« 上一頁繼續 »
most despotic rule had prevailed in Paris, and bathed it with his tears. Attached to and, as he was suspected by all parties of the cause of liberty, and ardent in its purentertaining ambitious projects, and had a suits, he saw in the conduct of his father real, active, conspiring party of his own, an act of treason to the cause he affected he was, in fact, honorably banished for up to espouse, and an event which must terwards of a year, and returned as a deputy minate fatally to himself. The Duke of of the National Assembly almost without Orleans himself apprehended from that permission. But who was not at that period very moment his own arrest and assassinthe object of suspicion ? Mirabeau; the ation, and he said upon one occasion, “I eloquent, the patriotic, and the magnifi. am perfectly sure I have signed my own cent, was also accused immediately after- death-warrant.” Oh, with what feelings wards, with the Duke of Orleans, of having of horror and disgust did the Duke of Charbeen guilty of " Treason against the coun- tres place the letter of their father in the try,” and, although both were for the mo- hands of his sister--that sister whose life ment acquitted, yet the latter remained the was aimed at by the act against the emiobject of suspicion and hate. He was, in grants. fact, a state-prisoner in Paris, and could Disgusted with the march of the Revonot pass the barriers of the city.
lution, and satisfied that for him there was The young Duke of Chartres was, during neither peace nor happiness in France, the this period, much agitated by contending Duke of Chartres formed the resolution of emotions. He knew that the first men and writing to the Convention for permission the first measures of the Revolution of 1788 to leave for ever the land of his birth. The were moderate and wise, but he felt within resolution so taken, was his own act, and him all the horror of which a young and was the result of the impressions produced pure heart is susceptible at the contempla- upon his mind by the murder of Louis XVI. tion of the crimes which had succeeded. The letter was drawn up; but, notwithHis father sought to make him believe that standing the political conduct of his father the only chance of escaping the scaffold had been atrocious, his filial duty towards and ruin, ignominy and death, was to march him induced him to submit the letter for with the Revolution, and not to
not to op his consideration prior to forwarding it to pose any measures, however unprincipled the assembly. As the Duke of Orleans and deplorable. That the Duke of Orleans was a member of the Convention, he could was imperceptibly led on to this sad event- have aided the desire of his son ; but he ual decision, step by step, and day by day, simply wrote to state, “that the idea was must, I think, be admitted, and the duchess destitute of common sense. The Duke did not oppose his views, or seek to re- of Chartres obeyed, although his brother, strain the licentiousness of his political Montpensier, was allowed to serve with career.
the troops at Nice, and thus proceeded to The Duke of Chartres felt in a pre- Italy. eminent degree the practical evils which Of the military life of the Duke of Char. the Revolution was bringing upon himself tres it is now essential that I should speak when his sister was compelled to proceed at some length, and with great distinctto Tournay, there to await for the Decree ness, and to connect it with the previous of Exceptions. The prince accompanied part of this sketch. It is a charge brought his sister to the frontiers, shed many bit. against the present King of the French that ter tears on leaving her, and sighed for he served all governments as a soldier, and times more in harmony with his views of that he thus, indirectly, at any rate, sup“ a happy life.”
ported the cause and projects of the Na. Events marched with such rapidity, and tional Assembly. When but fourteen years the fate of the Duke of Orleans, his father, of age the young prince was appointed became so evident, that the Duke of Char. colonel of the Chartres Infantry. This tres joined his sister in Belgium. Louis was, of course, a mere compliment, but it XVI., the virtuous and the unfortunate, had was the beginning of his future, though been murdered, and the Duke of Orleans brief, military existence. Though young, had consented to his death. After that however, he was courageous and ardent, memorable vote had been given, he wrote and, being attacked on one occasion by a to the Duke of Chartres, “My heart is op mob of armed peasants, himself and his pressed with sorrow, but for the interests brothers were in danger of their lives. But of France and of liberty I have thought it boldly they confronted their assailants, and my duty to vote the death of Louis Capet.” the king often now laughs at the rememThe son looked on the letter with borror, / brance of the altered features of the people when himself and his brothers caused quired their lives and their services, and iheir horses to halt, turned upon those not their opinions." He preserved disciwho had been their pursuers, and caused pline, set an example of order, secured for it to be made known that it was the young himself the respect and confidence of his Duke of Chartres who now required their men, but once more, however, resorted to dispersion. It was in November, 1785, his policy of gaining temporary popularity that the duke was appointed proprietary by adhering to the movement of the mocolonel of the 14th regiment of Dragoons. ment. That movement, at the period of Accompanied by his brothers Montpensier which I am writing, was for the supression and Beaujolais, he wore the uniform of the of all emblems of nobility; and he declared, National Guards in the district of St. Rochat a meeting of the Constitutionalists of on the 9th of February, 1791; and, as a la. Vendôme, “that he was too much the friend mentable proof that at that period revolu- of equality not to have received the decree tionary principles had, in spite of all the for the suppression of such emblems with lessons of Madame de Genlis, taken posses. transport.” The rest of his declaration was sion of his youthful mind, when he entered in the same spirit; but nearly forty years his name in the register he struck out all afterwards he was reminded of it by those the titles of rank and nobility which had who cried, “Down with the Lilies of Orbeen inserted, and absurdly wrote, “Citi- leans! Down with the Lilies of the Bourzen of Paris !” I am afraid this mode of bons!" And masons were employed with attracting popularity had something to do, their chisels and their hammers to erase in prospective, with his subsequent can- the "Lilies" from the Palais Royal. By didateship for the post of commandant of acts of justice, benevolence, and charity, the battalion of St. Roch. If such were the the young duke however distinguished him. case, his object failed, for he was not elect- self; at one time in saving the life of a ed. The desire of securing popularity for Romish priest from the fury of a sanguinthe moment, to effect the object for the ary mob; at another time, rescuing an inmoment desired, has been through life the dividual from a watery grave; and at all policy of Louis Philippe. This is one of times taking care of the health and comfort the weak points of his character. “ I think of those who were placed under him. Thus the Republican government is the most perfect his political failings were compensated for in the world !” said Louis Philippe to Lafay- by his personal virtues and graces. ette, at the Hôtel de Ville of Paris, in July, In August 1791, the Duke of Chartres 1830, and by that phrase he obtained the proceeded with his regiment to Valencisilent acquiescence of the Republican party ennes, and there spent the winter. He was in his favor. But what was the conse- commandant of the place, and discharged quence? They afterwards reproached him the duties which devolved on bim with zeal as a traitor, and for ten years sought to and ability. His brother, Montpensier, as take away his life, because the programme well as himself, were thus serving in the of Republican institutions was necessarily Army of the North, when they were joined abandoned as incompatible with a mon- by their father, and by their other brother, archy. “You are my brethren,” exclaim- the Count of Beaujolais, the latter of whom ed Louis Philippe to the National Guards; was only twelve years of age. It was under “I am only one of your comrades.” What the orders of the Duke of Byron, a friend of was the consequence ? His "comrades” his father, that the Duke of Chartres made took the liberty of dictating to him what his debut on the battle-field. The Duke of line of conduct he should take in bis polit. Byron at that time commanded a division of ical government; and his "comrades” in the northern army of Valenciennes and Mauother places, when he did not follow their beuge. The campaign was opened at the advice, took up arms against him, and end of April 1792, at Boussu and Quaragfought day by day against his throne, him- non, and the Duke of Chartres gained his self, and his family.
first laurels at Quirevain, by rallying a diAt length came the order for proprietary vision of the army which, under false apprecolonels to join the army, and the Duke of bensions, had fled towards Valenciennes. Chartres proceeded to Vendome, and there, Under Marshal Lucknor, also, he distinaccompanied by his tried and faithful friend guished himself by taking Courtray, though M. Peyre, took his post as head of the the subsequent retreat of his commanding reginent. In the army he sought to forget officer prevented him from availing himself all politics, and to be nothing more nor less of all the advantages of the victory. And than a soldier. He used to say, “that he who can avoid noticing the extraordinary was a soldier of France, and that she re-coincidences of the chequered life of Louis
Philippe ? After having served under Luck- joined the army of Dumouriez, then adnor, that marshal was replaced by Keller- vancing to the frontier to commence an mann, subsequently Duke of Valmy. “Ah! active campaign. That general divided his sir," said Kellermann, when he first gazed army into two wings of twenty-four batat the Duke of Chartres, “this is the first talions each, and the right wing was intime I have had the honor of seeing so trusted to the young duke. It was at this young a general officer. How have you period of his life that the battle of Jemcontrived to be made a general so soon ?" mapes was fought, and to which Louis To most young men of his age the inquiry Philippe ever and anon delights to return, would have been sufficiently embarrassing, and of which he is justly proud. Many sarbut to the Duke of Chartres it was not so; casms, diatribes, quolibets, caricatures, and and with great promptitude and ready wit burlesque songs, have been published, since he replied, “By being the son of him who Louis Philippe ascended the throne in 1830, made a colonel of you," alluding to his to endeavor to ridicule the battles of Valmy father. The Duke of Valmy was so delight- and Jemmapes, and to detract from his ed with the answer, that he seized his hand, merits and efforts; but all who know the and expressed his satisfaction at such a history of the Republican wars, and, above rencontre. That Duke of Chartres is now all, those who can remember the effects King of the French; but the son of the they produced at the time on the public Duke of Valmy is now one of his most en- mind, will not allow themselves by such lightened but vigorous opponents in the artifices to be cheated out of the certainty, French Chamber of Peers.
that they were great, important, and very When the Legislative Chamber screamed memorable events. His chain of mounted at the very top of its voice that “the country chasseurs and his Bataillon de Mons saved was in danger," and, in July 1792, called on the French army from a most signal defeat, all who could carry arms to rush to the and that at a moment when a victory by the frontiers, France assembled various armies, Austrians seemed wholly certain. Driven and, amongst the rest, 33,000 men at Sedan from all their positions, the Austrians fled, under Dumouriez. The Duke of Chartres and left the battle-field at Jemmapes coverwas appointed to the command of Stras. ed with their dead and their artillery. At bourg, but he replied, "I am too young to Anderlacht, at Tirlemont, and at Varronx, be shut up in a citadel; I entreat to be al- new successes added to his already establowed to remain in active service." The lished fame; and the Duke of Chartres, request was complied with, and the young covered with laurels, left the winter quarprince served under Dumonriez. It was in ters of the army of Belgium to visit his bethe month of September 1792 that the bat. loved sister, who had been included as an tle of Valmy was fought, in which the duke emigrant in the laws of proscription. so distinguished himself as to have for ever How sad was that inoment! Young, after caused his name to be especially re- healthy, patriotic, enthusiastic, full of talent, membered as connected with that memu- enterprise, and knowledge, he found him. rable event. He commanded twelve bat. self no longer the Duke of Chartres, but the talions of infantry; and such was his son of“Egalité;" his father tracked, hunted bravery, talent, and indefatigable zeal, that down, suspected; all his family scattered Kellermann said of him, “Embarrassed by and in danger; his country torn to pieces an attempt at selection, I shall only par- by a despotic, sanguinary, and most crimi. ticularize amongst those who have shown nal government; and Buzot, a popular distinguished courage M. Chartres and his demagogue, demanding that his father and aide-de-camp, M. Montpensier, whose ex- his three sons should be exiled from their treme youth renders his presence of mind native land. during one of the most tremendous cannon- That was the moment that the duke pressades ever heard, ihe more remarkable." ed upon his father the duty of availing him.
The Duke of Chartres not only was no self of a decree of proscription, and of recoward, but he had even a taste for war, tiring to the United States. But his advice or, at least, for active duty; for, when offer- arrived too late : the decree had been withed a superior command of newly levied drawn. “Egalité” still deceived himself troops to be stationed at Douay, he declined with the false hope of better days, and rethe promotion, and preferred the camp and treat from that moment became impossible. the trenches to a comparatively easy life Again did the Duke of Chartres return to in a comfortable garrison.
the army, and acquired new eulogiums and Permitted by the government of the day deserved praise for his conduct at the siege to remain in the line, the Duke of Chartres of Maestricht. At Nerwende, also, under
Dumouriez, he showed the most extraordi- of the young Duke of Chartres, leading him nary courage, and had a horse killed under also to abandon his post as general, and bim, still remaining on the field of battle thus exasperated all parties against his the whole night, and, by ra lying the troops, father. That these are facts, cannot be deprevented the reverse of fortune which Du nied. But why should Dumouriez, and why mouriez and his army experienced from be- should Madame de Genlis, have acted concoming still more disastrous to the French trary to their convictions and their princiarmy.
ples? The latter was a Monarchist, the This was the critical moment for both former a Constitutionalist. Then why Dumouriez and the duke. Their hour had should they both act as Conventionalists? arrived; and they, who had fought so nobly It was impossible. Dumouriez felt that he and so well, were required by lhe Commit- was no longer fighting for the nation, but tee of Public Safety to proceed to Paris. for a faction, and for a faction opposed to They were supping at Saint Amand-des- the real welfare of his country. Why, then, Boucs when the order arrived; and, as it should he be reproached for having refused was obvious that their lives were to be de. to serve it? So with regard to Madame de manded as an act of vengeance for the ad. Genlis. She had no one feeling in common vance of the Austrian forces, Dumouriez with regicides; and her pupils she taught and the duke resolved on leaving France, to love liberty, but to love justice more. and on seeking at least safety from a scaf- The defection of Dumouriez, the avowed sold already saturated with the blood of the abhorrence of the Convention by the young good and the brave. In vain were they fol. Duke of Chartres, the flight of General Val. lowed, fired on, pursued. They repaired ence, the determination of Madame de to the Austrian head-quarters at Mons; and Genlis and Mademoiselle d'Orleans to seek there the duke, who was invited to enter an asylum in Switzerland, all concurred to the service of that power, declined to do render the arrest and condemnation of so, “as he could not consent to carry arms" Egalité” next to unavoidable. But is the against his country,” obtained passports, present king to be blamed? Was it his and in a few days joined his sister in Swit- duty to wait in France till his turn came to zerland. H s father and brothers had been be denounced, arrested, and massacred, bearrrested and confined in prison. His mo- cause his father still continued the slave of ther was a prisoner in the castle of Pen. Marat and of Robespierre ? He exerted thievre, the château of her illustrious an- all his influence with his father to prevail cestors. He was a stranger in a strange on him to leave France; but first he would land, without friends, fortune, prospects, or not, and then he could not, do so. He behome, and compelled to suffer from the sought his father to cease to have connecodium attached to his father's name, “Ega. tion with the regicidal faction. But his lité of the Convention.” This was the mil. father was too deeply pledged to listen to itary life of Louis Philippe. He was after this salutary counsel. What was to be done? wards a wanderer and a teacher; but here He had fought for his country when her ended his life as a soldier.
government was apparently national, and Madame de Genlis and Dumouriez have when the independence and integrity of the been accused of having been really the nation were threatened. He had gained the cause of the condemnation and death of the applause, as he had merited the approbafather of Louis Philippe. The accusation tion, of the best generals of France for his against them may be thus condensed. First, military skill, and for his enthusiasm and as Madame de Genlis inspired the Duke of zeal. But how could he aid a cause which Chartres with a horror of the Convention, had actually changed, which bad forsaken and as all her notions were opposed to the all its original principles, and had degenespirit of the age in which she lived, the rated into one of crime and bloodshed? It young duke, by expressing himself strongly was unfortunate that his letters to his father in society, and by writing to his father let. were seized, and it was unfortunate that ters which were subsequently seized, ren they were thus brought in evidence against dered him obnoxious to the populace as well the author of his being. But he would as to the Convention, and aforded a pre- have been unworthy of the name of a son text to the demagogues for the execution had he not at least sought to have prevail. of their murderous projects. Second, Ased on his father to forsake the cause of the Dumouriez came to the resolution of no sanguinary Convention. longer defending France against hostile in- But to renew the thread of the narrative. vasion, and induced Valence to join him in The Duke of Chartres soon followed his bis defection, he influenced also the mind sister, and rejoined her at Schaff house. They proposed to live at Zurich in peace four o'clock, to give lessons in the higher and solitude; but they were discovered branches of geometry in the college in The Royalists abhorred the very name of question; and, during fifteen months, he Orleans; the emigrants loathed them even did not once fail in fulfilling his duties with more than they did the republicans, and scrupulous punctuality and care ; nor once, often insulted them in the public streets. during his long exile, cease to render his Thus new calamities were in store for them. misfortunes honorable by the noblest resigThe Duke of Orleans, their father, was ar. nation. rested and sent to prison. Not one voice The death of the Duke of Orleans, his could be heard in his favor; no one pitied father, reached him soon after his entrance him; no tear was shed for himself or his to this college, and deeply affected him.children ; and at Zug the latter sought an He was by right and descent, law and jusasylum and peace. Scarcely a month had tice, from that moment the Duke of Orelapsed when they were seen by some emi. leans. But where was his palace? where his grants, and denounced, and the magistrates, mother? where his sister and brothers ? fearful of offending the then savage gov- where the Adelaide and the Montpensier he ernment of France, requested that they loved so well ? Even his name he was would withdraw from that small Swiss can compelled to conceal, and to write “Chaton. What was to be done? A thousand baud" instead of “Chartres” or “Orleans." romantic projects suggested themselves At the expiration of that period, he remainSeparation seemed unavoidable. The sea- ed with M. de Montesquieu under the astures of the Duke of Chartres were too sumed name of Corby, and with the title of marked to be easily concealed. His sister aide-de-camp. But as his sister was residwas received into the Convent of St. Claire ing with his aunt the Princess of Conti, as at Bremgarten, and the duke resolved on the Duke of Modena, their uncle, had promaking a pedestrian journey through Swit. vided them with a small sum of money, zerland. Beautifully was it said by his de. and as Madame de Genlis had at last given voted friend and instructress, “How often, up her charge, and retired to Hamburgh, he since my misfortunes, have I congratulated resolved on proceeding thither ;—and there myself on the education I gave the Duke of was he, the young, talented, amiable, inte. Chartres; on having made him learn, from resting Duke of Orleans, the son of a regihis childhood, all the principal modern lan- cide, and the son of a traitor, whose life guages; on having accustomed him to had been forfeited to the decision of revoserve himself without assistance, to despise lutionary savages,-there was he, without every thing that was effeminate ; to sleep friends, profession, property, home, unon a plank of wood merely covered with a cared-for, unloved, unthought-of, except by straw mattress; to face the sun, cold, and his sister, Montpensier his brother, and rain ; to fit himself for fatigue by daily Madame de Genlis, as much a wanderer on practising violent exercises ; and lastly, on the earth as if his own crimes had been the having taught him many branches of know. cause of his poverty and disgrace. But he ledge, and on having inspired him with a bad the happy consciousness of having done taste for travelling. All that he was in-right, and of intending to do it; and, with debted for to the chance of birth and for such resolutions, he came to the determi. tune, he had lost; and nothing now re nation of exploring on foot the Scandinamained to him but what he held from na vian peninsula. ture and from me."
As Duke of Orleans, if not by name, at The young soldier and duke, after hav. least by right, I shall follow him in his wan. ing traversed the Swiss cantons, assumed derinys in the second part of his eventful the name of Chabaud, and entrred the Col- and extraordinary career. There we shall lege of Reichneau in the month of October, find him with a steadfast friend, Count 1793, as professor of mathematics. He Montjoie, and an honest, faithful servant, was then only twenty years of age ! To good Baudoin, who shared with his master hard fare, early hours, college rules, strict all the sufferings and sorrows of a persecudiscipline, he conformed with cheerfulness ted exile. I shall conduct him from Euand regularity, and calmly suffered the se- rope to America, to England, to France; verity of his lot, and the injustice of men install him at the palace of his ancestors, who, when they knew him, treated him with see him revelling in the enjoyment of rank, arrogance, not only without complaint, but fortune, society, and every luxury which without even seeming to be astonished. Un taste, wealth, and ease, can bestow, until der a most inclement sky, and amidst the the Revolution of 1839 once more rang the snows of winter, he rose every morning at tocsin in his ears, and which proved io be