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When the young king assumed the govern- Spain.—Espartero has abandoned the field, and ment, it was exactly a Charles II. succeed is now a refugee from Spain. The siege of Seville ing an Oliver Cromwell; the dissolute li- lasted twenty-one days, and the bombardment ten.

was raised on the night of the 27th July; having centious cavalier to the rigid Puritans and Espartero himself left it for Cadiz on the night of Roundheads. The pertinacious “Jesuits” the 26th, with an escort of three or four hundred made other attempts; the “persecution" cavalry ; his retreat being covered by a stronger was renewed, and the American Missiona.force. His soldiers remained true to ihe last, and ries still maintained their influence with island of Leon with the main, against Concha, who

defended the bridge of Suazo, wbich connects the the native government and their converts. pursued the retreating chief.' Concha took another This strife of rival sects is not likely soon road, and near Puerto Real he came up with Esparto terminate.

tero's escort; and had a smart engagement with it, The American Missionaries are not more Nogueras,) his Minister of the Interior, (Gomez de

whilst Espartero, his Minister of War, (General jealous of the French Roman Catholic la Serna,) Van Halen, Linage, and many other offipriests in the Sandwich Islands than is this cers, succeeded in embarking at Puerto de Santa author of English ascendency there. It is Maria. The boat on board which they went soon asserted in his book that the English are, tion of the cannon of the Malabar British ship-of

gained an offing, and placed itself under the protecat present, very unpopular in Hawaii; and the-line; the commander of which, Captain Sir the English Consul, Mr. Charlton, is run George Sartorius, refused to admit them on board down and calumniated in a style which, until authorized to do so by the English Consul at perhaps, required to be modified before the Cadiz. The order, however, soon reached him,

and the Regent and his friends were received in the work was published in England. So would Malabar. When on board, Espartero hesitated the account of the death and visits of Cook. whether or not to be landed at Cadiz, which was If American writers were thus fierce before, supposed still to hold out for him : the bells and what will they be now that the Sandwich

cannou were heard, celebrating his defeat: " To

Lisbon, then !” exclaimed he; and the Malabar Islands, which were long since ceded to Van- weighed anchor and sailed for that capital. Shortcouver, have been taken formal possession ly after the embarkation of Espartero, the cavalry of. Though the book is alloyed by these of his escort surrendered to Concha ; when Generals jealous feelings, and some unfairness, it pos

Juan Van Halen, (a brother of the Van Halen,) Alsesses merit, and both value and interest, Colonel of the Regiment of Luchana, General Oso

varez, Captain-General of Granada, General Osset, as a fresh and faithful picture of a group of rio, Governor of Tarragona, and a number of other the great human family placed under very officers, were made prisoners. peculiar circumstances.

On the 2d instant, a deputation left Madrid for Seville, to present a gold crown of Jaurel to the Ayuntamiento in the name of the Queen, together with a letter from S. Lopez, complimenting the city in the most glowing terms upon its resistance.

Seone was a prisoner at large, in Burgos ; de

tained as a hostage for the safety of important prisODE TO THE EVENING STAR. oners who might fall into the hands of Espartero

or Van Halen.

A strong protest against the usurpation by the

Provisional Government of the authority of the ProDown the rosy-tinted West,

vincial Juntas, who gave it life and support, was Sinking fast, effulgent star,

received from Galicia on the 2d instant, and caused Whither in your regions blest

such a sensation that the Government had immediGuid'st thy tranquil course afar ?

ately issued orders for the march of a strong force O'er the golden year presiding,

on the province. Letters from Barcelona, of the Autumn woos thy glistening light;

4th, announce that the Junta of that town is in a Still through Heaven's pure ether gliding. state of open hostility with the Provisional Govern. Star of Eve-good night, good night. ment of Madrid. It bas refused to obey orders to

stop demolishing the ramparte. Oh, how oft in life's soft leisure,

The decree convoking the new Cortes, for the World-worn spirits past away

15th October, is observed to depart from the constiThus have drawn a secret pleasure, tution, in requiring that body to be totally renew. Felt thy calm, benignant ray

ed; thus prematurely expelling two-thirds of the Nearer, now, perchance, they view thee, senators. A second decree, equally unconstituNature's mystic veil remove,

tional, had dissolved the Provisional Deputation of Rapt in endless bliss pursue thee,

Madrid, and appointed other Deputies to replace Through their native skies above. those whose services were dispensed with, until

another election shall take place. The President Downward, lo ! the sun forth speeding,

and nine other Judges of the Supreme Tribunal of Bids thee to thy early rest,

Justice had been summarily dismissed for refusing, Ere the twilight hour receding,

without qualification, to recognize the RevolutionaShuts the crimson-curtain'd West;

ry Government, and a new Tribunal, with OlozaStill as one last look to borrow,

ga at its head, appointed. Lingering on the verge of light,

Madame Blake, the widow of an officer of Irish Thee I trace with parting sorrow,

extraction, had been appointed to succeed Madame Faded Star of Eve, good night!

Mina as preceptress of the Queen.-Spectator.


From the Athenæum.

ARCHÆOLOGICAL RESEARCHES IN GREECE. vulgarly called the Lantern of Demosthenes,

was chosen, and the whole of this interest

ing building was laid open to public view, July, 1843.

its basement having been previously conThe interest you have always taken in cealed by an accumulation of earth to the keeping the public accurately informed con-depth of 12 to 15 feet. The intention of the cerning the progress of Archaiological Re-excavators was to inculcate, by a practical

arch in Greece, induces me to send you illustration, the necessity of an excavation an account of all that has been done in the round most of the ancient buildings, in orHellenic kingdom since the establishment der to display, as far as possible, the pecuof the German government. One object of liarities of their original sites. This excathis statement is to call the attention of the vation led to nothing further at the time, friends of Greek art in England to the im- as the excavators were not allowed to exportance of lending some aid towards fur-tend their researches, and it excited the thering these researches, which, it will be jealousy of the royal government, which seen from the following summary, have not has permitted the little square formed been without important results both to art round the monument of Lysicrates to be and literature. The artists and antiquaries ruined, and almost filled with rubbish, for at Athens have had quite as great difficul. the purpose, as it is maliciously asserted, ties to encounter from the supineness and of clearing it out again, and making such illiberality of the Greek government as the improvements as will give a specious claim mercantile and agricultural classes; yet I to say the excavation is a government venture to refer to the essays of Professor work. Ross, on various questions of Greek topog. Some time after this first attempt, a secraphy,--to the splendid work on the Tem- ond was made, and the foundation of an ple of Victory Apteros in the Acropolis of Archaiological Society was laid. Most of Athens, which he published in conjunction the Greeks of wealth at Athens subscribed, with the architects Hausen and Schaubert, and it was determined to make a consider

a -to the learned travels of Professor Ul-able excavation in the Acropolis, in order richs, in Bæotia and Phocis,-to the disser- to greet King Otho on his first arrival at tation of the late General Gordon on the his future capital, with matter to excite his pass of Thermopyle, with his map,--to the entbusiasm." As Count Armansperg, Mr. large Greek map of the Hellenic kingdom, Maurer, and General Heideck, the members by the engineer Aldenhoven, and to the ex. of the regency, were also to visit Athens tensive collection of unedited inscriptions, for the first time in his Majesty's company, by Messrs. Rangavé and Pittakis, published it was expected that they would all join the periodically, under the title of the Ar. Society as patrons and subscribers. Very chaiological Journal,'—to these works I re- liberal subscriptions were collected among fer as proofs of the services which the in the Greeks and Philhellenes; Mr. Gropius, habitants of modern Athens have already the patriarch of Attic Archaiologists, was rendered to the cause of ancient art and requested to select the ground to be exliterature.*

amined, and Mr. Pittakis, the present con. It may not be superfluous to recapitulate servator of antiquities in Greece, undertook the various attempts made at different tiines to direct the operations of the workmen in to excite the attention of King Otho's gov- person. The success of the undertaking ernment to the importance of forming a so- was most encouraging, as might have been ciety for the purpose of pursuing a regular anticipated, under such able superintendsystem of excavation. The first attempt ence. Five portions of the frieze of the was made by four strangers residing at Parthenon were discovered, four of which Athens, as soon as it was known that the are in an exquisite state of preservation ; son of a monarch so devoted to the culti- one belongs to the assembly of the gods at vation of ancient art as King Louis of Ba- the east end, and the others to the festal varia was elected sovereign of Greece. The procession on the north side of the temple. beautiful choragic monument of Lysicrates, Several other fragments of minor interest * I may mention as a proof of my own anxiety to this Society met with no encouragement

were also found, but all the exertions of aid the exertions of abler men and better scholars, a map of the northern part of Attica, and an Essay from the Regency,-indeed, quite the conprinted at Athens in English, on the topography trary ; it was met with the most distinct of Diacria and Oropia, as they have been adopted declaration that all further exertions would as authority for laying down that district in the new Topographisch-historischer Atlas of Greece be dispensed with. I had exerted myself a and its colonies, by Kiepert.

good deal in persuading the Greeks that their new rulers would view their liberality for earth-scratching. The soil of almost as a proof of great merit, and that their pa- every ancient site was rendered in turns, triotic conduct would be highly applauded. though for a very short space of time, the I own I was utterly confounded, when I scene of a little digging. But as the object laid the matter before Mr. Maurer and of this activity was only to supply a preGeneral Heideck, who were my guests on text for a series of articles in the German their royal visit to Athens. I had made newspapers, by which it was thought glory sure of their support at least, as the one was and popularity would be gained in Europe, an accomplished artist and the other a and very little reference was made to che learned scholar, and I prepared them for service likely to accrue to art or literature, the sight of the Acropolis by recounting these excavations were without any importhe formation of the Society and its achieve- tant results. Some ground was, however, ments; all this was met by a very cool ob- turned over at Olympia, at Tega, at Sparta, servation on the part of their Excellencies, at Megalopolis, at Tenea, near Corinth, at that the Society need give itself no further Thera, at Anaphé, and at Delos. It would trouble, nor incur any additional expense, certainly have been wiser to have pursued as the royal government had resolved to these researches on a more regular and intake the antiquities under its especial care, telligible system; but they deserve praise, and would appoint its own agents for exca- as activity is always preferable to idleness, vating

if the cause be in itself a good one. For two years the Bavarian government In 1837 a new era dawned on Greece. did not appear to consider that the antiqui- Public opinion extended its influence every: ties required much care. Antiquaries are, where, and the government was compelled however, a persevering, obstinate race, and to abandon all the outworks of its antithe regency was not allowed to rest, until hellenic system, in order to defend Bavariat length Professor Ross was charged to anism in the central departments of public make excavations in the Acropolis of business. An Archaiological Society was Athens, in order to continue the researches then formed by the Greeks themselves, and commenced by the advice of Mr. Gropius. it exists to this day, though its funds are The results of these excavations were also not very large, as the annual subscription of the greatest importance to the history of the members is only about 10s. 6d., and of ancient art. The beautiful temple of from the Report drawn up and published by Victory at the entrance of the Acropolis, the president and secretary, it appears that was found to have been thrown down with a large proportion have allowed even this out its materials having been destroyed, small subscription to fall into arrear during and almost every stone of the building, with the last two years. This Society has the exception of the portion of the frieze nevertheless rendered great service to art in the British Musuem, was discovered. and literature, and its affairs have been conThe restoration of this elegant little treas. ducted in the most popular and prudent ure of Grecian art was almost completed manner. One general meeting has been when Professor Ross was removed from his held annually in the Parthenon, in the open office of conservator of antiquities, and Mr. air, and all the world has been free to at. Pittakis appointed in his place. From that tend; nor have the meetings failed to attract day to this, the temple remains incomplete, some of the fair dames from distant lands, in consequence of the jealousy which, in who have chanced to visit Athens at the Greece, invariably induces every new of time. Indeed it must be owned, that such ficial to adopt a totally opposite line of sights can never fail to leave agreeable conduct from that pursued by his predeces. reminiscences. The unrivalled splendor of sor. One of the most valuable discoveries the setting sun, seen from the Acropolis, was an exquisite figure of a winged victory has excited many a noble verse : an assemtying on her sandal to fly forth in attend. bly of Greeks discussing in their own lanance on the armies of the republic, which guage the affairs of their ancestors—the formed the last in a series of winged figures venerable president, Mr. Rizos, eloquently disposed in front of the temple, as a substi. expounding the new light thrown on some tute for a balustrade. Many portions of the point of ancient history, in which he shines other figures have likewise been found; but far more than in penning despatches as all is lelt huddled together in a dusty maga. Minister of Foreign Affairs—all this makes zine, or exposed carelessly in the ruined a stranger proud on such an occasion to be temple.

a member of this Society, or even to have As soon as the Bavarian Regency awoke attended one of its meetings. At this anfrom its lethargy, it was seized with a fevernual meeting a committee of management

is elected, the report of the proceedings of several of the large marble flags of the the previous year is read, and any question pavement have likewise been replaced. concerning the administration and applica- These excavations have not been made tion of the funds determined. The excava. on the principle adopted by Klenze, the tions already made have been very success- celebrated Bavarian architect, who visited .ful, and reflect great credit on the commit. Greece in 1834, in order to propose a plan tee of management.

for the restoration of the Parthenon, and The entrance to the Acropolis has been choose a site for the palace of King Otho. cleared, and all the ruins and rubbish which He seems to have been equally unfortunate encumbered the centre of the propylæum in his opinions on both subjects, though have been removed. All the modern build his hurried visit may afford some apology, ings have been taken down which blocked if his orders were not to exceed the time up the no-thern wing, and the pinakotheke he devoted to the subject. In this work, is now completely laid open. A consider- published after his return,* he expresses able portion of the cella of the Erechtheium some aların lest the actual palace should has been re-constructed, by replacing the be flooded by the llyssus, and with regard ancient blocks which had fallen, and a sixth to the restoration of the Parthenon, he caryatide has been found, so that the little considered it sufficient to take any drum portico might be restored, except for the of any column at hand, the diameter of one in the British Museum.

which nearly corresponded with the spot But the most important labor of the So it was to occupy, and replace it on the ciety is the clearing the basement of the column to be restored. In this way he reParihenon, and the restoration of those placed one of the drums of a column on the parts of the building which were uninjured, northern side of the temple, where it still io the original places. The northern side remains, as a specimen of the unsightly fig. has been completely cleared from the earth ure which the Parthenon would have been and rubbish which covered the fragments rendered had his plau been adopted. I canof the temple, which now remain exposed not, mysell, understand how a learned to view in ruined majesty. A well preserv- scholar and an architect of the classic ed metope, three more pieces of the frieze, school, like Klenze, could have entertained and several fragments of sculpture from the idea of defacing a work of the purest different parts of the temple have been architectural taste in this manner. It is found-amongst the rest a colossal owl, well known that no two columns of the about whose position the Athenian anti. Parthenon correspond exactly. The axis quaries have expressed a multitude of opin- of no column being exactly through its cenions. The old mosque in the centre of the tre, every column has likewise an inclinaParthenon has disappeared, but it was not tion towards the centre of the building, and removed until the fall of its portico warned the basement on which they stand, and the the conservator of antiquities to remove all architrave which they support rises in the the fragments of sculpture it contained, and middle of the side. Since the time of Verres destroy it, lest it should destroy something nothing so unclassical has been done in the valuable, by the fall of its heavy dome. way of restoration, and one would almost The centre of the Parthenon would have fancy Mr. Klenze appreciated so little the presented a very meagre appearance after true principles of Hellenic art, that he conthe removal of the mosque, and even the sidered it sufficient to make a column per. general appearance of the Acropolis would pendicular. Cicero seems to have held ibat have lost something of its picturesque a man must have been an utter barbarian beauty, had nothing been done to enable who could so utterly fail to adnire one of the eye to connect the two masses of build. the most distinctive beanties of the Greing which formed the eastern and western cian peristyle, and we subjoin the whole fronts, and which were left almost entirely passage as possessing especial interest, for unconnected by the explosion of the Turk it has not yet been sufficiently attended to ish powder magazine, during the last siege in illustrating this peculiarity of Doric arof Athens by the Venetians. Several columns chitecture.t in this interval have been almost rostored froin the fragınents found merely overturn

* Aphoristische Bemerkungen.

† Venit ipse in ædemn Castoris : considerat temed by the explosion ; 34 drums of columns plum : videt undique tectum pulcherrime laqneaon the northern side have been replaced in eum. præterea cælera nova atque integra : versat their original positions, and 12 on the south e, quæritquid ayat. Dicit ei quidem ex illis cani. side. Part of the wall of the cella, and Tu Verres ! hic quod moliare nihil habes nisi forte

bus, quos iste Lignri dixerat esse circa se mullos. Vol. III. No. II. 18

vis ad perpendiculum columnas exigere.

Homo ultima.


The Society adopted a very differentological zeal and judgment of the central principle, as they considered the plan of government. For some years no one was Mr. Klenze implied a re-making, not a re. allowed to build, nay, the houses half built, storation, of the Parthenon. No piece of were ordered to be left unfinished, within marble has been replaced, unless in the po- a certain limit, and government determined sition it occupied before the explosion re. to purchase all the ground for excavation. moved it. The Athenian antiquaries con- Many individuals remained ill-lodged, with sider that it will be time enough to discuss half-finished houses, and paying enormous the question, how far restoration ought to rents for upwards of eighteen months. Sudbe carried, when all the fragments in the denly the government plans were changed, Acropolis still prostrate have been reinstated and orders were given to build a large bar. in their original positions.

rack within the sacred inclosure; and in orNumerous interesting discoveries have der to remove any respect to Hellenic ruins, likewise been made, but they appertain too part of the building was erected on one of exclusively to the domain of the antiquary the existing walls of the gymnasium of Haand topographer to be interesting to gene- drian, near the old Turkish bazaar, while ral readers. Part of a sculptured frieze of the rest of the area was filled up

with a black Eleusinian marble belonging to the layer of rubbish seven feet deep. Erechtheium was found near that building. "The services which the Archaiological An excavation behind the propylæum has Society of Athens has rendered to Europe, exposed to view a beautiful specimen of a may be appreciated from this fact. It could building destroyed to make way for the not, however, have accomplished as much magnificent gateway to the Acropolis, built as it has already executed, had it not reby Pericles. Many of the sites of temples ceived several donations from Western and monuments mentioned by Pausanias, Europe; and its labors would have been have been ascertained, and the inscription interrupted last year if his Majesty the King on the Trojan horse has been found on a of the Netherlands had not sent a donation vase in the position he mentions that he of 300 drachmas. A request was lately read it. Much, it is to be hoped, will be transmitted to Mr. Bracebridge, who has found, when it is in the power of the So- been a liberal promoter of the cause of edciety to clear out the southern side of the ucation in Greece, to attempt the formation Parthenon, as they have done the northern. of a society, or the establishment of a Only about half of the metopes of this side branch of the Athenian Archaiological Soare in the British Muesum, and one is in ciety in London; but from no official authe Museum of the Louvre, so that there thority to act having been forwarded by the seems every probability that many may be committee of management, this was found found covered with the rubbish, which, to be difficult. The state of the Athenian from the lowness of the level of the soil on Society was, however, communicated to this side, has accumulated in a greater de. Colonel Leake, who, with his usual promptgree than on the north.

wess and liberality in aiding the cause of In the town, a considerable space has Greece, inimediately sent the Society a subbeen cleared out round the lower of An- scription of 500 drachmas, (£18.) As it is dronicus Kyrrhestes, or the Temple of the probable that many admirers of ancient Art Winds, as it was formerly called. In com- may be inclined to support this useful insti. mon conversation it is now called the Tem- tution, I have ventured to send you this long ple of Eolus, and forms an appropriate ter- statement of its affairs and proceedings. mination to one of the new streets, of course It must be observed that the archaiologiEolus Street. An excavation was also made cal commission, charged with the publicaby the Society in the Theatre of Bacchus, tion of the Ephemeris Archæologiké, in and near it à curious statue of Silenus, which the ancient inscriptions are printed, with a young Bacchus sitting on his shoul. is not a part of this Society. It consists of der, and holding a mask in his hand, was persons employed by government, though found.

several members of the commission have As a contrast to the labors of the Society, been elected also members of the commitI shall now mention a proof of the archai- tee of management of the Society, from pos.

sessing the requisite qualification for the omnium imperitus, quærit quid sit ad perpendicu, office in the highest degree. All members lum. Dicunt ei, fere nuliam esse coluninam, quæ ad of the Archaiological Society are, however, perpendiculum esse possit. Jam, mehercule, inquit, entitled to receive the journal of the comsic agamus: coluninæ ad perpendiculuin exigantur. mission at a moderate price. -In Verr. 1. 'De Sarris Tectis exigendi,' pars

I shall now recapitulate the most re

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