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all our funds, and necessitating future ad- ance in the eye of all foreign powers. ministrations to burthen the kingdom with It was therefore absolutely neceilary to taxes upon taxes, had not his Majesty's lay it down as a rule, that no enterprise wisdom, and that of abler countellors, was to be listened to, which required more happily intervened.

taxings. By their prudence, peace is restored to But, nevertheless, no necessary precau: Europe, upon terms of the highest com tion has been omitted: The army has mercial advantage to this kingdom. In been kept on a respectable footing; dis. America our territories are extended, and positions have been formed for reducing our boundaries well settled. In the West our new acquisitions into the form of AIndies, our sugar-trade is effectually pro- merican British provinces; propufals for vided for by the retention of the Gre- improving them encouraged : a proper atnades, and all the neutral ilands, except tention has been paid to our fleet ; the St Lucia. More territory, perhaps, might building of ships of war has proceeded; have been attained; but more never could and nothing has been neglected, that have been gotten that could have been of could contribute to the security and ag. any use.

grandization of Biitain. The Spaniard has renounced, for ever, There are, however, a set of difcon. his pretensions to the cod-fillery. The tented spirits, who make it their busifortress of St Augustin, together with ness to disturb an administration which Florida, and all those parts of Louisiana acts in this prudent and regular manner. that lie on this side the Millisippi, is ours: That factious tribe dare even to arraign we cannot be tormented with French and proceedings of the crown that are groundSpanish intrigues in those places. Nor can ed on unquestioned prerogatives. The our East-India company (if we turn our eyes power of ihe sword, and, with it, the to that quarter) now be perplexed with government of the army, has been, a. French pretensions within the limits of their gain and again, recogniled by the parcharter. The guins, ivory, negroes, and liament to reside in the crown. Yet the gold of Africa, invite our great inerchants displacing of Gen. Conway was made a to continue, improve, and extend several great subject of complaint [.01.]; al. fpecies of commerce, equally beneficial to though, indubitablv, the King was as this nation, and to our boundless colo. well intitled to dismiss Mr Conway from nies. What more could a commercial the army, as Mr Conway was to vote as nation require? The ministry, indeed, he pleased in the house. who effected these stipulations, were un These trifling incidents, however, did der an indispensable neceslity to impose not prevent the ministry froin proceeding some new burden on the public; and they in the great works of peace ; curtailing fupposed that no new imposition would all fuperfluous expences in the treafury be less felt, than that which would im- post-office, and departments of the excise mediately affect five or six counties only; and customs, 6c.; 'dilcharging our foreign and therefore the drinkers of cyder were armies and German subsidies; relinquisi. placed on a footing with the drinkers of ing secret-service money, and votes of beer.

credit; arid, in few words, putting in It were needless to more than barely practice every method that the molt in. mention the succeeding incidents, pre- tense application could devise, to lelien vious to the prelent administration taking our annual expence, and put the nation the rule. The Earl of Bute, soon after in some tolerable way to perform the pre the peace, and the cyder-tax, withdrew blic business, without either annually to enjoy a private station.

contracting more debt, or further burThe affair of Mr Wilkes was soon af- dening, with taxes, an exhausted people. ter determined as his cause deserved ; and This management succeeded so well, the members of the minority, in the case that the national affairs proceeded withof seizing persons by general warrants, out a new lottery, or a new tax; by a have already [303.] been sufficiently re- steady attention to every natural resource, futed.

the ministry shunned this rock, upen But to proceed: The present ministry, which their enemies falsely supposed they upon a review of all circumstances, saw, would have split; and the public pa. that without some extraordinary care of pers appeared the several articles of our fir.ances, our national credit must ab- which the supplies consisted, together with folutely perill, and with it our import• a fair account of the ways and means by

which they were raised. This candid con- to the extent of 391,000 l. It is true, duct, however, could not pass without cen. 1,400,000 lb. of tea, paying the mere fure; and out comes the Budget, charging price of duty, could not amount to that the administration with fraudulent inten- sum; but so much tea seized, and sold at tions to impose on the public, by false pre- only 8 s. a pound, must produce to the tences of having paid off 2,771,8671. 135. government (for the seizor pays out of 6 d. when, in fact, no such thing was his moiety all the charges of sale, &c.) really done; but, on the contrary, a de- the full sum of 280,000 l. being the clear ceptious scheme formed to intangle some half of the produce, and the concomitant friure administration, by throwing upon forfeitures will give the residue. What them the burden of providing for the pay, a tyro then in these matters is Mr Butment of debts, which this had untruly get, to reckon the produce of 1,400,000 lb. pretended to have discharged. Than of seized tea, at no more worth to the which no accusations can be more false. government than the mere duty of so much They fairly set forth the fact : The au- tea duly entered ! O te, Belaue, cerebri thor of the Budget did not, by any secret felicem ! intelligence, find out, that the exche. Let us now proceed to inquire if there quer-bills already taken by the bank, to is, as the Budget aflerts, any impropriety be circulated upon their credit, to the a- in supposing that the growing produce of mount of 1,000,000 l. was one day to be the linking fund will this year amount to brought to the nation's account ; or that 2,000,000 I. ; because, if this supposition the new exchequer-bills, issued instead of is justifiable, the ministry cannot find the old, amounting to 800,000 l. were to themselves 'mistaken (as he declares they be provided for next year. This was ap- wil be) in their accounts at the end of parent upon the face of the advertile- the year; and, of consequence, all will ment. It was not to be supposed that then be performed in favour of the pue the ministry could, by their breath, ane blic, which the advertisement gives us Ditilate this 1,8co,coola; but they dif- ground to expect. To come at a certainpoled of it in such a manner that it became ty in this point, we need only consider, no more a stumbling-block in the way of that the revenues of excise and customs, the public measures; and so disposed of and every other revenue from whence the it too as not to be under the necellity of sinking fund issues, will recessarily increase creating, to answer this purpose, 'any by reason of the prodigious extent of comborrowing job, tay, or lottery, to en- merce, consequent of peace. That this courage in the nation the mischievous hu- has been the cale last year, and therefore mour of gaming. This year's accounts that it will be so this year, is absolutely were fully discharged of that sums and certain; since nothing can be more clear therefore, with respect to them, it was than this conclusion, That the same cause entirely paid.

remaining, and rising in activity, must There was as little room to suppose necesarily produce a similar effect this too, that the ministry aimed at arroga- year, to what it so agreeably occasioned ting to themselves any undue praise, with in the last. respect to the casual increase of any of Could we, indeed, suppose, that to the revenues from whence the sinking please the club in Aibemarle street, our fund arises. But I hope it might, nor- merchants, ship-builders, carpenters, and withstanding, be lawful for them to give various artisans, would suspend their rethe nation the plealure of knowing this spective employments for the year to increase; and, at the same time, set forth come, we might then indeed believe, that the means which they had used to contri. the duties and imposts of excise and cubute towards it, by the fitting up, and stoms, and other ordinary branches of putting into employment the imuggling: the revenue, would be less this year than cutters. Every man fees that the customs the year before. But till such a foolish on tea must be raised by this falutary fancy can enter our brains, the author of scheme, as well as the duties on wine and the Budget must forgive us for supposing, {pirits, and many other foreign commo- in compliment to our senses, that the pu. dities.

blic income will be much greater this year But, insists the Budget, it doth not still than the last; and, of consequence, that appear, that the seizure of 1,400,000 lb. the ministry will, at the end of this year, weight of tea, or bringing that quantity find cash in hand, over and above the supo to pay duty, can increale the linking fund plies, which might alleviate our burdens Vos. XXVI.

ths

3 K

War

the next;- provided, indeed, annual fa. to answer for it, who anticipated all cur ving, were not obliged to be employed funds, and threw us into ten millions of up in dilcharging the enormous debt la unfunded debt, by the inolt enormous villily contracted by Mr Pitt in the late prodigality that Europe ever witneted!

Without new taxes we cannot have a pare This author arraigns the miniary for ticular fund reserved for the navy-debt; some other causes; the chief of which are, and the nation has been so bled by fora 1. That they pretend to le:y the fupliez mer adminiftrations, that they can no without a tax ; when, in fact, their weak longer bear such increasing burdens. conduct has lid a heavy tax upon the mo I come now to consider the primary view neyed interest of 15 per cent. ; the stocks of this anthor; which inanifeflly was, to having fallen so much by their meaus. incenie the landed interest against the 2. That they falsely pretend, that the ministry, on account of their continuing peace-establishmerit of the army is now the land-tax at 4 s, in the pound, when less than it was after the former peace ; it had been the rule in former adminiitra. and, by keeping up an over-p'oportion of tions, in the most early dawn of peace, officers, manfert their fufpicions of the sta to reduce it to tvo, bility of it. 3. That they untruly alert, Secious, however,

as this argument that 2,771,860 1. of the debt contraced may be, the judicious part of the lands in the late wa., is paid or provided for; holders, will not conceive the worse opi. when, in fact, no such fum, over and a. nion of the ministry for this necesary bove the ordinary expences of thie year, and equitable mea!ure of government, is either paid or provided for. And, 4. They will consider, that the landholders That the navy-debt, formerly provided have, for many years part, paid inuch leis out of a particular fund, is, by the late than they ought to have done, provieied ministry (Lord Bute's) thrown upon the the amount of their rent-rolls had been fisking fund, and by this administration truly stated in the freeholders book. Some kept there. Of each of these charges I few, indeed, may pay rather inore, from Mallteit in course,

the vanity and over-abundant loyalty of As to the fiil, If the falling of the their predecessors, who gave in, at the Aneks is to be confidered as a tax, it is time of the revolution, the annual return a tax laid on by the Albemarle club and of their estates larger than it truly was. their agents, who, like this writer, exert But others, and these perhaps the major aheir ut nost to impreis the people with part of this nation), lels fired by vanity, wrong ideas of those national mcatures and leis animated by loyalty, gave ini, 0.1 that ought to meet with the most univer- the contrary, an exceeding low account fal approbation.

of their inberitance ; ivlomuch that it is As to the second allegation, I reply, now a well-known fact, that many en That the army at the last peace was lar• states, I had almost faid inany counties, ger than at present; thai security has do pot pay, when the land-tax lands at ruined many a nation, but a superfluous 49. in the pound, above 9 d, or i s. cautiounei, none. Prudence commands For this reason, equity dictated that 11s to keep ourselves for ever on our guard. this inequality fjould, in foine measure, Whatever promising appearances are at: be rectified, before any neid tax tras lai! tendanton our present situation, we ought on to burthen their fellow-jubje as. But not to unco:er our breasts to those that the miniflry, out of tenderness to the have been our fües; and, if proper means Jardioiders, did not ca rigidly to ino!! were not taken to provide againsi an un upon this point, till it appeared that the looked-for rupture, the Albonarle-street kingdom, in general, could not be others club would be among the firit to coin wifé relieved, 'But now that the adminiplain.

Siraijun are obligesi, in their own justifica. As to the third, It is manifeft

, that the tion, to lay the sale of the landed interwhole sum was incurred during the war, elt, in this respect, before the whole so cannot be considered as a part of our community, the Budger, not the water, ordinary expences of this or any other is answerable, for any disagreeable conie. yeur: lince we are subjected to them by quences ihat may calue from the people's past operations of an extraordinarily ez: being fully apprised of this important penave war, entailed upon the nation truti! the nation shall now infiit on a by the pairons of the Budget

thorough reform in this almof upiterally As so the fourth charge, - Tley ough interciting case, and require a new and

Ferfect

perfe& account of the real rents of the e., table property of this affront, has at the States of all over the kingdon, the club in same time fome degree of right to hold in Albemarle street, that let the Budget to itself, and to apply with its own discrework, must answer it to those who may tion to the security of a legal privilege, futfer by this delicate inquiry! Then it such forfeiture awarded, as it must have will appear whose friend hip was greatest been by its own sentence?- No,- it is to the landholders. Then it will be seen, velted in the right of prerogative. His whether the minister, whole tenderness present Majesty (happily for us, and for induced him to wink at this inadequate Bolingbroke's induction from such premi; tax, or the patrons of the Budget, who fes, which lie applies with a great deal compelled him to his vindication, are most of good humour to every crowned head to be blamed for the conlequences that indiscriminately, not to the person only, may fall, from thence, on the landed but to the name (xi. 326.]; happily, I gentlemen in general.

say, for his arguinent, and our security)

is a Patvjot King, not blindly attached SIR, London, Arg. 18. 176.4. to the interested views of a designing faAs God governs the world by the settled vourite, but jealous of every ministerial laws of nature, which he hath made, and incroachment upon the stability of the panever transcends those laws but upon high, blic weal, in which, and only which, his important occafions; fo, among earthly own contitutional rights, his own preroprinces, those are the witest and the best, gative, his own credit, his own Surety, who govern by the known laws of their country, and feldomeft make use of their pre are, and must be understood. But let us rogative.

Bacon.

quit the truth for one, and, by way of Liberty is the English subject's prerogative.

argumentative position, let us suppose a Dryden.

Stuart fitting upon the throne. Shall lucht

a king then be impowered, by fecret colNothing can give a man of unprejudi. lufion between the offender and himself, ced observation so much reason to be

to deliver l'ack the good to forfeited in disfatisfied with the constitution of this purluance of a legal sentence, but depo, country, as that wanton and capricious Gted as they are, in his own coffers, and interposition of prerogative on the part in consequence ready at liis hand, to the of the crown; which it must be confefl. fubject of such distress the defendant ed) is in fome cases surficiently counter- bin self? Shall such a king reserve acted by the privilege of parliainent, and io his own person, in right of prerogative, Liberty of the subject; but which, at the a riolit to annul the purposes at which same time, in other cases, and those too in this case the law is pointed ? I mean of the lait mo nent to the individual, we

a nec llity of the culprit's appearance ill admit with implicit considence, without order to a trial : Shall this eflential prilimitation, and without appeal. Can

vilege of legal process be refused the luch aamition be countenanced by a con- plaintiff in ihe most momentous part of ftitution where the rights of the crown right and justice? Shall this refulal meet and thole of the people are so equa!ly ad with countenance from prerogative? Is julted; a d where the extensions of power such prerogative inherent in the person of attempted on either side, are so iure to kings by right divine, (let me lift this be reduced by the jealoulies of the other? cafuiftry to the bottom), or is it a grant I answer with diffidence, and diítinction : from the people? Are the rights which Such admillion is not countenanced by

such a grant has vested in the King's perthe spirit of our constitution, but, prima Son, to let the claims of injured justice facie, is in great measure connived at by

at defiance, or rather to corroborate, by the letter. For instance: 31v Lord H

the lanétion of their name, the privileges has been summoned; has refused to ap. of the futject, as well as those of the his goods have been distrained, and

Kirg? A power of distress has been forfeited to a considerable amount. Thus claimed, and execution of such distress has far the law; thus far the wiléit and best been awarded by courts of justice, time judge that ever sat upon tie bench, my

out of mind: such a power was of the Lord Chief Justicę Pratt. But, alas! wisert, as well as the earliest institution. mark the consequence. The forfeiture What cale does it reach fo properly as above mentioned is deposited – Where? -is it vested in that court of justice,

that of tuits preferred against me.bers of

parliament, which can liever admit the which, as it holds in itself the indifpu- personal arrest of the defendant? Nil fuit

3 K2

Linguana

pear;

unquam fic impar sibi. How contemptu. with a regulator, fixed in the fame house, ovly was privilege treated in Wilkes's which, for thirty years together, had selcate! how is it coaxed and stroaked and dom been known to vary from the rate of clapped upon the back in the case of my mean solar tiine more than about one seLaird H! But I ask that Noble Lord's cond in a month; and that the going of pardon for having allerted that he has the said regulator itself should likewise be refuted io appear; I have just heard that afcertained by means of an accurate inhe has' engaged to appear.- What time strument, also in the house, for observing has le fixed upon for his appearance ? the sun's transit over the meridian, as of Why, just the time when parliament will ten as the weather would permit. be fitting, an no writ of fummons can The time-keeper was thus compared hold against his plea of privilege.-- Is with the regulator for eight fucceffive such an engagement as this, which laughs days, and immediately after each compaat itself, to suspend the execution of dirison, was wound up, and then sealed up fhref;? Is law' to be lifted with and in a box, with as many of the company's judgment reduced to the necesity of act. seals as they chose to atfix ; the regulator ing at a distant period of time, and at a being also fealed up in like manner. time too in which all its efforts to secure The refult of all thefe comparisons was, appearance, thould he at fuch time re. that the time-piece gained upon the regu. cede from his verbal, or even written en lator, for the most part, about one fecond gagen'ent, must be null and void?

a-day, sometimes a small matter more ; O

my poor country, fick with foreign blows, it having, upon the last comparison, beca How wilt thou speed when riot is thy care found to bave gained 9 seconds and 6 (Lond. Chron.]

BRUTUS. tenths of a second in the whole eight days.

After these trials Mr Harrison took his Some account of the going of Mr Harrison's time-keeper alunder, in order to perfect longitude tinic-keeper. *

farther that part of it which was concern, Some imperfect accounts having already ed in counter-balancing and regulating

appeared in the news.papers of the those small inequalities which may arile result of the trials of Mr Harrison's lon- from the various temperature of the air, gitude time-keeper, in a late voyage to in respect of heat and coid: but he had Barbadoes, and it being probable that not time to execute his purpose before 2 others may follow, it has been thought nip was appointed to take the machine proper, by way of satisfying, in some on board, and proceed for the inind of measure, the importunity of his friends, Barbadoes, upon the ultimate trial for the till a board of longitude thall be held, longitude. and the matter decided upon by the Hon. i William Harrison, the fon, being Commissioners, to give the following au- ordered, along with the time-keeper, on thentic and plain narrative of some expe• board the Tartar man of war, then lying rinents, which, though they will not any in Long-reach, and commanded by siis of them fall uncer the notice of the Com- John Lindlay, did, at the request of Me missioners, as they were not injoined to James Short, F. R. S. on the 13th of be made by them, may yet serve as col- February, come to the faid Mr Short's lateral proofs of the going of the time. house in Surry street, in the Strand, and piece, and how far it is likely to succeed there compared the time-keeper with Mr in the solution of the grand problem of Short's regulator, made by the late Me the longitude.

Graham, which was that day adjusted to In December 1763, Mr John Harrison, the mean folar time, by a nice tranfit-in by a written cireular invitation, prevail- strument; when the time-piece was found ed on twelve noblemen and gentlemen, two feconds and a half flower * than the of unquestionable abilities and integrity, mean time. Immediately after Mr Hare to irétt daily at his house in Red-lion rison set off in a boat from Surry fairs, · square, to examine and witness to the go with the time-piece, for Long-reach. ing of his time-keeper, (foon to be fent to The Mhip, according to order, proceedAmerica on trial for the longitude), in such manner as they should deem most narrative. It is asked, what is here meant

• Some remarks have been made on this fatisfa&tory among ihemselves. Accordingly they agreed to compare it every day later than this regulator when first comparedi

by power? was it two seconds and a half (See the places referred to under the or did it vary fo much from it in any deter word Longitude in our lodexes.}

minate time?

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