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which would perish in fresh waters. On the other hand, the saltness of the sea would kill many which cannot. live but in fresh waters. Hot springs, in which a person cannot hold his hand without being burnt, would seem to be a very improper abode for living beings; and yet there are insects found, which live and thrive in them, and die when taken ellewhere. It is well known that these little crea. tures very much dread the cold, which generally be. numbs them; would one then expect to find some in snow? We know likewise that offensive smells and oily substances are injurious to them, yet some inha. bit the water of dunghills, in which both these inconveniences are united. There are even Nacuralists who pretend to have discovered some in fire ; but I doubt the truth of their observations, Fire is an element which destroys and d:{solves every thing! how then mould an insect resist its action ? li is very certain that they are found both in natural and artificial liquors. The curious have perceived them in the bleedings of the vine newly drawn, in wire, in vi. negar, and in infusions of every kind; a phenomenon the more surprising as the greatest part of insects have an aversion at every thing which is acid or pungent, as some of thele liquors are. Lastly there are amphi. bious insects as well as other animals. Many species live equally well in water or in air. They delight to be in the vicinity of water, on the surface of which they are seen flying, and ferve for food to the animals of both elements.

The earth, both in its surface and below it, is not less peopled with numbers of insects than the waters. Some have no other domicile than below the surface of ihe earth ; others may retire thither for protece tion against the rigours of winter ; hence many derive the names which distinguish them i:om other fpecies. For example, we call those flies, larvae and spi.

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der's ders which live in the earth, land insects, to diftinguin them from others of the same kind that live elsewhere. It is not indifferent to them what soil they make use of; they are seen seeking with anxiety for that which is fittest for their purpose, and there they fix, Others makę vaults underground, through which they creep and walk; others content themselves with a hole which they fabricate with wonderful art, and in which they nestle. Grasshoppers delight in a dry foil, and crickets love to dwell in walls consiructed of mud. Earth newly' dug, fwarms with infects, son.e of which feed on the roots of plants, and others on the earth itself. Some liye only in fandy soils, 0. thers only in that formed of rotten' wood. Some lodge in the fat and putrid earth of dungbills, and find what is necessary to life in a place which would kill other insects. In this class I rank fies, some beetles, and the larvæ of dunghills. Others seek their food in the excrement of animals, and are found in it both before and after its exclusion. Some put themselves under stones which serve them as a canopy; while others gnaw them, however hard, till they have excavated a hole in which they can · lodge. Lastly they are found in vait numbers on the surface of the earth'; such are the land pulices, grasshoppers, millepieds, &c.

There is hardly a plant which does not nourish some insect. Some people even affirm that each has a species of infect peculiar to itself; but it also ofien happens that the same plant serves as a 'residence to many species of these little animals. Some creep in the grass, or construct in it dwellings for themselves. Others lod re about the roots of plants, or fabricate small apartments near them ; some lastly harbour in the bulbs of Howers.

The grass is like a large carpet on which many


fpecies of insects are found. The larvæ of all sorts of insects are found on the wormwood, che cabbage, the borrage, the nettle, on fennel, flax. ground ivy, motherwort, chervil, mint, cress, orach, bugloss, melilot, anise, plaintain, and spurge. Some louge between the two membranes of the leaf; the under one ferves them for a bed, the upper for a covering. Others which have derived their naine from the circumstance, roll up the leaves like a cylinder; attach the different folds with a thread which they draw from themselves, and shut themselves up in it. Lastly some are found fixed on flowers. The anemone, the flowers of the wild cress, of hyacinths, July flow, ers, larkspurs, roses, violets &c. serve as a habitation for many species,

Nothing is secure against the voracity of these importunate guests; they spare no fort of fruit whe. ther dry or green. They are found not only on the leaves, the ears and stems of corn, but also in the dried grain ; such as pease, beans, oats, &c. and in the bread made of these,

They mount up on shrubs and lodge there. They delight in the hawihorn, the elder, the goole-berry, the quince, the vine &c. Some keep themselves on the ou;side of the leaves, while others penetrate within, between the two membranes, attach them. felves to the flowers or insinuate themselves into the wood itself, and there cause small excrescences.

The larger trees are worlds peopled with various fpecies ofinsects, and there is hardly a partofthem which these little animals do not attack. Some that have acquired the name of ambulones, do not confine them. selves to a single tree, but go from one to another, seemingly desirous of rafting all. Others are more constant, and attach themselves to the root, the dark


or wood of the tree, and keep fixed there. The taste of these last varies. Some prefer green to rot. ten wood, others esteem dry wood before what is moist, and are better pleased with those places in which corruption has begun, than with those that are found. Some live on the leaves of trees, as the Jime, the mulberry, the alder, the willow &c. Some insinuate themselves within the parenchyma of those leaves, and live between the two meinbranes which cover then, while others are the cause of an excref. cence in which they lodge. These are of many fpecies; and it is casy to know them by the different form of the excrescence they live in. Some make it of a round form either on the upper surface of the leaf, as those on the beech, or on the under furface like those of the oak; fome on the margins as those of the willow, others give it the figure of a cone like those on the lime. The flowers of trees, have likewise their inhabitants. Infects are found on' those of the cherry, the apple, the plumb, the hazle, &c. nay, they penetrate the fruit, and spoil our apples, pears, figs, cherries, nuts, &c.

But it is not plants alone that insects chuse for their abode, they likewise effect a lodgement in ani. mals and even in other insects. It is well known that the ichneumon flies lay their eggs in the bodies of caterpillars and spiders where they are afterwards hatched. Before this fact was perfectly ascertained it was easy to fall into error, and to believe that one fpecies of insects sometimes produced a species different from itself. Can we be surprised then that some naturalists should advance this para. dox? Some are found attaching themselves to the outside of another insect without penetrating fur. ther ; thus we find a sort of lice on aquatic infects, on bees, buiterlies and beetles. Serpents likewise nourish many insects. I have not yet been able to


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discover if animals covered with a hard shell, such as crabs, are infested with any sort of vermin; this is not impossible, since some writers affirm that they have found such on shell filh. Oysters are said to have insects with many feet in thein, and we see evi. dently that the shells of sea snails and muscles have been eaten by worms.

Fishes though living constantly in water, and having their bodies covered with scales, are not exempt from the insults of infects; these a:tack: the most monstrous whale, as well as the smallest fish. Some harbour under the scales, as under à roof; others attach themselves near the very eyes, and adhere so strongly, that notwithstanding the rapi. dity of the filh, it cannot shake them off. Others infinuate themselves under the ears of whales, and are there nourished; others 'pierce the flesh, and penetrate so deeply, that they cannot be feen or expell ed. Some glide into the intestines which they per's vade in all directions ; or settle in the stomach.

Many authors have observed that insects harbour in the feathers of birds ; not however always in 'e. qual numbers; for in autumn, there are fewer of them than at any other season. The cause of this may be, that they are then fatter, and that they have imparted a good number of these' attendants to the young they have hatched. Those who have the care of poultry yards, know that pullets and geese, are attacked by vermin, and this is perhaps the reason why hawks are so tormented with them. The birds they seize, communicate these vermin to them which they never can afterwards rid themselves of. If we may believe the testimony of authors, cranes have al. fo a great number of insects adhering to them. The fame is to be said of Peacocks, and Turkies; but few birds are more cruelly infested with them than phea


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