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those of the north, had no idea of a sole, habitants of the Rhine, the Elbe, and Vifupreme being. Such an idea requires an stula, plunged their new-born infants in enlightened understanding, and theirs to those rivers, even in the depth of winwas still dark, and their reafon unculti. ter, the German women reared more chilvated. Simple nature, indeed, might ex. dren than they do at present; especially cite in the mind of a lavage, who should if we reflect, that these countries were hear the thunder burst over his head, and then covered with valt forests, which rensee the devastations of sudden floods, a dered the climate more unwholsome and confused idea of the existence of some fevere than it is in our times. There are powerful and terrific being : but this many nations in America, who are necefwould be only a weak glimmering of the farily in want of wholesome fubfiitence knowledge of one supreme God, the crea. They can neither furnish their childrer tor of all things. Such a rational know. with good milk, nor give them, as they ledge was not to be found in any part of A. grow up, sufficient or nourishing aliment merica."

There are many species of carnivorous aniOur ingenious historian goes on to in- mals that are thus reduced, for want oi force the fimilitude between people of the nutriment, to a very small number; and fame climates and ages; oblerving, that the wonder had been, not to have found with regard to their having been Anthro- America thinly peopled, but to have foun, pophagi, or eaters of human flesh, the the human species there more numerou fact is too well ascertained to be called in than that of monkeys." question. And indeed, says he, however It hath been a famous dispute, and haul shocking such a horrid practice appears to employed some of the ableit pens to de us, it is much less cruel than nurder. True cide, whether the ancient or moderi barbarity consists in putting men to death, times have been most populous. Mr do and not in depriving the ravens or the Voltaire embraces the latter opinion. “I worms of their prey. “ Another import- is easy," says he, “to see, from the pic ant observation," says Mr de Voltaire, ture I have drawn of the state of Europi " is, that the middle parts of America from the time of Charlemagne to the pre were found pretty populous, and the ex. fent, that this part of the world is nos tremities, towards the poles, very thinly incomparably more populous, more civi inhabited ; the new world in general not lized, more wealthy, and more enlighten containing its due proportion of inliabi- ed, than it was then; nay, that it was in tants. Physical realons might doubtless these respects much superior even to that o lie alligned for all this. In the firit place, the Roman empire, if we except Italy. Tv the excellive cold, which is as severe in pretend that Europe hath been depopula America, on the same parallel of latitude ted since the time of the ancient Romans with Paris and Vienna, as it is on our con is to adopt a notion worthy only of the tinent at the polar circle. In the next frivolous and paradoxical pleasantries o place, the rivers of America are, for the the Persian Letters. Let us take a survey most part, ten times larger than ours. of the vast tract of land extending from Hence the frequent inundations to which Petersburg to Madrid. What a number those extensive countries are subject, would of superb and populous cities have beer naturaliy cause fterility, and of course a built, within these six bundred years, ir mortality among the inhabitants. Again, places which were then uninhabitable de the mountains are much higher and less Terts! Let us pay fome attention to the habitable : the violent and lasting poisons present state of those immense forests which which abound in America, render every ihen extended from the banks of the D2wound given by a weapon dipt in them, nube to the Baltic sea, and even into the infallibly mortal. And, lastly, the supi: heart of France. It is evident, that where dity of the human species throughout one a great deal of land is cleared, there must half of that hemisphere must have had a be a great many men. Agriculture and great influence on its depopulation. It is commerce, whatever may be pretended, well known in general, that the human is now held in much higher esteem than understanding was not arrived at that de- formerly. One of the causes that have gree of perfection in the new world as in contributed to the population of Europe ihe old Man, it is true, is Nill, in both, in general, is, that in the numerous wars a verv feelle animal; in his infancy he in which its leveral provinces have been would serish, if he was not taken care of: engaged, the conquered pevple have not poris it to be believed, that when the in- been transported from their own country,


Carlemagne, indeed, depopulated the with any quotation from this part of the banks of the Weser; but this was but a work ; in which, however, we must do imalltract, which time very calily restored. him the justice to say, he hath (poken of The Turks have transported many fami. the courage and conduct of the English nales from Hungary and Dalmatia; for tion, in a manner which does him honour which reason those countries are not suf as a Frenchman : though we cannot help ficiently peopled; while Poland is in want thinking we discover in him a kind of reof inhabitants, only because the Poles are luctance to bestow on our brave and spi. ftill slaves. In what a flourishing state rited commanders all that praise which is would not Europe have been at present, justly due to their merit. ' A writer who bad it not been for those perpetual wars, affeóts to be a philosopher, a citizen of into which the insignificant interests or the world, and could be so lavish of his ridiculous caprices of princes have invol- eulogiums on the French officers that fell ved it! To wliat a degree of perfection in a former war, would have acted but neizbut not the arts of civil life have been consistently to have bestowed some of his brought, to the great emolument and com- rhetorical Aourishes on those gallant Engfoart of mankind, if such an astonishing lishmen, who survived the last; unless, nezaber of useless individuals, of both fex. indeed, he hath thought proper to transes, had not been buried alive in convents pose the old adage, Nil nisi bonum de mortuis, and monasteries! Again, that new spe- into Nil bonun nisi de mortuis. But perhaps cies of humanity, which hath been intro- he is not quite so much a citizen of the world daced in modern times, even among the as he pretends. Certain it is, that his borrors of war, hath contributed greatly endeavours to account for the success of to save mankind from that destruction which the British arms from physical and moral lezned continually to threaten them. The causes, when he might, as an historian at maintenance of such a number of troops least, with great propriety, have attribuu are kept up in the service of modern ted it to the personal bravery of our princes, is doubtless a deplorable evil; troops, carries with it an invidious apImt it is an evil, as was before observed, pearance; and whatever proof it may be of productive of some good. For hence it is, his philosophy, is a bad one of his philanthat the people in general take no persoá thropy, unless it be of that partial kind nal concern in the quarrels of their go- which is confined to his own countrymen. vernors; the inhabitants of a town belie At the close of this supplement, our cefed pafling frequently from their subjection lebrated author makes an apology, or rato one prince to that of another, without ther enters into a defence, of his method its cofting the life of a single citizen: they of writing history. “It belongs," says are only the prize of him who hath most he, “ to the several historians of particular Poney, men, or artillery. Germany, nations, to give a minute account of all the England, and France, have been long evils each hath suffered, by their quarrels and frequently depopulated by civil wars; with others, or their own ill-advised meabut these loffes have been foon repaired; sures and insufficient resources. I have whilft the present flourishing state of these considered only the manners and spirit of Cuentries fufficiently proves, that the in- nations in general, during these various cuitry of mankind is superior to their fe- revolutions of human affairs; in which it sucity. This is not the case, indeed, with may be observed, that amidst the cruelPerfis, which hath been, for these forty ties inseparable from the profesion of arms, years, a prey to devastation; but if it an increasing spirit of humanity and pobould once enjoy the blelings of peace, liteness bath frequently exerted itself to under a prudent monarch, it would reco• dispel the horrors and abate the calamiter itself in much less time than it hath ties of war. The French who were tabeen reduced. When a nation is once ken prisoners by the Prullians, experienced postfied of the arts, and the people are the most humane treatment from his Prulneither inslaved at home, nor transported lan Majesty, and Pr. Henry his brother: wbroad, it easily emerges from its 'ruins, the two Princes of Brunswick were not ald recovers its former vigour."

less celebrated for their generosity, than Among other additions to his Universal their victories. The princes, generals, Hiitory, Mr de Voltaire hath given a and officers of France, gave equal proofs

Itt relation of the principal tranfa&tions of that polite and noble Ipirit which hath si che last war; but as thuse events are so long distinguished their character : at the **ing we shall not trouble our readers same time the English raised public sub


fcriptions for the fub'riftence and relief of Among other fa&ts related in this l'air the French failors they had taken prison, verlal History, which have been occahon, ers. This generosity can be attributed ally called in question, Mr de Voltaire to po other principle than that humane mentions the well-known story of the mat fpirit of philofophy which begins to spread with the iron mak; which he here corro. its influence over the world, and which, borates by the testimony of the lad of the in all probability, will put an end to re- castle wherein that extraordinary personligious wars at least, if it cannot altoge- age was confined. We cannot, howe ther prevent those of mistaken and fatal ver, dwell any longer on the particular politics. It is this philosophical spirit of this publication. M. which bath of late years so inuch increafed the number of academies in Europe, Ridley's life of Bp Ridley, continued. [35] and hath expanded the human mind, by Mr Ridley discharged himself of his extending our knowledge. Hence it is, proctor's office about O&ober 154, and that mankind apply themselves more than then took his bachelor's degree in diviever to agriculture; and that, while the nity, and was chosen chaplain of the o: ambitious are ferociously employed in niversity ; in which office he fucceeded ftrewing the earth with the bleeding car- Hethe; whose predeceffor was Litiner; cases of their fellow-creatures, the wise all three of them afterwards bilhops. He are prudently endeavouring to render it was likewise (if it be not the same offi t! more fertile and abundant. In a word, public reader, as himself informs us, wuch it is natural to believe, that reason and in- Abp Tennison calls predicator publicus. He dustry will every day make a farther pro- is also called in the Pembroke Ms. Magia gress; that the useful arts will continue to her Glomeria.. While he was in these of fouilh ; that preposfellion or prejudice, fices he lost his good uncle and friend Di which, of all the evils that afi& mans Robert Ridley, on the 12th of June 1536, kind, is not the least, will gradually dif- But the education which the uncle geneappear from among the rulers of mankind; rously bestowed, and the improveinert and that philofophiy, universally diifused, which the nephew had made by his greut will, one day or other, console human application, loon recommended him to natúre under those calamities which are another and greater patron. Por in the inseparable from a state of humanity. very next year, his great reputation as an

It is in this view, and with this hope, excellent preacher, and the best dilputhat the Essay on Universal History is pu- tant of his time, his great and ready nieblislied; in the composition of which, mory, and intimate acquaintance with the

Truth hath ever transcribed what Hura- fcriptures and the fathers, occasioned the nity dictated. The author hath been ac Archbishop of Canterbury to desire the alcured, indeed, by men who cannot be Giftance of his learning; for Cranmer's deened other wise than enemies to focie- house was a kind of university, where maty, of bating painted crimes, and pár- ny learned men were entertained, foticularly those of religion, in the most reigners as well as natives. But Ridley black and frightful colours; of having was ingrafted into his family, and as: rendered fanaticism execrable, and super- pointed one of his chaplains; and had an ftitiin ridiculous. In answer to this, he opportunity this year of enj vying much of hath only to reproach himself with not the Archbiíhop's company and leisure. Ai having done more to effect so good a pur- an earnest of his favour and approbation, role: tlie very complaints of these fana. on the 30th of April 1538, the Archbishop tics, are a proof of the necellity of such an collated him to the vicarage of Herne in history ; biaring evidence that there are East Kent. Here he was diligent to in Nii on happy wretches, who are afraid of struct bis charge in the pure doctrines of being cured of the most terrible malady the gospel, as far as they were yet dilthat can attack the human mind.

covered by him, (not from the schoolinen It is a!n.oft impollible that, in fo ex. and Popish doctors), except in the point tenave a work, there should not be fume tranfubftantiation, from which error God fauits; that furre few mistakes Thould not had not yet delivered him. And the good have been made in names, dates, and cir. fruits of his ministry there, were feen in cumstances: but I may venture to affirm, the effects it had, particularly on the Lathat the principal facis aie true; as the dy Fiennes, whom he converted to the reader may be afured that the writer hath golpei-truths; which the afterwards le in no cale been influenced either by in Hified by lier future exemplary life and terit, relentirent, or prejudice."

good works. And to enliven the devotion stership of Pembroke Hall becoming vaof his parishioners, he used to have the cant, the fellows, who well knew the [ Dean read in his parish-church in Eng. learning, abilities, and good difpofitions, h; which was afterwards urged in accu- of their old collegiate, invited him back a Lation against him.

gain to college, to take upon him the In the next year came out the act of guardianship of their society. – About the Six Articles; against which Ridley this time, according to the manuscript bore his testimony in the pulpit; though notes of Abp Tennison in the library at otherwise he was in no danger from the Lambeth, Cranmer's recommendation was penalties of the statute. The article of of its usual weight with t'e Kings, who the corporal presence was at that time an made Dr Ridley one of his chaplains ; one article of his creed. The marriage or in whom the Archbishop could place a fure tekanness of priests affe&ted not him, confidence, however mistaken he might who never did act against the statute in be in the other, [Thirlby]: for Ridley the former instance, and was never char- persevered in the profellion of the trutia ged of doing so in the latter. As to the once discovered, and in his friendlhip to article of auricular confellion, he tells us, his patron even to death ; while Thirlby towards the clofe of his life, that he al- returned to his abjured errors, and, in wars thought confession to the minister commillion with Bonner, degraded his Taught do much good. But he made a good friend the Archbishop, in order to difference betwixt what he thought an prepare him for the flames. Soon afteful appointment in the church, and ter this, the cathedral church of Canterthe presling it on the conscience as a point bury was made collegiate, with a dean, and Becessary to falvation. This testimony twelve prebendaries, and fix preachers; occafioned him no small trouble.

which being Cranmer's own church, lie Mr Ridley had been two years at his pa- found no difficulty in obtaining the fiftha risk of Herne, getting new lights himself, prebendal stall for the King's new chapby a close application to his studies of the sain, Dr Ridley. Scriçtures and the fathers, and by friend How honestly and prudently he behaby conference with his patron the Arch- ved himself, appears in good measure froin bibop; and faithfullly communicating to his endeavours, in the pulpit

, to set the abhis people the word of God, “not after uses of Popery so open before the people's the Popilh trade, but after Christ's go. eyes in bis fermons, as to provoke the spel," as himself testifies in his farewell: prebendaries and preachers of the old though as yet he acknowledges, that God learning to exhibit articles against him, at had not revealed to him the doctrine of the Archbishop's visitation this year, for the Lord's supper. His improvements in preaching contrary to the statute of the knowledge was with great injustice char. Six Articles. He feared not to bear his ked upon him, as a fickle change of opi- testimony against any error he had discobotine and a servile conformity to the vered ; yet with respect to the authority tuzes: bur there never appeared any by which the Six Articles were injoined, taduating or shifting backward and for delivering his opinion fo cautiously, as that ward in his judgment, but a regular pro. his accusers could prove nothing but the relion and advancement in the discovery malice of their accusation. The subjects of truth; diligently seeking it, and by he treated upon were, the necesity of Gad's grace gradually finding it, without prayer in a known tongue, without which, may worldly motives influencing his opi- he said, it were but babbling; - that

men ought not to build any security upon While he was at Herne, he so well mere ceremonies; and that auricular Acharged his pastoral office, that he gain confeßion, though it might be useful

, was ed the general applause of the people in not injoined by divine authority in the the neighbouring parishes, who, neglect- scriptures; and therefore not necelary to 18g their own teachiers, for many miles falvation. The manner in which he treat. sound would come to hear his serinons. ed these subjects we learn from the acThis year, probably by the perfuafion knowledgment of Winchester, in a letter of the Archbishop, who was now medita to Ridley in K. Edwaro's reign. He says, ting to bring his chaplain more into the “You declared yourtelt always desirous to light

, he repaired to Cambridge, and set forth the mere truth, with great desire tjere took his doctor's degree in divinity. of unity, as you profesiod ; 1100 extending Azd, in the Odober following, the ma

any of your alleverations beyond your



knowledge, but always adding such like this summer ; and was inclined by it to: words, as far as you had read; and if any give the question a fair examination. Se man could Mew you further, you would hear he certainly did, by whatever means iny. hin; wherein you were much to be con- duced; and procured likewise a little treze mended.” Such was the meek and gentle tise, written 700 years before, by Ratra {pirit, and at the same time steady and mus, or Bertram, a mionk of Corbery, a consistent conduct of Ridley. But not the request of the Emperor Charles th withstanding this, his malicious enemies, Bald, about the year 840; which ha who fought his and the Archbishop's ruin, been published at Cologue in 1532, an did present an information against him then sent by the Zurickers to Albert Viat before the justices in Kent; the articles of quis of Brandenburg, to vindicate thei which were, 1. That he preached at St doctrines from the charge of novelty. From Steven's in Rogation week, and said, that this book Ridley learned, that the deter auricular confession was but a mere posi- mination of the church for tranfubitan tive law, and ordained as a godly mean for tiation had not been so early and gene the finner to come to the priest for coun- ral as he had before supposed; for tha fel; but he could not find it in fcripture. Bertram, a catholic doctor, so late as 846 2. That he said, that there was no meeter held contrary to the present decrees; an term to be given to the ceremonies of the that the faithful at that time, without e church, than to call them beggarly ceremo. ther of them being condemned as heretia nies. 3. That Te Deum had been fung were divided in their opinions on this fut commonly in English at Herne, where the ject. This at once razed that foundatio said Master Doctor is Vicar. By the ad- of authority on which Ridley had so conf dress of the Archbishop, and the diligence dently built, and left him more open. of his friends, the malevolence of the pro- consider the reasonings of his author, whic fecution was discovered, and the intention were very fencible and pertinent: his eye of it prevented, not without some disa. were opened, and he determined to searc greeable consequences to the authors and the scriptures upon this article more ac promoters of it.

curately, and the doctrine of the primitiv The greatest part of the year 1645, fathers who lived before the time of Bei Dr Ridley spent in retirement at his vis tram's controversy. And how zealous fe carage of Herne. He had hitherto been

ever Cranmer night be for transubstar an unsuspe&ting believer of transubstanția- tiation, and how dangerous foever it wa tion. The generally received doctrine, to doubt of that article, yet Ridley ver the decrees of popes, and the decisions of honestly communicated his discoveries an councils, had implanted this faith in him; scruples to his good friend and patron th the rhetorical expreflions of the fathers, Archbishop; who knowing the lincerity o and the letter of fcripture, had confirmed the man, and his cool judgment, was pre him in this opinion. The blasphemies of vailed upon to examine the subject with the Anabaptists, who were at first the the utmost care. The event was the con principal impugners of this doctrine, and vi&tion of both of them. But however in ine irreverence and indecency of fome o strumental Ridley might have been it ther Sacramentaries, barred for a long leading the Archbishop into this inquiry time the way to his free inquiries, and he always disclaimed the honour of being better information. In the year 1544, Cranmer's instructor, profelling to be “bul Luther had written with great warmth the young scholar to the master in com. against the doctrines of the Zurickers, up- parison of him:” always with an exceed, on this fubje&, declaring theni heretics. ing inodesty refusing the due praises which The Zurickers replied in the beginning of even his adversaries gave hiin; not affixthe following year, when they published ming to himself the glory of his own im. their Apology ; in which they explained provements, but gratefully referring them their doctrine and faith, purged them- to the means and opportunities of acquiselves of the guilt of heresy, and stated ring them; and therefore acknowledges Luther's and their doctrines so that the himself a debtor to his vicarage of Herve world might judge where the truth lay. for the doctrine of the Lord's fupper ;

The coincidence of time renders it pro- “ which at that time, (says he), was not bable, that Ridley meeting with this book, revealed unto me.” And before the comwhich we are told was greedily read at millioners, he gives the following account that time by all parties, carried it with of Bertrain and his book : " Bertram, a him to employ his retirement at Herne man learned, of sound and upright judg.


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