct line 450 miles, and were more south than pole, ready to welcome and entertain him. It Cook or Bellinghausen had been able to reach in was doubtless a happy meeting.
more favorable seasons. At length, Feb. 2d, they cleared the pack in lat. 67° 28' S., and long 159° 0' E., after an imprisonment of forty-six
days in the " thick-ribbed ice.". This was only The magnetometers, &c., again strictly com- ten days earlier than they had been obliged to pared with those of the fixed observatory, the abandon their operations the year before; but crews refreshed, the ships refitted, the gallant still they advanced to see what could be done. band again proceeded with their arduous task. They pursued their course to the southward The expedition went to Sydney and the Bay of | along the edge of the pack, but it was found to Islands, in order to extend the magnetic observa- trend to the westward across their course, tions, and finish meteorological and other philo- which obliged them to stretch farther in that sophical experiments. These at the antipodes direction than was wished ; and a continuance of European observatories, and equally separated of violent gales added more to their difficulties. from each other, are of much interest to science; They fought against every obstacle, and at midand have decided the important question of the night, on the 22d, they had the satisfaction to exact correspondence of the momentary mag- make the great barrier a few miles to the eastnetic perturbations. The perturbations at Van ward of the spot where their examination of last Diemen's Land and New Zealand were found to year had concluded. This enormous mass be in exact accordance.
gradually diminishes, from its commencement at Nov. 23, 1841. They sailed from the Bay of the foot of Mount Erebus, where it is about 200
feet, to 150 feet at the eastern extreme, as far as * Lieut. Wilkes may have mistaken some clouds could be seen. or fog.banks, which in these regions are very likely farther diminished to 107 feet, and broken into
At the point now reached it was to assume the appearance of land to inexperienced deep bays and low projections not above from eyes, for this continent and range of lufry moun. tains. If so, the error is to be regretted, as it must
50 to 70 feet high. Soundings in a bed of blue tend to throw discredit on other portions of his mud were obtained at 290 fathoms; which, todiscoveries which have a more substantial founda gether with the strong appearance of land, tion. -Ed. L. G.
gently rising in ridges to the height of several
hundred feet, at a distance of 50 or 60 miles its north extreme, was found to be entirely from the barrier, leaves little doubt of the exist covered with snow or ice, which descended from ence of an extensive country to the southward, the height of 2000 or 3000 feet into the sea, but so entirely covered with perpetual ice as to where, broken by the violence of the waves, it conceal every conceivable feature of marked formed perpendicular icy cliffs of from 20 to 30 character to establish its positive existence. feet high, from which the bergs already men
The barrier was, with a strong breeze, traced tioned constantly broke away and grounded in about 130 miles farther eastward than in the the shallow water. Between them the whirlpreceding year, but all beyond was fruitless. pools, caused by a strong tide, were very troubleCapt. Ross therefore retraced his course, and, some; and several small islets, quite free from where he was before prevented by the weather snow, were observed, extending to the southand fogs, obtained two additional lines of mag- eastward from the farthest visible point of the netic determinations at no great distance from land. A dense fog arose, and compelled the exthe pole, by which its position can be still more pedition to haul off to the eastward, where they accurately ascertained. The antarctic circle soon met with the western edge of the packs. was again repassed, and another hazardous en- On the evening of the 30th, they again closed terprise undertaken, in these long dark nights, the land, and steered across a deep gulf for the which confirmed the opinion regarding the non- extreme point; but the pack was close against existence of the supposed focus of magnetic its shores, and by the 4th, in lat. 641° S., the force. On the 12th March, in a heavy breeze, ships were beset, and drifted rapidly back to the the ships were driven into violent collision with northward. Next day they were extricated, and an extensive chain of icebergs, and the bowsprit, finally succeeded in landing on an island at the fore-topmast, and some smaller spars of the Ėre extreme of a deep inlet on the south side of the bus, were carried away and lost. The vessels gulf, of which Captain Ross took possession in were providentially preserved from being dashed her majesty's name. This island is of volcanic to pieces; and the coolness, promptitude, and origin, and though not more than two miles in activity of their crews were never more ener- diameter, projects a perfectly formed crater to getically displayed. A direct course was held the height of 3500 feei above the level of the sea. for Cape Horn, as far from the tracks of former It lies in lat. 64° 12' S., and long. 56° 49' W. A navigators as possible; and in a heavy gale, magnificent table-topped mountain to the westJames Angeley, quarter-master, fell overboard ward rises to the height of 7,000 feet, and the and was drowned, the only casualty during 136 whole western shore of this great gulf consists of days of arduous duty, and again without one man mountainous ranges covered with everlasting on the sick-list. Provisions were supplied from snow. It was named the Gulf of Erebus and Rio de Janeiro, and the ships were put in as Terror; is about 40 miles between the capes, complete a condition to renew operations as the and neariy as many miles deep. Excepting the day they sailed from England.
south part, it was full of heavy pack-ice, and there were two spaces at its deepest parts where
no land could be discerned, and which probably THIRD YEAR.
communicate with Bransfield Strait. In the
evening, the ice being driven off the land, they On the morning of Dec. 17, 1842, the expedi- rounded the south part of the gulf, and coursed tion sailed from the Falkland Islands, and on the the land to the south-westward between its shore 24th saw the first icebergs, when nearly in the and a chain of grounded bergs two or three latitude of Clarence Island; and next day their miles distant. All this portion was free from progress was arrested by a rather solid pack. snow for twenty miles, when they again came to The 26th was spent in endeavoring to find out perpendicular icy cliffs descending from a snowa penetrable part, and they were led to stand covered mountain about 2,000 feet high. This along its edge to the westward. Capt. Ross, was a complete barrier in miniature, and tended being persuaded that the great extent of open to confirm Captain Ross's opinion that an extenwater found by our late worthy friend, Capt. sive continent exists to the south ward of the great Weddell, to the 74th deg. of latitude, was pro- barrier discovered in 1841, extending to the east duced by the prevailing westerly winds driving 450 miles from Mount Erebus. the ice away from some extensive shore, pro- Ice, in various forms, beset them for some bably the eastern side of Graham Land, deter- time, and observations were taken on that which mined, if he could, to get hold of that coast, and was fixed. No doubt remained that the strait penetrate to the southward and eastward, be- before spoken of communicated with Bransfield tween its shores and the pack, and thus he Strait, and probably with the Canal d'Orleans; hoped to arrive at the open part of the open sea but it was so completely closed, that nothing farfound by Weddell; deeming it more desirable to ther could be done to decide this geographical trace the land to the southward than to attempt point. The struggles with the ice continued to to follow his track, from which no discovery the 1st of February, when it became essential could be expected. On the 28th they discovered to extricate the ships, and endeavor to peneJand, extending S. to S. W. by W.; but its shores trate to the south. On the 4th they succeeded lined with so extraordinary an accumulation of in gaining the pack-edge, and were once more grounded icebergs as to prevent all approach in clear water, after having been more or less nearer than three or four miles. They had, entangled for the space of forty days. East therefore, only to pass along and examine the winds and thick fogs prevailed, and the best of coast as they could. The whole land, with the the season was past. They, however, in lat. 65° exception of two bold projecting head-lands near nearly, crossed Weddell's returning track, and
found pack-ice where he had perfectly clear sea.* on a meridian usually occupied by the pack They could not penetrate beyond lat. 65° 15' S. when driven by the prevailing westerly winds where their position was 100 miles to the south- from the east shore of Graham's Land, and exward of Admiral D'Urville's track where he un- tending their researches in that meridian (15° successfully attempted to follow the route so no- W.) twelve degrees of latitude beyond their prebly achieved by our countryman Weddell. On decessors, Cook, Bellinghausen, and Biscoe. the 22d they crossed the line of the no-variation The discovery and examination of a considerin lat. 61° and long. 24° W. in a dip of 57° 40'; \ able extent of unknown coast, proving the insua fact of much importance to magnetic science, larity of those portions of land first discovered by since the observations appear to prove that the Bransfield in 1820, for years afterwards fresupposition of there being two magnetic poles of quented by our sealers in search of their prey, verticity in the south (as is well known to be the and finally, in 1839, seen by Admiral D'Urville, case in the north) is erroneous, and that there is and called by him “Louis Philippe's Land,"canin reality but one magnetic pole in the southern not but be regarded as important additions to hemisphere.
our knowledge of those parts, which, though We may notice that the whole of this year's islands of inconsiderable size, might have exobservations tend in a remarkable manner to tended, and were supposed to extend, even to confirm the position assigned to this pole by the pole. Captain Ross from his first year's experiments At the end of April, the Erebus and Terror in its close vicinity.
left the Cape of Good Hope, and touched at St. On the 23d they rounded the last extreme of Helena and Ascension for the purpose of repeatthe pack, and stood to the S. E., and crossed the ing the magnetic observations they had formerly antarctic circle on the 1st of March in long. 7° made, and verifying their instruments. In order 30' W. From judicious considerations Captain to render the whole series complete, it was neRoss now tried to penetrate to the southward in cessary to repair to Rio de Janeiro, which the the meridian exactly between Bellinghausen's expedition reached on the 18th of June. After and Weddell's tracks, and consequently stood to a few days employed in observing and refitting, the S. W. On the 23d, in lat. 68° 31', and long. they sailed for England, and, touching at one of 12° 49' W., he was becalmed, and seized the the Western Islands, made the land of Scilly on opportunity to try for soundings, but 4,000 fath. the 27th of August. The passage up channel oms of line failed to reach the ground. This was rendered tedious by calms and light winds, great depth is against the probability of meeting so that Captain Ross was unable to land until with land near. For some time, however, they Monday last
, the 4th Sept., when he disembarkpersevered in an attempt to get farther to the ed at Folkstone, and arrived in town on the south, but the ice was too strong for them, and afternoon of the same day. Need we add, that considerable danger was encountered in a tem- his reception at the Admiralty was most cordial pestuous gale, which lasted, without interruption, and gratifying. Lord Haddington complimentduring three days. The darkness of the nights ed him in the warmest manner, in the presence and the number of icebergs seemed only to in- of the other lords; and all joined in the highest crease the confidence and courage of the men; eulogy upon his services. This is only the preand the management of the ships was, through- face to the fame he has, with his brave comrades, out, most worthy of admiration. At length, on Captain Crozier, Commander Bird, and the rest, the 8th, the wind veered to the eastward, and so nobly earned; and it will be echoed not only with hearts overflowing with gratitude to God now and by his country, but by the whole civilfor his merciful protection, when human efforts ized world and forever. Heartily do we wish were all but useless and unavailing, our brave him, and all who were with him, the perfect enfellows were in safety, and steering for the joyment of that high health in which they have north. It was not, however, till the 12th, that been restored to us after all their fatigues and they were relieved from the apprehension of be- perils. ing driven against the still-threatening pack.
On the 17th they reached the latitude of Bouvet Island, (61° 19',) about go to the westward Having given the outline of this great nationof the assigned position; but they, like Cook, al exploit, we have only to annex a very few searched for it in vain; and Captain Ross con- particulars in connection with it, which may includes that Bouvet had been deceived by the terest our general readers. form of an iceberg. The last berg was seen on When at Cape Horn, making magnetometric the 25th, in lat. 47° 3' S., and long. 10° 51' E., observations, the ships anchored in St. Martin's when bearing away before a fair gale for the Cove, where they fell in with a small party of Cape of Good Hope, where the expedition pros- Fuegeans, a most miserable race of human perously anchored on the 4th of April.
creatures, wandering naked amongst the conIn the third season, it will thus be seen, they stantly falling snow-storms of this incleinent redid not penetrate so far as Weddell; yet the un- gion. usual prevalence of easterly winds preventing On their path from Cape Horn to the Falkthe pack from drifting off shore, was ihe means land Islands, they observed a very dangerous of enabling them to reach the lat. of 71° 30' s. bank, directly in the line, on which it is proba
ble that many a daring bark has been lost, * The doubts endeavored to be thrown on Wed-whose fate has never been disclosed to mortal dell's narrative by the French, merely because they ears. were unable to follow his track, ought not to be On the island on which they landed, in lat. 71° passed without reprehension.-Ed. L. G.
56' S. and long. 171° 7' E., where they procured