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markable discoveries which have been made of these excavations has appeared in the in the Greek provinces. An excavation Annals of the Archaiological Institute at made by the late General Gordon at the Rome; and the only knowledge the world Heræum, near Argos, at which I was pre- possesses of them, is the singular work of sent, brought to light two interesting frag. Aristncles, which we have noticed; this, ments--a portion of a marble peacock and however, is the best preserved monument a large fragment of a præfix of terra cotta, of the most ancient style of Greek art when painted as a peacock's tail. Several trifles it began to rise towards perfection. in terra cotta and bronzes were likewise I hope that this letter will call the attenfound, and an extended excavation at this tion of sonie one in England to this subjec, place would probably yield important re capable of rendering it more effectual ser. sults. At Delphi several fragments of the vice than lies in my power. great temple, which it was supposed had

George FINLAY. entirely disappeared, were accidentally discovered; a small temple was also found, and the late Professor Miller made an ex

Tue CMNESE FOOT-TORTURI- - The means taken cavation into the ancient treasury under the 10 effect the alteration of the women's feet in China cella of the great temple.

are decidedly prejudicial to the health, and freA considerable collection of ancient sta- quently attended with fatal consequences. This tues from all parts of Greece has been as

fact was ascertained by a clever young naval sur

geon who was for some time stationed at Chusan. sembled in the Temple of Theseus, several it happened that during an excursion into the of them belonging to the first school of art, country, he one day entered a house where he and rendering this little museum of great found a child about eight years old very ill, and interest to aniiquaries, and worthy of a visit suffering under severe hectic fever; on examina

tion, he discovered that her feet were undergoing from all admirers of classic sculpture.

of distortion; he was informed that she One of the most curious monuments in had been a year under this treatment. Moved by the collection is the figure of a warrior in pity for the little sufferer, he proceeded to remove Jow relief, rather above the natural size, and the bindings, and fomented the feet, which were executed with a degree of stiffness, which in shape had already commenced by the depression

covered with ulcers and inflammation. The change shows far more affinity to the style of the of the toes. The child was much relieved by, and Egina marbles than to the Attic school of evidently grateful for, his treatment.

On taking Phidias. Its antiquity, and the visible his leave, he warned the mother that she wouli traces of the painting with which it was but his remonstrances were of no avail. When

certainly lose her child if the bands were replaced ; adorned, give it great value. This curious ever he returned (and this happened frequently), piece of sculpture was found at a place he always found them on again, tho woman urging called Velanideza, on the coast of Aitica, as an excuse that her daughter had better die ihan two or three miles south of A raphen, (Rafi- such a calamity would be her inevitable lot. As

remain unmarried, and that without improved feet na), between Halæ and Prasia, in the year miglit be expected, the child grew worse and worse. 1839. An ancient demos existed in this After a longer interval than usual, he once again plain, and near it there were forty or ffty revisited the house, but found it untenanted, and a unopened tumuli, which had excited the at- little coffin lying at the door, in which he discover tention of several antiquaries. It is said

ed the body of his poor young patient.-Loch's

Closing Events of the Campaign in China. [All: that a society of excavators received perwill feel the monstrous character of this madness of mission to open these tumuli, but I have the Chinese females; but is the waist-constriction never been able to obtain any exact infor- of our own any better? The extravagance is not mation on the subject, though I have ap- equally bad in kind, and there can be no doubt that

with us, perhaps, so very great in degree, but it is plied directly to Mr. Pittakis; and Profes- it also causes coffins to be laid down at doors for sor Ross was also as unsuccessful as I was. “ young patients." We fear it is an extravagance Much mystery attended the whole proceed. not in the way of being diminished. There has ings, for the Greek government has gene

been introduced of late years an atrocious piece of rally been extremely averse to all private frames of young ladies in an artificial and unyield

enginery called the French stay, for casing up the excavations, and General Gordon was re- ing shape, in which they believe the ideal of form quested to discontinue his at the Heræum; to be realized. Specimens of it may be seen glassI suppose that many of the vases offered to cased in windows in London, and it has also traveltravellers for sale, in 1839, were from Veled into the provinces. It leaves its victims hardly

room to breathe, and entirely takes away the power lanideza. Mr. Pittakis has published no of raising their arms above their heads. What they account of these excavations, and the Ar- might deem its worst peculiarity, if they could judge chatological Society took no notice of them, of it at all, it makes one half of them round-shoulas it is dangerous for a body wishing to live dered, and thus adds a real deformity where it only

creates an imaginary elegance. But we must cut in peace with all men to attempt penetrat- short, remembering that this is the subject on which ing where there is mystery. No account it is of no use to speak.- Chambers's Edinburgh Jour.


Fom the Athenæum.

DISCOVERIES ON THE NORTH COAST OF discovery at an enormous expense, and AMERICA.

composed of individuals having plenty of zeal, but who, possessing very little expe

rience of the polar climate, necessarily Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Cound difficulty and danger in journeys

Coast of America ; effected ly the Officers which, to the practised fur-trader, would of the Hudson's Bay Company during the have been safe and easy. In July 1836, Years 1836–39. By Thomas Simpson, Messrs. Dease and Simpson received the Esq. Bentley

commands of the Company to conduct an Tuis modest, unpretending volume con expedition porthwards in the following tains the lively history of one of the most year, and, in the first place, descending remarkable expeditions, or rather series of Mackenzie River, and proceeding westexpeditions, on record ;-remarkable, as wards to Return Reef, the furthest point filling up and giving continuity to our reached by Sir J. Franklin in 1826, to exknowledge of the northern circumpolar plore the coast onwards from that point to coasts of America, through seventy-four Point Barrow, which had been reached by degrees of longitude, or, following the Mr. Elson in Beechy's voyage. Returning windings of the shore, above 2,000 miles, from this western exploration, the expedia all explored by British enterprise ; remark- tion was to winter at the north-eastern anable as an example of bold and compre. gle of the Great Bear Lake; thence to dehensive plans, carried into execution with scend, in the following summer, the Copa rare union of consummate prudence and permine River, and to follow ihe coast indomitable courage, and completely suc

eastwards, as far as the mouth of the Great cessful, without a serious accident or mis- Fish River, discovered by Back in 1834. hap, during three trying campaigns. With. This eastern survey eventually proved to out accident or mishap, we say ; but alas! be the work of two summers. in the train of so signal a triumph there Mr. Simpson started to join the expedi. followed at no great distance a sad disas- tion at its first winter quarters, near Lake ter, to which we shall return in the sequel

. Athabasca, from the Red River settlement, Owing to the untimely fate of the author which is situate in the heart of the North of this narrative, the task of vindicating his American Continent, about 300 miles W. share in the expedition has devolved on

N. W. from the remotest borders of Canahis brother, who says,

da, above Lake Superior. This colony lies

so far from the ordinary track of tourists, “ Although Mr. Simpson's name appears and is in itself of so interesting a character, only as second or junior officer of the expedi- that we cannot refuse 10 glean from our an old and experienced officer of the Hudson's author's pages some information respectBay Company, who co-operated with Sir John ing it: Franklin on his last expedition,- yet a glance “Situated under the 501h degree of north lati. at the narrative in the following pages will prove tude, and 97th of west longitude, at an elevation ahat Mr. Simpson was really the main--spring of of eight or nine hundred leet above the sea, and the expedition. He alone was at all conversant stretching for upwards of filty nuiles along the with science: and the most arduous parts of the wooded borders of the Red and Assiniboine service performed by the expedition--the com- rivers, which flow through a level country of pletion of the survey between Mackenzie River vast exient, it possesses a salubrious climate and Point Barrow; the exploration of the coun- and a fertile soil; but summer frosts, generated try between Great Slave Lake and the Copper- by undrained marshes, sometimes blast the mine River-essential to the transport across hopes of the husbandman, and the extremes of that rugged and sterile country (well called the abundance and want are experienced by an imBarren Grounds) of the boats and provisions of provident people. Horses, horned cattle, hogs, the expedition; and the pedestrian journey along and poultry, are exceedingly numerous. Sheep the coast, of the summer of 1838, which opened have been brought by the Company, at great the prospect of a clear sea to the eastward, se-expense, from England and the Un ted States, curing the success of the expedition in summer and are reared with success. Wheat, barley, 1839,- were performed by him alone.”

oats, potatoes, turnips, and most of the ordinary

culinary vegetables, thrive well. Pumpkins, On the failure of Sir G. Back's attempt melons, and cucumbers come to maturity in the to reach the Polar Sea by Wager Inlet, or open air in favorable seasons. Maize. peace, Repulse Bay, the Hudson's Bay Company and beans, have not been extensively cultivated determined to lend its aid in completing and stunted; orchards are as yet unknown.

hops grow luxuriantly; flax and lemp are poor the geography of that nearly inaccessible The banks of the rivers are cultivated to the region. It had often smiled at the expedi' width of from a quarter to half a mile. All the tions fitted out by Government for Arctic back level country remains in its original state-

a vast natural pasture, covered for the greater on the region of oak terminated; but fine part of the year with cattle, and also surnishing woods of elm are found much further the inhabitants with a sufficiency of coarse hay northward, when these in turn give way to for the support of their herds during the winter.

Much of the The length of this severe season exceeils five pine, poplar, and willow. months, the rivers usually freezing in Novem-country now lying desert on the western her and opening in April

, when there is a fine side of the Manitobah and Winipegoos sturgeon tishery; but Lake Winipeg, the grand lakes, is capable of producing wheat and receptacle of the river waters, does not break other grains. The cold now became in. up till the close of May. The most common tense. On the 23rd, a strong westerly sorts of wood are oak, elm, poplar, and maple; wind, at a temperature of at least 40° bepines are likewise found towards Lake Winipeg. low zero, seriously threatened the safety ** The generality of the settlers dwell in frame or loghouses, roofed with wooden slabs, bark, or of the party, and notwithstanding every shingles, and, for the most part, whitewashed or precaution, two men were injured by the painted externally. Not a man, however mean cold. After two months' toil, our author or idle, but possesses a horse; and they vie in arrived at Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athagay carioles, harness, saddles, and fine clothes. basca, and concludes this part of his narA great abundance of English goods is import- rative with the following observation :ed, both by the Company and by individuals, in the Company's annual ships to York Factory, • Thus happily terminated a winter journey and disposed of in the colony at moderate prices. of 1277 statute miles. In the wilderness time Labor is dear, and produce of ali kinds sells at and space seem equally a blank, and for the a higher rate than could be expected in such a same reason-the paucity of objects to mark or secluded place."

diversily their passage; but, in my opinion, the

real secret of the little account which is made The land at the Red River colony is, in of distance in these North American wilds is, general, given gratuitously to the Hudson's

that there is nothing to pay. Every assistance These

is promptly rendered to the traveller without fee Bay Company's retired servants.

or reward, while health and high spirits smile traders, scattered over the country in their at the fatigues of the way.” early years, and far removed from civilized society, usually marry Indian women, and

The forts or trading establishments of consequently, the population of the Red the Company, constitute so many fixed River settlement, which now amounts to points of Indian resort. The Indian finds five thousand souls, consists, in a great

in them a market for the produce of the degree, of half-breeds. The restless, tur. chase, a refuge in case of war, and at all bulent passions of this race, have gradually times relief and instruction. It requires driven from the Red River the original all the eloquence and personal influence of Scotch settlers, who have, for the most the trader to persuade the Indian to spare part, migrated to the United States; and the young of the beaver, and other valua. there now remain, in the vicinity of Lake ble fur animals. So obsiinate are the red Winipeg, less persevering industry, and men in their improvident habits, so deeply more wild recklessness, than' might be ex. seated their destructive propensities, that pected in a British colony of thirty years our anthor does not hesitate to pronounce standing. At the same time, the Red them irreclaimable. He gives the followRiver colonists are elevated far above sav. ing curious illustration of their innate love age life, and as the fur-traders now take of slaughtering game: their wives from tbat setilement, rather “ Near York Factory, in 1831, this propensity, than from the hut of the wild Indian, a contrary to all the remonstrances of the gentlesteady improvement in the character of men of that place, led to the indiscriminate dethe half-breed population, may be looked struction of a countless herd of reindeer, while forward to as a certain result.

crossing the broad stream of Haye's River, in On the 1st of December our author of the meat for present use, but thousands of

the height of summer. The natives took some started on his journey northward. There carcases were abandoned to the current, and inwas not yet any snow on the ground. The fected the river banks, or foated out into Huddogs were allowed, therefore, to draw son's Bay, there to feed the sea fowl and the empty sledges, while the travellers amused Polar bear. As if it were a judgment for this themselves with a woll-hunt, a favorite barbarous slaughter, in which women and even pastime in the plains around the colony, visited that part of the country in similar num

children participated, the deer have never since where the horses are trained to the pur. bers." suit of the buffalo and wolf, and to stand fire at full speed. On the ice of the Lake On the shore of Athabasca lake, were of Manitobah, or the Evil Spirit, the labor built two sea boats, each twenty-four feet of the dogs commenced. A little further long, so much alike, and, in the eyes of the

travellers, so handsome, as to obtain the with the rest, he was in an agony of fear; and, classical appellations of Castor and Pollux. vvhen I first went up to him, with impotent hand On the 1st of June, the boats being 6nish. he made a thrust at me wiihi liis long knife. lle ed, the expedition commenced the descent. was, however, soon convinced of our good inWe shall 'say nothing of the ice still lin- of which we found men, women, and even chil.

!entions; and luis first request was for tobacco, gering in Great Slave Lake, nor of the dren inordinately fond.'** Confidence being cheerful verdant scenery of Mackenzie now fully established, I told them that I requirRiver. Barley is cultivated at Fort Simp-ed one of their oomiaks, or large family canoes, son, in latitude 62 ; and even at Fort Nor. to take us two or three days' journey--or sleeps, man, 200 miles lower down, European per. as they term it--to the westward; after which

we should return. These skin boats float ju severance is exhibited in the cultivation of

hall a foot of water. No ice was visible from the ground; " At this northerly spot, in the tents; and, from the trending of the coast, latitude 64° 40', a small quantity of green it was more than doubtful that our journey could barley, and of potatoes, almost as big as have been accomplished in any reasonable timo pigeons' eggs, is now annually raised." on foot. They acceded 10 my demand, without "The wood coal, on the banks of the Mac-a scruple. We selected the best ofthree oomiaks ; kenzii, is, for several miles, in a state of obtained four of their slender oars, which they ignition, and these natural fires appear to fitted the oars with lashings; and arranged our

used as tent-poles, besides a couple of paddles : have extended since the time of Dr. Rich

strange vessel so well that the ladies were in ardson's visit. They locally affect the cli- raptures, declaring us to be genuine Esqui

. mate ; a richer herbage and riper berries maux, and not poor white men. Whilst my being found in the vicinity of the fires. companions were thus employed, I procured. Near Fort Good Hope, in latitude 66° 16', from the most intelligent of the women, a our author writes—" The majestic river, sketch of the inlet before us, and of the coast and its high banks, were steeped in a floud to the westward, as far as her knowledge ex

. She represented the inlet as very of light, and except the diminutive size of deep; that they make many encampments in the wood, there was nothing in the land: travelling round it; but that it receives no scape to suggest the thought that we had river. She also drew a bay of some size to penetrated so far into the regions of the the westward; and the old man added a long North."

| and very narrow projection, covered with lents, Let us hasten

which I could not doubt to mean Point Bar. now from Mackenzie

row." River, to the unexplored sea shores towards the west.

With great exertions the The wind blew violently and the sea ran boats were forced through the ice about high, but the Esquimaux boat rode gallant150 miles beyond the Return Reef of Sir ly over the waves. At night, propped on J. Franklin ; but the progress being so slow, the paddles, it formed a shelter on the and the obstructions so formidable, it was shore, which is here formed of frozen mud. thought advisable to prosecute the remain. A fine deep river, named the Bellevue, was der of the required exploration on foot : discovered further on, and, immediately afwith this view, therefore, Mr. Simpson set ter, our author descried, with unfeigned forth with five companions. The sequel of joy, the object of his search. He thus dehis story shall be told, as much as possible, scribes his arrival at Point Barrow:in his own words :

“We had now only to pass Elson Bay, which “ After travelling about ten miles, and wading is for the most pari shallow. It was covered through many a salt creek, the waters of which with a tough coat of young ice, through which were at the freezing temperature, the land, to we broke a passage; and then forced nar way our dismay, turned off io lhe eastward of south, amid a heavy pack, nearly half a mile broad, and a boundless inlet lay before us. Almost at that rested upon the shore. On reaching it, and the same instant, to our inexpressible joy, we seeing the ocean spreading far and wide to the descried tour Esquimaux tents, at no great dis- south-west, we unfurled our flag, and with three tance, with figures running about. We imme- enthusiastic cheers took possession of our disdiately directed our steps towards them ; but, on coveries in his Majesty's name. Point Barrow our approach, the women and children threw is a long low spit, composed of gravel and coarse themselves into their canoes, and pushed off sand, forced up by the pressure of the ice into fiom the shore. I shouted “Kabloonan teyma numerous mounds, that, viewed from a distance, Inueet.' meaning We are white nien, friendly might be mistaken for gigantic boulders. At tosthe Esquimaux;' upon which glad news the the spot where we landed it is only a quarter of whole party hurried ashore, and almost over- a mile across, but is considerably wider towards powered us with caresses. The men were ab- ils termination, where it subsides into a reer sent, hunting, with the exception of one infirm running for some distance in an easterly direcindividual, who, sitting under a reversed canoe, tion, and partly covered by the sea. One of the was tranquilly engaged in weaving a fine whale- first objects that presented itself, on looking bone net. Being unable to make his escape ! around, was an immense cemetery. There the


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miserable remnants of humanity lay on the | The intense cold was of unusual duration. ground, in the seal-skin dresses worn while alive. The average temperature of the latter half Å few were covered with an old sledge or some of December was -3340, that of all Janupieces of wood, but far the greater number were entirely exposed to the voracity of dogs and wild ary -39o. In March when the average teinanimals."

perature was -20°, the thermometer on one

occasion sank so low as -60°, or even -66° Among the remarkable features of the (66 degrees below zero!). Our author line of coast discovered by the expedition had the curiosity, when the thermometer is the River Colvile, apparently of great was standing at -49, to cast a pistol-bullet magnitude, for the sea opposite to its mouth of quicksilver, which at ten paces passed was quite fresh three leagues from the through an inch plank, but flattened and shore.' This river is supposed by our au- broke against the wail a few paces beyond thor to how from the western side of the it. This chilling temperature, however, Rocky Mountains. It appears that our fur did not repress the gaiety nor subdue the traders on the western side of those mount- appetites of the pariy, as will be manifest ains, not far from the Russian lines, have from what follows:heard of a great river a litile farther north,

« On Christmas and New-Year's day we en the description of which suits well with the tertained our assembled people with a dance, Colvile. With a glad heart, and during a followed by a supper, consisting of the best fare gleam of fair weather, our author saw and we could command. By this time we had, relished whatever agreeable scenery these through our indefatigable exertions, accumulatdesolate shores possess. He thus paints ed two or three weeks' provisions in advance, the view from a hill near Demarcation and no scarcity was experienced during the rePoint:

mainder of the season. The daily ration served

out to each man, was increased from eight to “I ascended the nearest hill, six or seven ten, and to some individuals twelve pounds of miles distant, whence I enjoyed a truly sublime venison ; or, when they could be got, four or prospeet. On either hand arose the British and five white-fish weighing from fifteen to twenty Buckland mountains, exhibiting an infinite di-pounds. This quantity of solid food, immoderate versity of share and form; in front lay the blue as it may appear, does not exceed the average boundless ocean strongly contrasted with its standard of the country; and ought certainly io broad glittering girdle of ice; beneath yawned appease even the inordinate appetite of a French ravines a thousand feet in depth, through which Canadian." brawled and sparkled the clear alpine streams; while the sun, still high in the west, shed his The barren grounds or country immedisoftened beams through a rich veil of saffron-ately to the east of the Great Bear Lake colored clouds that over-canopied the gorgeous have been explored during the winter, and, scene. Bands of reindeer, browsing on the all the preparations being complete, the exrich pasture in the valleys and along the brooks, imparted life and animation to the picture. Pie pedition started again in June, 1838, as soon luctantly I returned to the camp at sunset."

as the ice broke up. The boats ascended

the River Dease for some miles; they were The mouth of the Mackenzie was regain. then carried over a short portage to the ed without accident, and the wearied crews Dismal Lakes, by means of which, and the at length enjoyed repose. “The night was River Kendall, they descended into the serene, and not a sound broke upon the Coppermine River. This communication solemn stillness, save the occasional notes between the Coppermine River and Great of swans and geese calling to their mates, Bear Loke was frequently examined, and and the early crowing of the willow par. four times crossed by the expedition, with tridge, as the soft twilight melted into the all their luggage: our author must, thereblush of dawn."

fore, be regarded as a competent authority, From the return of the expedition to the when he asserts that the descent is equal Mackenzie, to its arrival in winter quarters on both sides. The consequence is, that at the north-eastern angle of Great Bear the Coppermine River, from the mouth of Lake, a month elapsed ; and, in that month, the Kendall River to the sea, or in a course the glow and serenity of autumn had given of seventy miles, has as great a fall as the way to the imınitigable severity of a north- Great Bear Lake, the Great Bear River, ern winter. Various accidents had pre. and the Mackenzie altogether, in a line of vented the completion of the buildings and 700 miles. The dangers of so impetuous a the accumulation of provisions, and if the corrent were fully experienced by our whole party-men and leaders-had not author and his companions; their boats, been expert hunters and backwoodsmen, it however, were fortunately steered by exis probable that the expedition would have pert Canadians well used to shoot the experienced the extremities of famine. rapids, and thus they reached the sea in

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