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the first French Revolution that a decree this reason that the King of the French is had just annulled all the rights of elder now so well acquainted with several lanbrothers, he embraced the Duke de Mont- guages, converses with fluency, writes not pensier and exclaimed, “Ah! how delight. only grammatically but in good taste, and ed I am! We are now in all respects equal!" conducts with ambassadors and other diplo. Of the Duke de Montpensier it was said, matic agents long conversations and corby one who knew him well, that "he was respondences without being obliged to reless exempt from vanities and frivolities sort to interpreters or secretaries for their than the Duke of Valois, but not so mild or aid. This facility has undoubtedly, with docile; that he had a natural disposition other causes, led to the fact, that his mafor all that was honorable, and was distin- jesty has sometimes offended his ministers guished for a sense of, and love for, since 1830, by conducting negotiations
which they felt he could not constitutionThe Duke of Valois (afterwards Duke of ally superintend under a limited monarchy, Chartres) had for his first tutor the Cheva- where “the king reigns, but does not gorlier de Bernard, who was instructed to re-ern;" and changes of cabinets have conmember that if a prince had graceful man. sequently ensued. On the other hand, by ners, politeness towards women, and was the facilities which this knowledge of mod. un homme d'honneur, he was perfect. Then ern languages has given to Louis Philippe, came the Abbé Guyot and Madame de he has on many occasions ascertained priGenlis; and some time after M. de Bon- vately the views and dispositions of his nard, who gave way for H. Lebrun. The allies, and has prevented collision and war. Abbé Guyot was superficial, but he attend.
The political education of the Duke of ed to the religious duties of his illustrious Chartres has been frequently referred to. pupils, and Lebrun was indefatigable in his It has been said that Madame de Genlis attention to their minor studies. Journals encouraged too much the love of liberty, were faithfully kept of all that transpired which was then almost inseparable from between the children and Madame de Gen- the characters of nearly all Frenchmen. lis, and were continued to the termination But those accusers of that lady appear to of their education. The King of the have forgotten, in their party eninity toFrench now possesses them, and regards wards her, that the father of the young them as great treasures.
princes was, after all, the example to which As his earliest years had been exposed they would naturally look, and that he had to the false and absurd flatteries and tricks taken the lead in the movements of the of those who surrounded him, when he first ultra party. Now without resting the dereceived a lesson in history, instead of fence of Madame de Genlis on her own listening, he yawned and streiched himself, statement that she did not belong to a politthen laid on the sofa, and placed his feet ical, but to the religious party in France, on the table; but he was ordered into con- it may fairly be urged that, if she had been finement, and, as his natural good sense ever so disposed (which I freely believe to was sound and strong, he soon listened have been precisely otherwise) to encour. with attention. A German valet-de-chambre, age revolutionary views and opinions, the an Italian servant, and an English teacher, conduct and proceedings of the then Duke surrounded him at an early age, and neither of Orleans would have rendered any meaof them were allowed to converse with their sures of excitement on her part wholly unyouthful master except in the language of necessary and uncalled for. On the contheir respective countries. On one occa- trary, her great object seems to have been sion the English teacher forgot himself, as much as possible to divert the minds of and, to assist him in conveying his mean- her pupils from attending to political deing more rapidly to the duke, made use of bates and questions by keeping them conthe French tongue. “I will not understand stantly occupied with studies and pursuits you now," said the duke, “because you much more suitable to their ages and posi. speak to me in French. This, you know, tion. To have wholly prevented them from is against our rules. I did not understand conversing on such events as those which you before when you spoke in English, I nearly daily occurred would have been imadmit, but I will have patience to learn, if possible, and even unwise if possible. The you will to speak, and we will begin it all sirue course to be taken was precisely the over again." This charming reproof was one which was really adopted. The royal so properly uttered, that the English teacher pupils were taught to love liberty, but the was not offended, and a repetition of the liberty of the law, and not the liberty of mistake very seldom occuried. It is for faction.
The mind and heart of the Duke of Char-ling, and virtue, who were obnoxious to the tres were exposed by the conduct, rather court or to the minister of the day, and than by the principles, of his father, to very that thither they were sent and confined, severe and most difficult trials. Young, by virtue of lettres de cachet. The history of ardent, and attached to the principles of the Bastille was associated with the worst the Revolution, he was struck by the vast times and with the worst men in France, designs and the extraordinary intentions of and wise and good men were therefore enthe successive governments. But yet the titled to rejoice at its destruction. Thus National Assembly, either constituent or the most exemplary men and the most legislative, had no charms for him, and the high-principled statesmen were delighted National Convention was the object of his at this act of national indignation. Those norror. He saw with sentiments of grief who love a monarchical form of government and shame, which he could not conceal, are equally removed from an attachment his father attach himself to the ultra repub- to the violence of democracy, and to the licanism of Marat and Robespierre; and stilling and crushing spirit of despotism. It again and again did he caution that father is not, then, just to accuse Madame de in letters full of strong sense and manly Genlis of acting with want either of pruargument, against the results to which dence or propriety, when she conveyed her such an alliance must infallibly lead. He pupils from St. Len to Paris, to witness the saw his father, also, giving the sanction of destruction of the Bastille. his name, rank, fortune, position in socie- It has often been said of the subject of ty, to revolutionary horrors the most atro. this sketch that "Louis Philippe should cious; and the murder of the Princess de have been a good, honest, private citizen, Lamballe was never absent from his mind. fond of domestic life, of farming, of masonThe renunciation of his title of Duke of ry, and of spending a handsome income in Orleans for himself and his children, and improvements, building, and repairs." Now, the adoption of the vulgar and plebeian although there was intended to include a name of “Egalité,” much annoyed the calumny and a reproach in this statement, young Duke of Chartres, who could not yet it is true that the citizen king was, forget the history of his family, and who from his earliest years, attached to meloved to remember the fame and the great chanical pursuits and to family occupations. ness of his ancestors. There, however, thus he had a turning machine when young, was his father, descending from rank to and acquired a knowledge of many trades. vulgarity, from honor to disrespect, from He excelled as a basket-maker and as a cabipower to servility, the mere football of the net-maker, and far surpassed all the rest of regicides, the traitors, the murderers by the family. Aided in some measure by the whom he was surrounded, and all this to Duke of Montpensier, he manufactured for save his own life, and exist in shame, re. the house of a poor woman of St. Leu a proach, and misery !
large press and a table with drawers, which One of the first events which produced were as well made as if put together by an a profound impression on the mind of the experienced carpenter. Even his own playDuke of Chartres was the destruction of the things and those of his brothers he was Bastille. Madame de Genlis has been re-instructed to make, and he was an apt proached for having conducted the prince scholar. and his brothers to witness the scene, and When the death of his grandfather led to for this act she has been denominated a the assumption of the title of Duke of Charrevolutionist and a terrorist. But these tres, the young prince exclaimed, “ There epithets she did not deserve. Those who are two evils in ihis deatu—the loss of my are but very partially acquainted with the grandfather and my own elevation. I fear history of the first revolution seem to have I shall be less happy, as I become more forgoiten, that it was divided into various elevated.” There is an anecdote related and very opposing phases. They forgot of him at this period which is striking and that the Bastille was not a legal and a ne- agreeable. On visiting the old family cessary prison, and was not a part and por- château of Eu in Normandy where his mation of those institutions of the country, jesty is now spending, at the time I am which are essential to its preservation from penning this sketch, a portion of his sumthe vices and crimes of those who seek to mer, he was walking on the sea-coast, when injure the reputations, properties, and a vessel was towed up to St. Valery which lives, of their fellow.subjects; but that it had not received any name. After having was a political prison for the arbitrary in- dined at an inn near the coast, and close to carceration of men of rank, fortune, learn the vessel, he was asked to stand godfather,
VOL. III. No. III. 25
and to give his own name to the boat. humor observed, “Do now, my good * With all my heart,” said the Duke of Swiss, in future, instead of showing the Chartres, “If you think my name an au- cage to travellers, point out to them the spicious one, but what have I done that any place where it once stood; and surely to thing should be named after me ?” The hear of its destruction will afford to them ceremony, however, took place, the curé all more pleasure than to have seen it.” prayed for prosperity to the vessel and to On quitting this prison, the Duke of its owners, the former of which he also Chartres obtained for several of its sad inblessed, strewing salt and corn around it mates a privilege they ardently desired, of as symbols of plenty, and the duke heartily being allowed to follow them to the foot of joined in the petitions which were offered the castle. One of them, who had been up by the priests and spectators.
confined for fifteen months, and who till There are some coincidences in the lives that time had been deprived of the liberty of us all which are well worthy of atten- of moving from the upper part of the fort, tion; but this observation is particularly when he found himself out of the convent the case as it regards princes.
One of and on the little landing-place, but espe. these relating to the Duke of Chartres is cially when he saw the grass which covered the following. Soon after he took the title he steps of she staircase, displayed emoof Chartres on the death of his grandfather, tions of joy and tenderness, and exclaimed, he visited the famous prison of Mount St. “Oh, what joy is it to walk once more on Michel. He was forcibly struck with a the grass !” The Duke of Chartres was dull sound of bells which were pealing in overcome; inveighed against the policy honor of himself and his brothers; and, as which needed such a prison to be filled he listened to them, he avowed that they with political offenders ; expressed his excited most melancholy sentiments. He horror at the treatment of the Abbé Sabainterrogated the monks, who then had the lier, who had been confined there for haycare of the prison, relative to the famous ing spoken in the parliament with great “ iron cage," but they told him it was not force against abuses of the grossest deof iron, but of wood, framed of enormous scription which then exisied; and wben he logs, between which were interstices of the went to Paris obtained the enlargement of width of three or four finger-breadths. It two prisoners. Little did his royal highwas then about fifteen years since any pri- vess then imagine that at a future period soners had been wholly confined therein, of his life he would be King of the French! but any who were violent were subject to And now comes the contrast. The prison the punishment for twenty-four hours. The of Mount St. Michel, so abhorred by the Duke of Chartres expressed his surprise Duke of Chartres, has been precisely the that so cruel a measure, in so damp a place, very prison to which political offenders should be permitted. The prior replied, have been sent since his majesty ascended that it was his intention at some time or the throne. True the "
exists no other, to destroy this monument of cruelty, longer, and true, also, that many improvesince the Count d'Artois (afterwards ments have been effected in the interior of Charles X.) had visited Mount St. Michel the gaol, but it is not the less true that a few months previous, and had positively many bave died therein during the last ten commanded its demolition. “In that case, years from disorders contracted there by said the Duke of Chartres, “there can be reason of its dampness ; some have gone no reason why we should not all be present raving mad owing to the desolation and at its destruction, for that will delight us." isolation of the spot, and many still linger The next morning was fixed by the prior on their wretched and deplorable existenfor the good work of demolition, and the ces in that spot for offences of a political Duke of Chartres, with the most touching character ! This contrast is striking! expression, and with a force really beyond Madame Adelaide has often been reminded his years, gave the first blow with his axe of her visit to Mount St. Michel, and has to the cage, amidst the transports, accla- been requested by prisoners to intercede mations, and applauses of the prisoners. with her brother for their removal; but so The Swiss who was appointed to show this great is the difference between the aspect monster cage, alone looked grave and dis- with which we regard offences committed appointed, for he made money by conduct against ourselves, and those whom we ing strangers to view it.
When the Duke love, and those so committed against of Chartres was informed of this circum. others, that she has invariably refused to stance, he presented the Swiss with ten interfere, giving as her reason that political louis, and with much of wit and good offenders, under the benignant sway of her
brother, and enjoying the blessings of a lism, to be really ascribed to this Jacobin constitutional government, are not subjects Club? And yet the father of Louis Phi. for pity, but for reproach. It is thus that lippe caused his eldest son to become a we are often unintentionally unjust, when member. To the honor of the young duke we set ourselves up as judges in our own it must be recorded that, whilst for some
Mademoiselle d'Orleans and the of the celebrated men who belonged to the Duke of Chartres contemplated with horror National Assembly he felt sympathy and that very prison to which they afterwards respect, perhaps somewhat exaggerated, he directed hundreds of political offenders to had no similar feeling for the Jacobins, and be conveyed.
but seldom took part in their wild, fantastic, The father of the present King of the but lamentable proceedings. At the “SoFrench was one of the leading Jacobins of ciety of the Friends of Revolution," indeed, that period of excitement, anarchy, and where Mirabeau was often heard and listencrime. Not satisfied with being a member ed to with rapture, the young Duke of of the Jacobin Club himself, he insisted on Chartres was a frequent attendant; and the Duke of Chartres being likewise receiv. there his talents excited admiration and ed, and thus placed him in opposition, surprise. He was there, however, rather broad, distinct, and violent, to all monarch- the philanthropic pleader for suffering huical principles. His reception created manity, than the supporter of any measures some stir, and gave much offence to the of a purely revolutionary tendency. court; but what cared his father for that? The ambitious projects of the father of He was blind, violent, and almost mad with Louis Philippe have sometimes been depolitical excitement, and acted on the im- nied, because, when the question of a repulse of the moment, heedless of all conse- gency came to be discussed, he wrote to quences, and reckless as to the future. His the public journals a disclaimer of his inson, without his knowledge, had been retention to accept the office of regent. But ceived as a member of the Philanthropic this is a very poor and most unsatisfactory Society. This annoyed him. To be a po reason. He had attempted to withdraw litical personage was his desire for his son; himself and his family from Paris, and to philanthropy was, in his opinion, quite ont place himself under the protection of the of the question in the times in which they army at Montmedy, but he had failed. Lalived.
tour, Maubourg, Barnare, and Pétion, had At the age of seventeen the Duke of reconducted him to the capital, and, whilst Chartres terminated his education, and the populace were partly in his favor, the was provided with an establishment for government knew full well that he was not himself. That education had been at dif- to be trusted. At such a moment of terror, ferent periods more or less confided to M. suspicion, and division, to have seconded Peyre, to whom the duke was greatly at the cry of " Let us have the Duke of Ortached ; to M. Mérys, one of the secre- leans for Regent,” would have exposed him
; taries; to M. de Aroval; to M. d'Avary, to arrest, to trial, and to death. It was not and the Chevalier de Grave.
That he was averse to power; it was not The introduction of the Duke of Char. that he had not conspired against the king tres to the Jacobin Club is an irrefutable and the reigning family; it was not that argument to oppose to those who still dare, his party had abandoned the hope of seeing in the face of history and indubitable facts, him at the head of a sort of republican to maintain that Madame de Genlis, and monarchy; it was not, above all, that he not his own father, inspired Louis Philippe was not ambitious; but the Duke of Orwith a love of what was called liberty, and leans perceived that the time had not arof the first acts of the French Revolution.rived when, in his opinion, the great effort For is it not a fact that at the very moment had to be made, the great blow to be the Duke of Chartres was so introduced truck; and therefore he addressed the the Jacobin Club was at the very zenith of letter of renunciation to the journals. But, its infamy and its power ? Were not the though these journals inserted his letter, arrival of the confederates from Brest and they laughed at his protestations, and sexMarseilles, the attack on the palace oferal held up the document to scorn, and its Louis XVI., the massacre of the royal fam. author to reproach. ily, (for it was nothing else), the destruc- Attempts have been made to deny that tion of multitudes of beings without even the father of Louis Philippe was a conspirthe semblance of a trial, and all the other ator. Such attempts are absurd and useatrocious acts of rebellion, treason, murder, less. Undoubtedly, in the first place, he rapine, and crime perpetrated by Jacobin- I had a party. Undoubtedly, in the second
place, that party was opposed to the king, dren in France, as they became, in fact, obalways threw discredit on his truthfulness, jects of watchfulness and suspicion. M. always represented Marie Antoinette as a de Laclos was his adviser in this circumconspiratress against the country and its stance, and M. Shée forwarded his views liberties, always kept aloof from moderate and acquiesced in his plans. men who attempted reconciliation, always During the period that the sister of the seconded the most violent and decisive Duke of Chartres visited England his cormeasures, always spoke of past events as respondence with her was most affectionpreparatory for coming changes, always ate and frequent. She had travelled with sought to unhinge and unsettle the public Madame de Genlis under the protection of mind whenever there was a leaning towards the famous Pétion, about to be elected peace or repose, always took the most ultra mayor of Paris, and who had hoped by his views of what is called public liberty, the journey to escape the charge of intrigue. sovereignty of the people, and national It was whilst sojourning at Bury St. Edrights, and always aided in giving a revo. mund's that the intelligence was first relutionary direction to the public mind. The ceived by her from the Duke of Chartres Duke of Orleans was, in fact, in heart a that a powerful party in Paris had resolved conspirator; and Marie Antoinette, by her on subjecting Louis XVI. to a mock trial, private and public reproaches addressed to and on setting at defiance all the laws of him and to his followers, increased the ani- justice and humanity. The Duke of Ormosity which already existed. The vote leans, who had returned to France, and which he gave on occasion of the mock had witnessed without dismay the massatrial of Louis XVI. was the crowning act cres in the prisons in September, 1792, deof his vengeance. The duke hated the sired that his daughter should leave Engroyal family, and the moment at last arriv. land for Paris. So little did he apprehend ed when all bis past animosities could be the disasters which awaited him, that he concentrated and indulged in. Louis XVI. even dreamed of peace, prosperity, and expressed his conviction that the vote of favor. He hoped he should retain his forhis relation would be precisely what it was, tune; he hoped his daughter would be exand he was not mistaken; but that vote cepted from the operation of the retrowas only the precursor of his own death, spective law against all emigrants; he as it is to this hour the greatest of all blots hoped that, although he had so powerfully on his character.
contributed towards the overthrow of the As I am not writing the history either of monarchy, still that he would escape the the French Revolution or of the intrigues, general thirst for outrage and vengeance; policy, and life of the father of the present and, though he had madly and criminally king, I shall not refer further to political declared in favor of the Jacobins, yet he events than as they influence the life and thought, by submission and acquiescence, destinies of the then young Duke of Char- to be the one exception of the royal family. tres. From the time the States-General He perceived not that the very Jacobins he were assembled the best friends of the child supported sought to degrade him in the dren of the Duke of Orleans, perceiving the eyes of France, that he might the more evils which must arise, and the convulsions easily become a sacrifice in their handswhich could not but follow, advised their another royal victim for the scaffold. removal to Nice, but the frail and danger- The mission of the father of Louis ous popularity of the house of Orleans was Philippe to England was one of policy on opposed to the proceeding; and they re- the one hand, and of security on the other. mained in France. Their father sowed to By the French court and royal family he was wind, and, alas! in time he reaped the abhorred. His vanity had led him to make wbirlwind with a vengeance! The duke, declarations, amounting almost to threats, ever sanguine in his expectations, believed that he should be regent," "that he that “the constitution” would soon be should be king,” “that those who then settled, and promised that when that should hated him (meaning the royal family) be the case, his children should visit Eng. would one day crouch at his feet;" and land. But popular favor was too short. these imprudent as well as disloyal obserlived for his plans, and the duke himself vations were repeated to Louis XVI. and his set out suddenly for Great Britain, and at queen, both of whom viewed him in the London he remained for nearly a year. To same despicable and nnfavorable light. all but his political friends this journey and His absence in London was also a measure foreign residence appeared unaccountable, of precaution. During the period of his but ii bad the effect of detaining his chil. I residence in the British metropolis the