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of Canada has flourished through its con- but their social condition was much more miseranexion with our settlements in the States; ble, and the treatment they received from their the market of New Zealand will excite theow in the later Saxon times appears to have
lords more harsh. The personal treatment of the production in Australia. The uttermost been far more mild than that of the same class on portions of the earth are our inheritance; the continent. In France, and particularly in Nor. let us not throw it away in mere supineness, mandy, the villans—for that is the name by which or in deference to the wise conclusions of they were designated-were subjected to the
greatest indignities, which drove ihem into fre. those sages of the discouraging school, quent insurrections at the latter end of the tenth who, had they been listened to, would have and earlier part of the eleventh century. In rechecked, one by one, all the enterprises yenge, their masters slaughtered them by hunwhich have changed the face of the world dreds, and treated them with the greatest atrocities. in the last thirty years.
The Normans brought their hatred and contempt of the peasantry into England, and soon rendered useless all the laws and customs which had previously afforded them some protection. In addi
tion to this, the villans, or peasants, were now loaded with oppressive and galling taxes, and services to their lords. Mr. Wright observed fur. ther, that the Norman masters not only looked
upon the peasantry as a conquered and inferior MISCELLANY.
race, but, what was very remarkable, they who in
Normandy had deserted their own language to English PEASANTRY IN THE MIDDLE AGES:- adopt that of their slaves, in England looked with Mr. Thomas Wright, Esq., F. S. A., stated that the contempt and disdain on the language which was agricultural population among the Anglo-Saxons, nearly that of their own forefathers. The position which he compared with the Roman coloni, were a of the English peasantry appears to have been different race from the free men; that they were most degenerated in the latter half of the twelfth the remains of the conquered people who had occu- century. pied the parts of Europe which were subdued by He stated that manumission was less frequent the Saxon and other Germanic tribes. When the among the Anglo-Normans than it had been with Saxons came to England, they brought with them the Anglo-Saxons; and gave some instances in their agricultural population, which, becoming here which it had been reversed, and freed-men reduced mixed with the conquered Britons in different pro-into slavery. On the whole, the serfs or villans in portions in differents parts of the islaud, was one of England were in a worse condition than the Roman ihe causes of subsequent difference of dialect. The coloni. They were robbed without mercy by their common name of the peasant among the Anglo- lords; could not be admitted into trades, at least, Saxons was theow, which means a bondman. Va craftsmen were cautious of taking them appren: rious instances were adduced, showing the degraded tices, lest they should be reclaimed by their lords ; position of the Anglo-Saxon theows. There was nor yet as scholars. The Norman troubadours originally no law which interfered between the were unmeasured in their satire and abuse of the lord of the soil and his theows, who were therefore oppressed villans; but at length their cause was exposed to all kinds of outrage and injustice. Af- triumphantly vindicated by the author of Piers ter the introduction of Christianity, the clergy con- Ploughman. The insurrection of the rustic popu. tinually exerted themselves to ameliorate their lation in the reign of Richard II. was very percondition ; and hence a few laws were from time vading, but was at length suppressed with great to time enacted for their protection. This class severities; and the condition of the serfs was among the Anglo-Saxons was constantly receiving scarcely relieved until the expiration of another on one side accession to its numbers, while, on the century.- Gentleman's Mag. other, it was diminished by manumission. There were different means by which a free man became a theow : sometimes he sold himself to obtain a Rev. SYDNEY SMITH AND THE AMERICANS.--The living, when no other means were left, or to obtain Rev. Sydney Smith, who it seems is one among the the protection of a master against his personal innumerable sufferers by the bad faith of the repuenemies. It was the punishment of various crimes diating States of the American Union, has published to condemn the offender to bondship. A free an address to the Congress at Washington, in which father had the right of selling his children under a he sets forth in peculiarly forcible language the certain age, which appears to have been a common infamy and fatal consequences of such conduct, pot practice. Amid the turbulence of unsettled times, only in a pecuniary, but in a moral and political men were often betrayed into slavery by their ene- sense. This address is better calculated than any mies, or by persons who made a profit by the sale. thing which has yet appeared to touch the pride of
Mr. Wright gave several examples of manumis- the great mass of the population in America—the sion from contemporary manuscripts, which afford | middle classes, through whom, if at all, such a a curious illustration of the state of society. One change in public opinion is to be brought about, of the strongest incitements to manumission was as will ultimately produce the desired objects, of piety: many instances were pointed out of theows payment to the suffering British creditors, and the set free for the love of God. A theow sometimes restoration of the American character. This docusaved money to buy the freedom of himself and his ment adopts the common error of addressing the family. A freeman bought the freedom of a theow Congress of the Union, instead of that of the woman previous to contracting marriage with her. particular State by whose bad faith the writer has And sometimes a lord set free some of his theows, suffered; but otherwise the sentiments it contains from motives of gratitude. The legal position of are worthy of being selected as texts for lectures the servile class appears to have changed little in and popular discourses all over the United States, the period following the entry of the Normans; 1 of which the people are so fond, and which neces
« THE HUMBLE PETITION OF THE REV. SYDNEY
SMITH TO THE HOUSE OF CONGRESS AT WASH-
sarily possess so much influence over them. If been done, the callous immorality with which ever the cry of “ agitate, agitate, agitate,” may with Europe has been plundered, that deadness of the propriety be heard from the mouths of the friends moral sense which seems to preclude all return to of order and of social happiness, this is the instance, honesty, to perpetuate this new infamy, and to and the American States the proper arena for it. threaten its extension over every State of the The following is the address referred to :
“ To any man of real philanthropy, who receives pleasure from the improvements of the world, the repudiation of the public debts of America, and the
shameless manner in which it has been talked of “I petition your honorable House to institute and done, is the most melancholy event which has some measure for the restoration of American happened during the existence of the present genecredit, and for the repayment of debts incurred ration. Your petitioner sincerely prays that the and repudiated by several of the States. Your great and good men still existing among you may, petitioner lent to the State of Pennsylvania a sum by teaching to the United States the deep disgrace of money,
for the purpose of some public improve they have incurred in the whole world, restore
The amount, though small, is to him im- them to moral health, to that high position they portant, and is a saving from a life income, made have lost, and which, for the happiness of mankind, with difficulty and privation. If their refusal to it is so important they should ever maintain; for pay (from which a very large number of English the United States are now working out the greatest families are suffering) had been the result of war, of all political problems, and upon that confederacy produced by the unjust aggression of powerful the eyes of thinking me are intensely fixed, to see enemies; if it had arisen from civil discord; if it how far the inass of mankind can be trusted with had proceeded from an improvident application of the management of their own affairs, and the estabmeans in the first years of self-government; if it lishment of their own happiness."-Colonial Mag. were the act of a poor State struggling against the barrenness of nature-every friend of America would have been contented to wait for better MR. BUCKINGHAM AND THE BRITISH AND FORtimes; but the fraud is committed in the profound Eign INSTITUTE. A plan has been put forward by peace of Pennsylvania, by the richest State in the Mr. Buckingham for the establisbment of “ a BritUnion, after the wise investment of the borrowed ish and Foreign Institute” for facilitatiug personal money in roads and canals, of which the repudiators intercourse between the educated classes of all are every day reaping the advantage. It is an act countries, and rendering the literary circles of the of bad faith which (all its circumstances considered) metropolis more easily accessible to visitors from has no parallel, and no excuse.
the Continent, the colonies, and the provinces. “ Nor is it only the loss of property which your The second and subordinate object of the institute petitioner laments : he laments still more that im- is stated to be to secure for Mr. Buckingham himmense power which the bad faith of America has self "a permanent home and resting-place after his given to aristocratical opinions, and to the enemies varied and active life in all quarters of the globe, of free institutions, in the old world. It is vain and an honorable occupation and pursuit, by which, any longer to appeal to history, and to point out the while laboring for the intellectual gratification of wrongs which the many have received from the few. others, he may be enabled to enjoy a moderate The Americans, who boast to have improved the competency himself.” A meeting was held at the institutions of the old world, have at least equalled Hanover-square Rooms to take the plan into conits crimes. A great nation, after trampling under sideration. The Earl of Devon presided, and foot all earthly tyranny, has been guilty of a fraud among the company were Lord Brougham, Earl as enormous as ever disgraced the worst king of the Grosvener, Lord James Stuart, Lord Dudley Stuart, most degraded nation of Europe.
Admiral Sir E. Codrington, Thomas Wyse, Esq., “ It is most painful to your petitioner to see that M.P., Charles Hindley, Esq., M.P., Wm. Ewart, American citizens excite, wherever they may go, Esq., M. P., and J. S. Buckingham, Esq. The the recollection that they belong to a dishonest Earl of Devon entered into a lengthened statement people, who pride themselves on having tricked of the objects sought to be attained by the proand pillaged Europe; and this mark is fixed by posed establishment. It was estimated that not their faithless legislators on some of the best and less than 200,000 strangers visited London every most honorable men in the world, whom every year, and it was thought desirable to present the Englishman has been eager to see, and proud to many well-educated and accomplished individuals receive.
who were included in that number with facilities “It is a subject of serious concern to your peti. of personal intercourse, under proper guards for tioner that you are losing all that power which the respectability, and at the same time at a moderate friends of freedom rejoiced that you possessed, expense. The existing clubs had not supplied that looking upon you as the ark of human happiness, desideratum, as the entrance fee to most of them and the most splendid picture of justice and of wis. was greater than any stranger could be expected to dom that the world had yet seen. Little did the pay for the temporary enjoyment only of these adfriends of America expect it, and sad is the specta- vantages, while the difficulties and delays in the ele to see you rejected by every State in Europe, as process of introduction were now greater than a nation with whom no contract can be made, be- visitors would be able or disposed to encounter. cause none will be kept; unstable in the very The expense was also more than occasional visitfoundations of social life, deficient in the elements ors would be inclined to incur. The plan of a of good faith, men who prefer any load of infamy, commodious edifice for the institute was prepared however great, to any pressure of taxation, however and highly approved of. The site would be in as light.
central a position at the west end as was practica“ Nor is it only this gigantic bankruptcy for so ble. It was proposed to have four classes of mem. many degrees of longitude and latitude which your bers at different rates of entrance fees and annual petitioner deplores, but he is alarmed also by that subscriptions. Twenty-five lectures, and twentytotal want of shame with which these things have five soirées, to which ladies would be admissible,
should be given each session, including fifty meet- sie, the dissatisfaction with Judaism, resulting from ings in each year, to all of wbich the members the conviction that it is in vain any longer to look should have free admission. Distinguished foreign for the advent of the Messiah, is seen developing travellers visiting London only for a short period itself in another manner; and the determination of would be invited to join the institution without the Jews to allow their children to be instructed in cost. Resolutions approving of the plans suggested Christianity reminds us of a precisely similar case were proposed, after the delivery of long speeches, mentioned by Mr. Grant, in his interesting work on by Lord Brougham, Lord D. Stuart, and a number the “ Nestorian Christians," respecting the Jews of of other gentlemen. In the course of Lord Dudley Ooroomiah, a large city on the western borders of Stuart's speech, while eulogizing Mr. Buckingham's Persia. experience as a traveller and an author, and sug- The Universal German Gazette states that a new gesting that that gentleman should be appointed Jewish sect has been formed at Leipsic, under the 6 resident director of the institute, an amusing auspices of a Dr. Creiznach, and makes the followlittle dialogue occurred, which is given verbatim : ing remarks on the event :-"Highly interesting is
A gentleman who was seated in the centre of it to inquire into the origin of this sect, which the room interrupted Lord Stuart, and asked in a clearly and openly abandons the doctrines of Judavery loud tone of voice whether Mr. Buckingham ism, without, however, adopting those of Chrishad not, in his book on Palestine, used Lord Valen- tianity. It will be seen that a long struggle precedtia's plates ?
ed this event, and that political causes had their Lord Brougham, who sat next the chairman, and share of influence. The new Jews, it is well known, Mr. Buckingham, simultaneously replied, "No." have already for a long time neither kept the preThe gentleman having still looked rather skeptic. scriptions of the Talmud, nor the laws of the Old ally, Lord Brougham, in a very angry and loud Testament. Not 500 out of the 6000 Jewish inhabitone, reiterated, “ No, I say no ; do you understand tants here live according to Jewish laws, and that that?- (Laughter.) You have got your answer. small number only because they are compelled to Mr. Buckingham says no, too-(Laughter.) What do so from personal, not conscientious motives. more do you want?-(Laughter.) No, no, no ; do They even pay men to attend the synagogue, so you understand that?"-(Laughter.)
that there, at least, a sufficient number is present The gentleman who had originally put the ques- for reading prayers. The best, therefore, the Jews tion said he understood sufficiently what "no" could do is to adopt Christianity in a body. But, meant, and asked his lordship whether he did ?- in doing so, they have to swear to forms of creed (Laughter and confusion.)
in which they have no faith. Let people say or Lord Brougham (passionately): Why, the man think what they please, but a man who speaks is mad-(Laughter). Do you hear, sir? You put candidly what he thinks, certainly deserves more a question, and we say “no;" that is your answer, esteem ihan he who simulates a creed in which he -no; can you understand that ? No! I say no. does not believe. From these motives they form
The former speaker: I am very glad to hear it. ed a separate sect, which obliges the members to
Lord Brougham (angrily): We don't care whe- have their children christened and educated in the ther you are or not-(Laughter).
doctrines of Christianity, without their parents beThe storm having then subsided,
coming Christians themselves. This idea we think The Chairman said he was authorized by Mr. is the best and most honest, but it nevertheless Buckingham most distinctly and emphatically to meets with opposition from persons where it was deny that he had ever used the plates alluded io. least to be expected. Late measures also, in re
The resolutions were then adopted, and a long gard to converted Jews, had great influence upon list of officers appointed. The institute” may this step. • Look,' they would say, the Chrisnow, therefore, be considered as established, as tians do not want us as converted Jews; they do Mr. Buckingham will be entrusted to carry the not call us Christians, but they continue to give plan into execution, and the committee will only the former appellation ; let us, therefore, much have to raise the necessary funds.-Britannia. rather remain Christian Jews, such as the gospels
are speaking of.' This is the base upon which the
sect is founded, and declarations are now arriving MOVEMENT AMONG THE JEWS IN GERMANY.- from all quarters in favor of it, as well as against it. No one accustomed to take any interest in the The Jews in Austria would adopt this new dochistory of the Jews can have failed to remark the trine en masse, but they are afraid that it would indications which have lately occurred that events make their political situation worse. De Creiznach is of great importance connected with the future des exactly the man to direct a matter of this kind. He tiny of this " peculiar” people are being rapidly has zeal and energy, and as to classical education evolved. Besides those who have openly avowed and learning he is probably the first among the their faith in the Messiahship of our Divine Re- German Jews. His literary acquirements are aldeemer, we have reason to believe that there are most as incredible as his extraordinary memory, great numbers who are only deterred from taking and with all this he is a thorough patriot, and such a step by the fear of the persecution and pov- highly esteemed everywhere. But whether this erty to which they would be exposed by so doing: sect will spread excessively is a great question.”There has been, however, an extensive movement Bell's Weekly Messenger. in the Jewish body, which has not subjected the actors in it to such pains and penalties, but which SILK PORTRAITS.-Portraits of the Duchess of may fairly be regarded as preparing the way for Kent and the Duke of Wellington, formed alone of more decided and gratifying measures. The event black and white silk, the shades of wbich are drawn to which we refer is the determination to which out so as to effect very exact likenesses, have remany of the Jews on the Continent, as well as in cently been presented to those illustrious personEngland, have come, to throw off the authority of ages by a committee of weavers, which was estabthe Talmud—the traditions of the elders-and to lished for promoting the improvement of British adhere solely to the writings of Moses and the pro- silks. The committee has also in progress a por. phets. In the extract which follows, and which is trait of the Queen Dowager, composed of similar taken from the Universal German Gazette of Leip | materials.-Court Journal.
MR. MORRIT.-We are sorry to have to announce
the death of Mr. J. B. 3. Murrit, of Rokeby-park, John MURRAY, Esq.-On Tuesday morning, a Yorkshire, who died on the 12th inst., after a linfew minutes past eight o'clock, this eminent pub- gering illness, in the 72nd year of his age. He was lisher and bookseller breathed his last ; having been one of the earliest and most extensive Greek train but indifferent health for several months, but vellers of the present generation, and after two only alarmingly ill from the Friday preceding: Mr. years spent in the interesting countries of the East, Murray would have been sixty-five if he had lived he returned with a mind replete with classical into November next. His situation in the literary formation, and a taste for every liberal art. world has long been most prominent; and there is during his residence abroad that Bryant promulgahardly one author of high reputation, either now ted his fanciful theories on the site of Troy. On living or dead within the last quarter of a century, his return, with Chevalier and others, he entered who has not enjoyed his intimacy and regard. keenly into the Trojan controversy, and became With the majority his social intercourse was most one of the most successful supporters of Homer, and gratifying, and his liberality towards their public able vindicators of his location of the Troad. His undertakings such as merited their esteem and grati. two dissertations are familiar to ever classical scho. tude. It is too early a day to dilate upon even his lar, and went as far towards the settlement of that good qualities. That he was warm-hearted and "rerata quæstio" as any of the productions of the generous will be allowed by all who ever knew period. — Times. him; whilst those who had the pleasure of a more genial acquaintance with him, will long remember his lively conversation, and the ready humor which often set the table in a roar. He was, indeed, on such occasions, a very agreeable companion, and his ready wit was only an indication of the acute
SCIENCE AND ARTS. ness and judgment which he carried into bis professional concerns. His clear mind in this respect
AN EXPEDITION TO THE Caucasus is about to led him to enterprises of great pith and moment; be undertaken, at the expense of the King of Prusand we owe to it some of the most celebrated works sia, by Prof. Koch, the Asiatic traveller, and Dr. in our language. He originally began business Rose. Their instructions are to commence their about forty years ago in Fleet-street, nearly oppo- researches at Trebisond, to trace to their sources site old St. Dunstan's giant-guarded clock, and then in the high lands of Erzerum,
the Western Eusucceeded Mr. Miller in Albemarle-street. Among phrates, the Araxes, and the Tschorock. From his earliest literary connexions were D'Israeli and thence they are to proceed to the second high lands W. Gifford; and in later years, Scott, Southey, of Armenia, and so on to the ruins of Ani. They Moore, Byron, Barrow, Lockhart, nearly all our il- are also to visit and examine the range of mounlustrious travellers, and authors in every branch oftains which connects in one unbroken line the publication. He was a true friend to the arts, ranges of the Caucasus and the Armenian Taurus. which he largely employed; and, in short, we may They are directed to investigate the question, as to sum up this brief notice by saying, that in all the whether there ever was a wall extending over the relations of society, few men will make a greater whole of the Caucasus, similar to the great wall of blank, or be more truly regretted, than John Mur. China. Prof. Koch will then proceed to the Tarray. Mr. M. has left a widow, we are sorry to hear, tarian Circassia, and the sources of the Kuban : he in very indifferent health, daughters, and a son and will also make an attempt to ascend the Elbrus, and successor, who, we hope, will emulate the friendly examine the numerous monuments in the valleys and liberal traits of bis father's character.-Literary of the Karatschai — Athenæum. Gazette.
Dogs.-Two years ago, we noticed the experiDR. HAHNEMANN, the founder of homeopathy, ments of M. Leonard, in which that gentleman exdied at Paris on Sunday, 20 July, aged eighty- hibited two dogs under a degree of command which eight. The Commerce sketches his life
implied a higher development of faculties than had “Dr. Hahnemann was born in 1755, at Meissen, of hitherto been witnessed. M. Leonard is here again, poor parents; and owed his education to the great having in the interim, he informs us, tested his aptitude for learning he gave evidence of at the lit- theories and the skill of his methods, by applying tle school where he was first placed. He was re- them to the education (if it may be so styled) of ceived doctor in physic at Heidelberg in 1781, and horses; and he is now anxious to go, step by step, discovered in 1790 the new system which he after through his process of training, in the presence of wards designated homeopathy. He continued un- those whom it may interest, with the view of protil 1820 his experiments and researches on his new mulgating principles which he believes capable of system, and then published the results of his labors general application. We must add, that M. Leonunder the title of Matiére Medicale Pure. In 1829 ard appears anxious not to be confounded with he published his Theory of Chronic Diseases, and those who exhibit tricks for pecuniary profit; his their Remedies ; of which he gave a second edition desire apparently being, to bring what he conceives in 1840. To those works must be added his Orga. an important discovery before some of the scientific non de l'Art de Guerir, which ran through five bodies, for philanthropic purposes.--- Ibid. editions. He also published nearly 200 Dissertations on different medical subjects; and he did all “ A statement of Experiments showing that Car. this whilst occupied with patients, which took up bon and Nitrogen are compound bodies, and are from ten to twelve hours a day. He had the satis- made by Plants during their growth.” By R. Rigg, faction of seeing his system, after half a century's Esq.—The author, finding that sprigs of succulent existence, spread over every part of the globe; and plants, such as mint, placed in a bottle containing just before his death he learned that homeopathy perfectly pure water, and having no communication was about to have a chair at the University of vi- with the atmosphere except through the medium of enna, and hospitals in all the Austrian States, at water, or mercury and water, in a few weeks grow Berlin, and at London."-Spectator.
to more than double their size, with a proportionate
increase of weight of all the chemical elements had no effect in diminishing the motion of the which enter into their composition, is thence dis- waves, for they were many times abundantly sprin. posed to infer that all plants make carbon and kled with the spray: It is unnecessary to add, that nitrogen ; and that the quantity made by any plant those who remained on land had remarked nothing varies with the circumstances in which it is placed. at all which could be attributed to the effusion of
the oil. After all that has been said and written
on this subject, the Commissioners are astonished ELECTROTYPE.—At the last meeting of the Hor at the negative result of their experiments, and, lim, ticultural Society. some beautiful specimens of the iting themselves to the account of them, they add application of the Electrotype process to vegetation no observations. They believe themselves, howwere exhibited by Messrs. Elkington, of Regent ever, authorized to assert, as their personal opinion,
Upon the surface of leaves a deposit of that the idea of protecting our piers by means of copper was thrown down, so as to form a perfect oil, is not a happy one.-Athenæum. representation in metal of the surface of the foliage. Since that time we have been favored by Messrs. Elkington with a sight of other leaves coated with gold and silver as well as copper. Among these were a Pelargonium-leaf, having all its glandular hairs preserved with admirable precision ; an ear of Wheat; a leaf of Fennel; a Fern, with its fructification; a shoot of the Furze-bush, and an insect,
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. (a Carabus) with every part of it encrusted with the metalic deposit. In our opinion this opens quite
Great Britain. a new view and most interesting field to the application of the Electrotype process.- Gardeners' 1.- The Rambles of the Emperor Ching Tih, in Chronicle.
Keang-nan. A Chinese Tale. Translated by
TKIN SHEN, Student of the Anglo-Chinese Col. THE POWER OF OIL TO ALLAY THE VIOLENCE OF
lege, Malacca. With a Preface by James Legge, Waves.—The existence of this property in oil bas
D. D., President of the College. Two vols. Lon
don, 1843. Longman. been so often asserted, that a commission was lately appointed by the Royal Institute of the Pays Bas to This Chinese tale, or historical novel, has been make experiments on the subject :-“The Com- translated into English by a native of China, a stumission assembled at Zandvoort, on the shore of dent at the Anglo-Chinese College, Malacca, the the North Sea. Some of them proceeded a short translation being revised by Dr. Legge, the Princidistance from the shore, in order to pour the oil pal, who vouches for its fidelity. It is founded upon upon the water, and observe the results; the others the predominance of eunuchs at the court of the remaining on land, and not knowing either at what emperor, a circumstance which has not infrequently moment or how many times the oil was poured out, disturbed the tranquillity of the empire, and placed were to keep their eyes fixed on the waves, which the monarch in jeopardy. rolled from the boat towards the shore; by these Ching Tih, the hero of the tale, ascended the means, their opinion, exempt from all influence, throne at the age of fifteen, on the death of his might be considered as su much the more impartial! father, Hung Che, of the Ming dynasty. The The wind was south-west, and of moderate force ; young prince, being “ of an open and free disposithe quantity of oil poured out at four different times, tion, self-conceited, and indolent," fell an easy namely, at 43, 45, 50, and 54 minutes past nine prey to the seductions of the eunuch Lew Kin, “aa o'clock, amounted to 15 litres, (upwards of 3 impe- intriguing, deceitful, crafty villain, skilful in devisrial gallons ;) the tide was flowing, and would not ing schemes of amusement and detecting the charreach its full height till 21 inutes past eleven acters of men.”
With the co
eration of his fel. o'clock. The Commissioners who remained on the low-eunuchs and creatures, he corrupts the young shore not having remarked any effect which could prince by " the exhibition of skilfully-trained ani. be ascribed to the effusion of the oil, and the same mals, mirth, dancing, music, wine, and women." thing being the case with those engaged in pouring The nobles remonstrate, but Lew Kin and the euit, we might already consider the question, if oil nuchs counteract the effect of the expostulation by poured at a little distance from our piers could pro- their artifices, aided by the emperor's love of pleatect them from the fury of the waves, as answered sure; the nobles consequently abandon the court, in the negative. Nevertheless, the Commissioners leaving the offices to be filled with Lew Kin's parthought it incumbent upon them to make a second tizans, the prince being “ absorbed in fun and feasttrial at a somewhat greater distance from the shore. ing." Famine ravages the empire; rebellion breaks Two of them were rowed beyond the rocks, and out, encouraged by misgovernment, and a large porthen cast anchor. The distance was calculated by tion of the work is devoted to the description of the boatmen at 300 yards; the sounding line indi- military operations and incidents. The emperor cated a depth of about three yards; and the waves still protects the eunuch, who contrives to secure were rolling considerably. More than the half of the help of a supernatural " dragon horse," sent by 15 litres of oil was poured out in the space of five the king of Ton Kin, as a present At length, minutes, (from 15 to 10 minutes before 12 o'clock,) however, Lew Kin is seized by the exasperated and the Commissioners did not observe the slight- nobles, threatened with torture, confesses his guilt, est effect in relation to the object of their mission. and, being banished with his partizans, turns rob. They saw the oil swimming on the surface of the ber. The empire being restored to tranquillity, water, partly united in spots of an irregular form, Ching Tih resolves to travel to Keang-nan in search partly extended and forming a pellicle, and partly, of " loyal officers to benefit his kingdom.” In the mingling with the foam of the waves, and sharing disguise of a scholar, and under the name of Hwang in their oscillatory movements When returning Lun, he commences his "rambles," the adventures to the shore, at the moment of passing the rocks, in which occupy the whole of the second volume of the Commissioners caused the rest of the oil to be the work. In the course of them he is placed in poured on the water, and they can testify that it peril, being beleaguered by a rebel army sent by