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witness its famous demolition ! “Your subject, servant, and soldier; dispose of highness was a lieutenant-general in the me as your majesty pleases for the honor service of the country twenty-five years and the peace of France !" ago," said Louis XVIII. when the duke was Direcied to proceed to Lyons to oppose presented to him the day after his arrival, the progress of the usurper, he pointed out

you are still the same !" Yes, there the impossibility of success in such an unhe was, standing in the same palace, bear- dertaking, but undertook the command of ing the same title, and yet once more des- the army of the north. There, with that tined to return to the shores of England, same valiant Mortier Duke de Trevise, and seek the sylvan shades and retreat of who was subsequently shot by his side on Twickenham.

the Boulevard du Temple by the infernal There is a very curious fact connected machine of Fieschi, the Duke of Orleans with this portion of the life of Louis Philippe visited Cambrai, Douai, Lille, and other which, when compared with another period fortified stations on a tour of inspection, of his history, cannot fail to strike with in- and did all he could to excite his soldiers terest the reader. I allude to the fact, that to fidelity, and the population to a love of Prince Talleyrand, who accompanied Louis peace. But his efforts were wholly un. XVIII. to Compiegne, remarked to the availing, and after having ascertained beking, “that he saw no necessity for hasten- yond the possibility of doubt that, at least ing the return of the Duke of Orleans; for a period, the cause of the usurper would that the air of Palermo agreed with bim so triumph, he addressed to Marshal Mortier well, that perhaps it would be best he a farewell letter, and returned to Twicken. should remain there." And yet, when ham, whither had preceded him his Duch. after a lapse of sixteen years, that same ess, the Duke of Chartres, and his second Duke of Orleans was raised to the throne son, the present gallant and very able of France, the Prince Talleyrand was prince, the Duke of Nemours. That scion amongst the first to do him homage, and of the house of Orleans was born at Paris negotiated with such ability with foregin on the 25th of October, 1814, and is at the powers the recognition of the Orleans moment I am writing this sketch visiting dynasty, that he obtained its admission the French provinces in company with his into the family of European sovereigns! duchess, in order that he may become inThis was a specimen of Talleyrand. Zeal- timately acquainted with the wants and ous for all, faithful to none; success wishes of France, in the event of his auful for all, sincere to none; ever trne gust father Louis Philippe dying before the to the rising star, the rising sun, and the Count de Paris shall arrive at his majority, smiling fortune ; and ever false to the in which case the Duke de Nemours would sinking star, the setting sun, and to misfor. be regent. That duke is a Conservative. tune and defeat. He had every vice,-and Possessed of great talents, considerable not one virtue:

eloquence, presence of mind, decision of In the month of July, 1814, the duke re- character, and a firm resolution to do and turned to Palermo, and was accompanied to say that which be believes to be right, by the same Baron Athalin, who afterwards no man of his family, or of his time is beta became the private and left-handed hus. ter qualified to become regent should that band of Mademoiselle Orleans, now Ma- death occur, which would, alas ! render a dame Adelaide, and for whose courage, hon- regency inevitable. For the sake of the or, and devotedness to the Orleans dynasty, peace of France and the repose of the world, Louis Philippe has since rewarded him with may that day be yet far distant. every mark of esteem and gratitude. To The Duke of Orleans retired from France the palace of his ancestors Louis Philippe with mingled sentiments of regret and dis. now returned. He was received with cold couragement. He had ascertained the fact ness at court, and with suspicion by the that the eldest branch of the house of Bour. restored Royalists. This was unwise and bon could not rely on the support of the cruel. But new events changed the whole French army! and therefore that foreign aspect of affairs. Napoleon escaped from intervention and foreign occupation could Elba, and, on the 5th of March, 1815, land- alone secure to that dynasty possession of ed at Cannes. Louis XVIII. sent for the the throne. To what events a foreign ocDuke of Orleans. What was to be done ? cupation would lead, how it might be op“Sire," said he, addressing himself to posed, and what would follow that oppo. Louis XVIII., “as for me, I am prepared to sition, he could not possibly predict or

« share both your bad and good fortune ; al- foresee ; and when he arrived at Twicken. though one of your royal race, I am your ham he did not hesitate to state that he

VOL. III. No. IV. 30

could not imagine what might be the results away, Louis Philippe returned to France of the new struggle. But THE HUNDRED in the spring of 1817. From that moment DAYS of rule,—and that battle of Waterloo, he resolved to devote himself to the manwhich in spite of all the falsehoods which agement of his extensive domains, and have been published respecting it, was one which had not been sold under the usurpof the greatest, most important, and honor- ing governments of the republic or of able to British arms and valor, ever fought Buonaparte ; to the administration of his in any land, soon put an end to the ephem- sumptuous household; and, above all, to eral success of the usurper, and recalled the education of a numerous and charmto the throne of France the house of ing family, redolent of health, wit, and Bourbon.

beauty. The enemies of the Duke of Orleans The management of his estates, the liwere not, however, few or inactive. The quidation of his debts due upon them, and Jesuits and the Court of Rome, the emi- their restoration to order, occupied the grants and their families,-all sought by duke during a period of nearly ten years; forged documents and signatures, and by and, although it has been the babit to acevery other unworthy and disgraceful cuse that prince of having deroted a large means, to interrupt the cordiality which portion of that time to intrigues against the existed between the house of Bourbon reigning dynasty, nothing can be farther Capet and that of Bourbon Orleans, and to removed from the truth than those allega. cause it to be believed that the head of the tions. Louis Philippe is essentially a family latter house was conspiring with the Lib- man; attached to family and quiet pur. erals, to depopularize the then reigning suits; fond of literature and literary men; dynasty, as well as to create a party for and naturally much more disposed to fol. himself. When he returned to the French low and adopt the habits and pursuits of an capital, he found therefore little cordiality. English country gentleman, than to engage When he carried by his manly eloquence in diplomatic negotiations or in political in the chamber of peers the rejection of an pursuits. It was not, then, natural for address invoking the king to exercise Louis Philippe, with his far different and measures of vengeance against Marshal opposing tastes and inclinations, to enNey and Labedoyère, and others, and which gage in political intrigues, and in secret would have virtually deprived his majesty opposition to the king's government. Beof the free and unbiassed exercise of his sides which, he owed too many obligations judgment and compassion, he was suspect to Louis XVIII., for the assistance afforded ed and denounced; and Louis XVIII. was to him in procuring possession of his pa. prevailed on to recall that ordinance by trimonial estates, and for the millions of virtue of which princes of the blood royal francs assigned to him under the act of insat in the chamber of peers. They were demnity, to be so ungrateful and disloyal. not to appear in the chamber in future That the duke believed that some further without special authorization. This was a political revolution might occur in France blow so direct and violent levelled against is certain ; but that he contributed to bring the Duke, and which was followed by so about, either directly or indirectly, the decided a refusal of the king to avail him- events of 1830, I do most unhesitatingly self of his assistance in the formation of his and wholly deny. Undoubtedly, his assonew government, that he deemed it at once ciates were neither Romish priests nor Ul. more expedient to retire to England, and tra-royalists; and it cannot be denied that from the quiet scenery of Twickenham to Foy, Constant, Perier, and Manuel, were watch the progress of events and the meas- amongst the constant visitors at the Palais ures of the Bourbon government. There, Royal, Neuilly, and Eu. Nor will those who for nearly twelve months, he “looked write or speak conscientiously of Louis through the loopholes of retreat," and ex. Phi ppe attempt to deny that his political amined, though from a distance, the pro. views were rather those of Lord Grey than ceedings of the Ultra-royalists. Talley- of Mr. Pitt, of Mr. Fox than of Lord Liverrand was at the moment occupied with the pool, or of Mr. Canning than of Lord Cas. project of sending the Duke of Orleans ilereagh. . But Louis Philippe, whether as permanently to Palermo; but the answer Duke of Orleans or as king, was, and is, of received from the prince was so manly, de- opinion, that in countries governed by cided, and constitutional, that the artful limited monarchies, changes should be efcourtier and diplomatist was wholly de- fected solely by the parliament, and not by feated.

the populace; and that no excuse can be When the period of reaction had passed offered for those who conspire under con

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stitutional governments. I am anxious, and calm settling down to existing insti. then, to assist, at least, in removing a gen. tutions on the part of the middling classes eral impression, which I think on the whole in France, which was necessary to assure unfounded, that the Duke of Orleans, either to a thoughtful mind either security for the under the reign of Louis XVIII. or under present, or confidence for the future. There that of Charles X., conspired against the was an evident conviction that something government of his country, or against the else had to transpire, that an attempt monarch on the throne. I know he often would be made by the court to unsettle the disapproved the policy of Talleyrand, of settlement of 1815, and that this attempt Villele, and of Polignac ; but as the Prince might lead to new disasters. That the of Wales, the Duke of Kent, and the Duke Duke of Orleans was, therefore, disposed of Sussex, were not conspirators, though I to stand aloof from a line of policy he did regret that they all once belonged to the not approve is certain ; but he never conopposition ranks in parliament, so neither spired against that policy. It is by no was the Duke of Orleans. This is the line means improbable that he resolved on the of distinction to be drawn :—and for want education of his sons in the public schools, of it being attended to, the conduct of partly with the view of showing that he was Louis Philippe during the restoration has in no wise 'mixed up with the re-actionary been either not understood or greatly mis- views and the counter-revolutionary deterrepresented.

minations of the high Roman Catholic

parNo family circle in the whole world was ty, but it by no means followed that he more united and happy than that of the desired either to excite distrust in the Duke of Orleans at the period of which I minds of the people against the eldest am now speaking. Those who were ad- braneh of the Bourbons, or to form a pomitted to the château of the duke were in litical party in his own favor. I firmly belove with all they saw and all they heard. lieve that the principal reasons why the “ They are delicious creatures, those Or. Duke of Orleans determined on educating leans girls,” exclaimed the Duchess of Ber- his sons in the public schools were ; first, ry, as they left on one occasion the fa- because he was of opinion that they would vorite evening's causerie" apartment of receive in them a far better education than Charles X.; "there is not such another at home. And, secondly, because, since, family in your majesty's dominions.” The owing to the birth of the Duke of Bordeaux, system of education adopted by the duke his branch of the Bourbon race would not was admirable; and this thought reminds probably ever be called to the throne; me of a few words written about that same that his own children should belong rather Prince de Joinville who has lately escorted to the upper ranks of French society than our fair queen from Eu to Brighton, and be regarded merely as princes, and Bourhas expressed in touching and feeling terms bons. his admiration of her character and of the The marriage of the niece of the Duchess whole British nation.

of Orleans with the Duke of Berry was an “ I saw the young Prince de Joinville," event of great importance in the history of wrote Madame de Genlis, “who was only the former family. Lively, gay, witty, two years old, but who spoke as distinctly generous, and open-hearted, the Duchess of as a child of six or seven; he was also as Berry captivated all parties, and even gain. polite as he was handsome and intelligent:ed the affection of the Republicans themin fact, the whole family of the Duke of Or- selves. Few women have ever lived whose Jeans is truly the most interesting I ever passions have betrayed them into more acts knew. Its members are charming by their of indiscretion and impropriety than this personal attractions, by their natural quali- unfortunate lady; and yet, few have ever ties and education, and by the reciprocal possessed such admiring and devoted fol. attachment of parents and children. lowers. She had the art of making herself

The determination of Louis Philippe to loved to a greater degree than almost any confer on his sons the benefits of a public other woman of her time; and to this day education in the schools of Paris has been the name of the Duchess of Berry carries a unjustly and unkindly ascribed to a wish talismanic influence with it, even in the to render his branch of the Bourbon race liberal circles and saloons of Paris. That more popular than that of the eldest branch. marriage then introduced more frequently

I sm satisfied that this is a libel. It is the Duke of Orleans to the court, but the true that the duke did not believe that the priest party was always opposed to him ; revolution of 1793 or 1788 had been ter- caused him invariably to be distrusted ; and minated. He did not witness that quiet induced Louis XVIII., and subsequently


Charles X., to believe that, in him, the eld- | acter, and his affection for the French peoest branch had a dangerous and decided ple, endeared bim to all who knew bim; foe. It was, therefore, that the former and the conduct of the Orleans family on prince refused to confer on him the title of that occasion tended to increase that affec"Royal Highness."

tion for them, which the Duchess of Berry The death of Louis XVIII., in some re. never hesitated to avow. spects, however, changed the position of When the Count de Villele prevailed on the Duke of Orleans. The latter was re- the offended monarch to avenge himself on ceived with greater kindness at court, his the Chamber of Peers by creating seventychildren were regarded with more atten- six new members of that Assembly, the tion and affection; and, during the first Duke of Orleans sighed over a policy, month of the reign of Charles X., the ad- which was conducting throne, government, vice of the duke was not wholly neglected. and country, to the verge of a terrible and But this state of things was not of long awful abyss. Yet, still faithful to his prinduration. The old Roman Catholic party ciple of obedience, he inculcated submis. once more rallied: the Court of Rome in- sion to the wishes of the king, although be stalled itself at the Tuileries: doubts were hailed with internal pleasure the accession entertained whether the new monarch of the Martignac ministry. should take the oath of fidelity to the When, at last, the ill-advised monarch charter: and that unhappy and misguided dismissed that admirable cabinet, and called man, who possessed a noble and benevolent to his counsel the ultra-monarchists of heart, was at last prevailed on to believe former days, the Duke of Orleans “hoped that it was possible to re-establish in France for the best; would never admit it to be the old French monarchy of 1780. From possible that Charles X. would violate bis that moment the Duke of Orleans resolved oaths and most solemn engagements: careon standing aloof, as far as possible, from fully abstained from becoming a member political events. He determined, yet more of any opposition society: and kept more than ever, to consecrate his life to bis large closely than ever to those family occupaand admirable family, and to encourage the tions and pursuits which were the charm arts, science, and literature ; to relieve the of his life and the secret of all his hapdistresses of the unfortunate; to administer piness. his own vast domains; to aid all improve- It was at this period, 1829, that the Duke ments in manufactures, commerce, and of Orleans paid his last visit to Great Briagriculture; and to be the encourager and tajn. There he saw men of all parties, and patron of all that could tend to embellish from him they learned the imminent perils and adorn that France he loved so dearly, to which the French monarchy was er. and that illustrious family of which he was posed. He revisited the scenes of former the head.

years, but he secretly resolved never again When Charles X. announced to the na- to quit France, much as he loved the peacetional guards of Paris their dissolution, be ful tranquillity of Twickenham. cause some cries had been uttered at a re

el. It is not irue, as his enemies have alview unfavorable, not to the king, but to leged, that the Duke of Orleans was then his government, the Duke of Orleans was secretly arranging for the proclamation of silent. “Another step, deplorable and himself as king of France in the event of a false, has this day been taken,” said the revolution. It is not true that his visit to duke to an intimate friend ; " but I am England had any thing of a political charonly a subject; and, although I greatly acter about it. The duke dreaded and be. fear that this indicates a desire for coun. lieved in a revolution, and feared that not ter-revolution, my course is clear-to obey many years would elapse ere it would ocand be silent."

cur; but events moved more rapidly than When Count de Peyronnet's bill for re- he anticipated, and the folly and weakness straining the liberty of the press was of the Polignac administration hastened a brought into the House of Peers, the Duke dénouement which he most undoubtedly apof Orleans regarded it as the presage of a prehended and feared, but which he did coming storm; but he raised not the drapeau not believe was so near at hand. of disobedience, whilst he rejoiced at the On the appointment of the Polignac cabi. repudiation of the measure.

net, the Duke of Orleans felt it to be his When the Duke of Berry was assassinated, duty to endeavor at least to open the eyes the Duke of Orleans and his family were of his sovereign and relative, Charles X., to plunged into the deepest grief. They real- the dangers of his position, and to seek to prely loved him. His blunt and honest char- /vail on him to avoid a collision which could


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not but terminate in a fearful revolution. the chiefs of the successful movement, he Verbally, and by writing, did he approach could not be found, and his retreat was not the king, and in terms the most respectful, known to his most familiar friends. At but still the most decisive, did he labor to im- length the cry was heard, “ Long live the press on the mind of the monarch that the Duke of Orleans !" and the Scandinavian extreme principles of the Polignac adminis. pedestrian, the Swiss professor of mathetration were too well known to be endured. matics, and the dollarless wanderer in

At length came the visit of his august America, was proclaimed father-in-law, the King of Naples, in May, 1830, and the Palais Royal became a scene

KING OF THE FRENCH. of festivity and splendor worthy of the

The history of that creation, and of the most joyous and magnificent days of for leading events of the reign of that extramer ages. Charles X. and his family were ordinary man from 1830 to the period of present at the splendid banquet, but the the visit of the Queen of Great Britain to words, “We are dancing upon a volcano,” France in September, 1843, will form the were uttered by M. de Salvandy, and the third and concluding part of these remiduke replied, “Yes; there is indeed a vol. niscences; and these i propose to submit

I cano, but I have nothing with which to re- to the readers of Regina in the number for proach myself. I have done all I could, November. but my efforts have been useless.”

But I cannot terminate this rapid sketch The fête did not terminate without dis- of that portion of the life of Louis Philippe, turbances. Chairs and tables were burnt, during which he was Duke of Orhang, and monuments and statues destroyed in without inviting those readers to reme...és the garden of the Palais Royal. The in- that whilst I am the historian of a successflamed state of the public mind gave vent ful revolution, I am not its eulogist or to some rude and boisterous expressions of admirer; and that, whilst I deplore that dissatisfaction ; and the words of Napoleon Charles X. should have thought it necespassed from mouth to mouth, “ It is the be. sary to resort to the letter of one article of ginning of the end."

the charter in order to destroy the spirit That was a striking moment in the life of the remainder, I cannot but insist that of Louis Philippe, when, two months after when the revolutionists of Paris and the wards, he read in the columns of the Moni. members of the Chambers of Peers and teur, atNeuilly, the fatal ordinances of July, Deputies visited on the head of the Duke 1830! M. Dupin rushed to the château : of Bordeaux the errors and mistakes of his all was agitation and alarm. But the duke dethroned grandfather, they committed an had resolved not to alter his independent act of injustice and of vengeance which and dignified attitude. He had come to the history will rightly designate, and which resolution to remain in France let what all wise and good men will concur in dewould occur; and no longer to be exposed nouncing as violent, unprincipled, and ex. to the insults, ignominy, persecutions, and cessive. The fact that the Duke of Orsorrows of foreign exile. Although the leans, in the exercise of a sound, manly, duke had been prepared for some coup and patriotic judgment and will, preferred

, d'état, the ordinances of July greatly ex

the throne to banishment, and the preserceeded his worst expectations, and the re. vation of some kind of monarchy to the essistance of all ranks of the people by no tablishment of a ruthless and anarchical means surprised him. Yet, again, to him democracy, neither consecrates the justice his duty was clear. He remained at home, of the change, nor removes the odium from in the bosom of his family, attended no its principle. But to that act of injustice meeting, gave no advice, entered into no the Duke of Orleans was no party. "I saw, correspondence with the revolutionary heard, and knew all that passed. The party, and so acted during Sunday, Mon. chances lay between the Duke of Bordeaux, day, and Tuesday. On Wednesday, hav. Napoleon II., the Republic, and the Duke ing been apprized that an attempt would of Orleans, and no man who saw, heard, be made to arrest him, the duke concealed and knew all that passed at that period of himself at the house of a friend, and but a time, can possibly deny the fact, that wholshort time had elapsed after his departure, ly unsolicited on his part, and wholly unbefore the soldiers of the Polignac cabinet expected, a vast majority of the property, arrived, to carry that intended arrest into intelligence, and good feeling of the couneffect. So wholly did the duke isolate him. try, heartily concurred in proclaiming the self from the revolution and its agents, that Duke of Orleans even when his presence was called for by


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