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each according to its species, for pasing from one state to another? How do they know that in or. der to defend themselves, they have need of a cone more or less strong according to the greater or less degree of delicacy in their constitution ? Whence comes it that these animals, without the aid of reason,, are found folded in their cones, with so much art, that however narrow their mansion, they have enough of room, although were their members extended, three times the space would not be sufficient to contain them? From whom do they receive that fagacious foresight, which prompts them to take the proper measures for securing themselves against external injuries? Who hath instructed them to choose the most fafe and proper places for undergoing their changes ? What artist has taught them, to weave their various webs, in which the chrysalis is as foftly laid as if it were on down? By what means are they informed of the precise time when it is necessary to construct their habitations and to retire to them. Whence comes it that the period of remaining in their cones is so regulated that they never leave them except in the season when they are sure to find food ? I cannot but acknowledge in all this, distinct traces of the boundless wisdom of the Creator. No, a blind cause could not operate such wonders ; it must be infinite, and love. reign intelligence : and since insects are incapable of so many perfections, it can be no other than a Deity. who has created them, and who governs them by bis Providence.
CHA P. VIII.
OF THE SEXES OF INSECTS,
MODERN philosophers as I have already remarked have well observed that insects are produced by generation. The experiments they have made an this fubject, have even taught them to distinguish the males from the females, and they have described the marks by which they are to be known. The detail of these marks is the subject of this Chap ter.
In the first place the male is distinguished from the female by its size. He is generally fhorter and more Render than the female, which is undoubtedly the effect of wisdom in the Creator. The females being obliged to carry a great number of eggs, it was necessary that they should be larger and thicker than the males that they might have room to lodge their eggs.
They are also distinguishable by their antennæ, Those of many males are pectinated, of the females plain. Lister observed that the males of spiders have eight eyes with knobs at the extremities of the an. tennæ which the females have not. The antennæ of some other insects are distinguished in the same way. Those of the male are smaller, Ahorter, and more opposite to each other,
The wings are a third discriminating mark be. a " m
male. In forme species the male only is furnished with them, the female either wants them altogether or has them very short. In other species where both sexes have wings, there are some which bear on those wings the characters of their sex. On those of the male are perceived small spots which are not found on those of the female.
Insects which insert their eggs into the bark of trees, into the earth, into the substance of leaves, or into other infects, are furnished with a tube longer or shorter for the purpose of penetrating to the place where they wish to deposit them. This tube, which serves as a passage to the eggs, affords another mark of distinction between the sexes. As the male has no occasion for it, the Creator has bestowed it only on the female.
We discover the sexes likewise often by their colours. The beauty of the male generally exceeds that of the female, his colours being more brilliant and shewy. This rule however is not without excep. tion, for the females are sometimes more beautiful than the males.
Lastly, they are distinguishable by the sound of their voices. This seems to have been bestowed on some in. sects folely to procure them the means of approaching each other for the purpose of generation: and therefore the male alone has organs proper for producing a small sound in order to attract the female. This rule however like the former is not general. There are fpecies of insects in which both sexes are provi. ded with the organs necessary for producing this sound.
It is not without reason that God has thus impress sed marks of distinction on the different sexes of animals. Ile has provided in this way for their multi. plication, to which the male as well as the female are incited by an instinct so natural, that they suffer if they do not indulge it. It cannot be doubted that this is the inmediate operation of the Deity; on this point the Scripture is decisive. After having rela. ted the creation of man, it adds that God crea" ted them male and female, that he blessed them, " and commanded them to increase and multiply, " and replenish the earth.” GEN: 1,27,28. Shall we say that this law respects man only, and that in. sects are excepted from it, because there is no men. tion made of them ? the contrary will appear evident from the seventh Chapter of the fame book. God irritated against the human race, resolved to destroy them by the waters of the deluge. But as this could not be done without exterminating, at the same time, all the terrestrial animals, he commanded Noah to take a pair of each species that they might replenish the world anew. “Of every clean beast, fays " he, thou shalt take to thee by fevens, the male “ and his female ; and of beasts that are not clean " by two, the male and his female. Of fowls " also of the air by sevens, the male and the female." and why? “ to keep feed alive upon the face of all " the earth.” GEN. VII. 2,3. That insects are comprehended in the number of these animals is evi. dent. “In the seventeenth day of the second month
Noah and his family entered into the ark; they and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and'evéry thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his
kind, every bird of every fort. And they went in * unto Noah, into the ark, two and two of all fiefh, ' wherein is the breath of life. And they that went "in, went in male and female of all flesh as God
· had commanded.' GEN. vii. 11:16. Insects therefore are not excepted from this general law. God hath made them to preferve their species by the intercourse of male with female ; God hath endowed them with the proner organs for this purpose. God in short, hath blefled them like the other ani. mals that they may multiply and replenish the earth.
The effect of this benediction has subsisted for thou. sands of years without our being able to observe any alteration. What exalted idea ought not this to give us of the power and wisdom of him who hath establithed so permanent a regulation, and which · has not suffered any interruption in the course of so long a succession of ages!
CH A P. IX.
OF THE ABODE OF INSECTS:
THERE is hardly any substance in nature which does not afford a lodging place for insects. Of this F mean in the present Chapter to convince my readers.
Water is not an element proper for every sort of animal. Thofe who are not furnished with organs that fit them to inhabit it, perish in a fhort time, when by any accident they fall into it. If it had not pleased God to form creatures capable of suftaining life in that element it would have been desert; but besides fishes of every kind, he has created a great number of insects to inhabit the waters, As among those there are many which cannot live but in falt water, fo among these there are many