« 上一頁繼續 »
In 1748 he was chosen member of the Royal Society of London. In 1749 he began, by mere chance, his amazing collection of horns and shells, which according to the universal opinion of all travellers and amateurs who have visited it, is at present the most beautisul, and certainly one of the most valuable in Europe. In 17^3 he became member of the newly established Dutch Society of Sciences at Haerlem ; and in 1757, after the celebrated M. le Cat prosessor of Anatomy and surgeryi and member of almost all the principal societies of sciences in Europe, had seen Mr Lyonet's incomparable "Traite" Anatomique de la Chenille qui ronge le Bois de Saule," with the drawings belonging to it (which work was afterwards published,) he was elected member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Rome, whereof M. le Cat was perpetual secretary. Mr Lyonet's design in the compiling of that work was, among other things, to publish an anatomical description of an insect, as extensive and complete as any existing of the human body, which had hitherto never been effected, although several ingenious men have attempted something of this kind, but have however produced nothing more than weak and even faulty essays—Of the praise and admiration expressed of our author in many respects (but particularly on account of the last mentioned work) by many celebrated writers, and in almost all countries of Europe, we shall state these extracts.
1. From the * Bibliotheque des Sciences, 1760; "Mr "Lyonet has longheld a distinguished place among the great "Naturalists of Europe. His translation of the Iheologie des "InseEles? (this is however a mistake, for Lyonet did not translate the work) " the excellent notes he has added "to it, the magnisicent cabinet of shells which he has "constructed with so much taste and judgement, in which he "has spared neither trouble nor expence, and which the cu*' rious come to admire as one of the sinest and most compleat "that can be seen,' (now much improved and increased)' have
"procured him a great reputation, which the new work we "are announcing will consirm; a work which surpasses "the high expectations that were formed of it, and which P will be sufsicient of itself to immortalize the author."
2. In the Journal des Scavans, July 1760. '* We ear*' nestly exhort Mr Lyonet to publish the Anatomy he
makes us hope for, of the chrysalis and of the phalæna "into which his caterpillar is transformed; and we assure "him before hand of the encouragement and acknowledgc*' ments of all those who admire sinished works, &c."
Some reputable and learned men have also written in his praise; such as Martinet, Van Gool, H. S. Reimarus, the Rev. J. Lulop, and P. Van Muslchenbroeck: which last, in particular, extols Mr Lyonet's observations and discoveries by means of the microscope, above those of Leeuwenhoeck, Reaumur, Baker, Trembley, &c.—After the publication of the Traite Anatomique, Mr Lyonet became, in 1760, member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin: in 1761, of the Imperial Academy of Naturalists; and in 1762, of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg.— In order to enable such as might be desirous of following him in his intricate and most astonishing discoveries, respecting the structure of this animal, Mr Lyonet publiflied, in the *' Transactions of the Dutch Society of Sciences at "Haerlem,'' a description and a plate (as he also afterwards did in French, at the beginning of his " Traite Anatomi"que,") of the instruments and tools he had invented for the purpose of dissection, and likewise of the method he used to ascertain the degree of strength os his magnifying glasses. Notwithstanding all this labour, which was considerably increased by the extensive correspondence which he for many years carried on with several learned and respectable personages, he still found means to set apart a large proportion of his time (as he himself mentions in his preface) for the immediate service of his country; but was not fortunate encugh (as appears by his writings) to get any other recompense pcnse for his exertions than sorrow and disappointment.— During the last fifteen or twenty years of his lise, Mr Lyonec added to the valuable treasure he had already collected of natural curiosities, a most superb cabinet of paintings, consisting of more than 560 performances; among which are many of the most eminent works of the sirst Dutch masters. He did this with a view to procure himself some amusement during the latter part of his lise, when old age and insirmities must weaken his powers and set bounds to his activity. He had always indeed accustomed himself to employment; insomuch that he has written some pieces of Dutch poetry ; and this disposition remained with him, till within a fortnight of his death, when he was attacked with an inflammation in his breast, which, though apparently cured, was, in the end, the cause of his dissolution. He was a friend to all those who loved or exercised arts or sciences. His conduct, from his youth, was ever, and in every respect, unimpeachable. He was from conviction a Christian, loved virtue, religion, and his country, and never seared openly to desend them. Nor was it ever in the power of man to make him dissemble; for his great and favourite maxim was, never to do any thing- designedly which might hurt either conscience, duty, or honour. Letters, arts, sciences, (and particularly natural history) true religion, and his country, were indebted to him, and suffered a considerable loss by his death. Mr Lyonet bequeathed the remaining copies of his " Traite Anatomique,' together with all the plates designed and engraved by himself, to his nephew, Mr S. E. Croysct, secretary to the post-offices of Holland, and who has succeeded him in the post of secretary of the cyphers. He also left him a work, still in manuscript, which he had hoped to bring to light, intitled, " Œuvres Melees ** sur les Insectes," comprising all the remarkable researches and discoveries which he had, during many years, made on the insects which are found in the environs of the Hague, together with their different forms, changes, &c. and to
which which is added, an " Essai Anatomique sur la Chrysalide et "la Phalene de la Chenille qui ronge le Bois de Saule.' Each of these works Mr Lyonet had originally intended to accomplish upon the fame plan as the " Traitc Anato** mique;" but, unsortunately, a dimness in his sight obliged him, at about the age of 60, to lay aside this design. The M Eflai Anatomique," was, however, already sinistied; and both performances, arranged so as to form a second volume to the " Traite Anatomique," are in fair MS. and enriched with sifty-four plates, all designed by himself, and of which a great number have already been engraved under his own eyes. And Mr Croysct, who has been in the habit of thirty-six years intimate friendship with his relation Mr Lyonet, who has daily seen him at his occupations, and of course is well acquainted with his methods of drawing, and who in his younger days has himself soccesssully practised that amusement, has determined to use his best endeavours to get such plates as are wanting executed in a masterly style, and to publish these two works, which will prove an important acquisition to the lovers of'natural history. He died at the Hague, January the 10th, 1789; in the eightythird year of his age."
The history of the Notes to Lester's work, is thus given, by Mr Lyonet himself, in an advertisement presixed to the French edition.
'« The success which this book had in Germany, and the encomiums bestowed on it in the Leipsic Transactions, induced the publisher to have it translated into French. He requested me to revise the manuscript, and to correct those passages which the translator's ignorance of the subject might have occasioned. That I might not deprive the public of the advantage to be derived from a book, intended to promote the glory of God, I undertook the task; but I had no sooner begun than I found t- at the faults of the translator were not the only ones I had to correct, but that t ie
b original original itself in many places stood in need of revision anq elucidation. Mr Lester, though very learned in natural history, had allowed himself to believe too many things on the credit of others. The estimation in which 1 hold this study, which is only delightsul in so far as it is true, made me view this desect with concern in a work which, from its general excellence, might have contributed to perpetuate error ; and I resolved to correct those passages in which the author, misled by authority, had been mistaken. To do this, the simplest and shortest way would have been to alter the text; but I could not allow myself to make an author speak contrai y to his own sentiments, and therefore had recourse to Notes. But I have gone farther than I at sirst intended. J had no sooner begun to consider the text, than several facts partly known and partly new, connected with the subject, occurred to me -, and as they appeared calculated for consirming, explaining, amplifying or limiting what the author expresses in general terms, I have detailed them, and added various reflections which I hope will not be useless to those who mean thoroughly to investigate the subject. I shall perhaps receive the thanks of intelligent men for having endeavoured to produce exceptions to the most general rules -, for besides that those singularities, which nature sometimes presents us with when we least expect them, help us to acquire a more persect knowledge of jnsects, they are what in natural history may be called the truly marvellous, which it is now time to substitute in the place of what has been falsely so called, and which has too long prevailed on this subject. The Reader I hope will give me credit for what I advance; and I stand the more in. need of his indulgence as I have related certain facts which I would myself have unwillingly believed had not positive experiments convinced me of their truth."