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ber is not finall. However, that my readers may be made more fully acquainted with this part of the subject I fall detail in this chapter, what my own observation, as well as the writings of various authors. of reputation have taught me with regard to the number of species included in each of the classes under which they I have arranged insects.

. By this means, it will be easy to form an estimate by calculation of the prodigious numbers which must be generated annually.


The species of aquatic vermes without feet, which are known to me amount to . 18 Sea stars,

• 105
Vermes, not aquatic,
Insects with two feet,
un six feet,

eight feet,

ten feet, .

mis twelve feet, .

- fourteen feet,

sixteen feet, and

above fixteen feet,

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According to the division I have made of winged insects, I find the species of those with two smooth wings, like transparent vellum are,


- 83
Those of insects with four such wings, ó 69
Those with four mealy wings, - 135
Those with wings only half covered, - 13

M entirely covered, - 97 The sum total of these numbers is, . 765

Now let us take a single female of each of these 765 species, and let us suppose that she anually gives birth io ten infects of her kind, which cannot surely be


an exaggerated supposition, firce great numbers of those animals lay eggs by hundreds; the 765 females would produce the first year 7,650, the second 70, 500, the third 765,000, and so progressively,

Observe,that among the insects without wings which I have just enumerated, I have made no mention of maggots, caterpillars, aphides ,&c. which transform themselves into winged insects. How many other sorts of infects might not be found in different au, thors unknown to me, or whom I have notan oppor. tunity of consulting ! might not my calculation be infinitely encreased by those that live in uninhabited countries, at the bottom of rivers, lakes and seas? If all these were known, surely we would find their numbers almost infinite

But if all these insects multiplied every year ac, cording to the proportion slated above, and that this took place, without interruption, for five or six years, what a prodigious number would not there then be in the world! What frightful devastations would they not occasion! The ravages which a single army of locuits commits, astonishes and alarms us; but with what astonishment and alarm would we not be affected, were we to behold the mischiefs which many hundred armies of infects, of different species, would occasion, as numerous, and as dreadful as locusts! .

The number of animals which this terraqueous globe of ours is capable of sustaining, is determined by the extent of its surface. If in one year they were to multiply to twice or three times their usual number, the productions of the earth, proportioned to its surface, not being sufficient to maintain them, they would either die of hunger, or prey upon one another. In order to prevent such an inconvenience, God hath wisely set bounds to the life and multiplication of aniG2


mals, Those which live long are not prolific, fo that the earth is not incommoded with their species. But it is otherwise with those whose lives are short. Accor. dingly insects which live but for a short time, produce multitudes of young. This numerous multiplication is likewise necessary for them, as many of their eggs perish by the injuries of the weather, and many serve for food to other animals. So wise an ordination prevents the earth from being desolated by a greater number of animals than it can maintain, and preserves a just proportion amongst its various inhabitants.

It is not without justice, that the Scriptures give to God the title of Lord of Hosts. He is the Sovereign of legions of angels, of the armies of Heayen ; of that multitude of birds which it has been supposed ex. ceed five hundred species ; of the fishes of the sea, and of the waters, of which one thousand different species are known, and of those tribes of animals and serpents, the species of which amount to one hundred and fifa ty. However numerous these armies may be, those of the different species of infects do not yield to them in that respect. “ Lift up your eyes on high, 66 and behold who haih created these things, that « bringech out their host by number : he calo " leth them all by names, by the greatness of his 5 might, for that he is strong in power, not one “ faileth.” įsa. XL. 26.

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God has not manifested his power only in the creation of this almost infinite multitude of insects and other animals, but his wisdom is also confpicu. ous. We have observed that a too great multiplica. tion would defolate the earth, which would not then be able to maintain them; but he has ordered it so that. there is always a juit proportion, never 1.0 many nor too few. Without this wife provision we might from time to time lose certain ipecies of animals while


others might multiply to such a degree as to become really hurtful. Can a balance so equal, and in which we discover so much wisdom be the work of blind chance? Surely not : what is left to chance is never fixed, never regular. But here we behold a constant and invariable proportion which can be nothing but the effect of a design premeditated, and of a plan executed by an all wileand an almighty pow.


How many means has not the God of armies in store for chastising the human race! All his legions are ready to fly at his command to execute his or. ders. To mention only the army of insects, how ma. ny means can he not employ to humble the pride of weak mortals! These noxious creatures fome. times attack the greatest monarchs on their thrones, they desolate our fields, infest our houses, and lead famine and death in their train. Though necessary to a certain degree, their excess is always pernicious. We should be in perpetual fear, did not we know that the Being who regulates their fecundity, loves us, and will not permit them to multiply beyond their proper bounds. We must not however flatter ourselves too much. “ All things work together “ for good to the godly; but to finners they are turn. " ed into evil. Fire, and hail, and famine and death, “ all these were created for vengeance; the teeth of “ wild beasts and scorpions, serpents and the sword,

punishing the wicked to destruction. They rejoice " in his commandment, and are ready upon earth, as when need is, and when his time is come, to obey or his word.” EcclesiasTICUS XXXIX. 27. &c.

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CH A P. V.


RESPIRATION is that action of the lungs by which the air enters the bcdies of animals and is expelled again without intermilion. It is one of the most important functions of animal life, and without which no creature could subfilt ; accordingly we find that every thing which lives re pires, or performs some function nearly approaching to respiration. It was the necessity of this continual motion which determined the Creator to form in living creatures, those admirable organs which perform it. It is the same necessity too which makes us generally confound respiration with life, and consider these things as so strictly combined that they can never exist apart. It is not merely in common language, that these two terms are considered as synonimous; the Scripture itself often ules them indifferently, Moses, meaning to indicate the destruction of all animals by the waters of the delure, says that “all " Alesh died that moved upon the earth, both of “ fowl and of cattle, and of beast, and of every " thing that creepeth upon the earth, and of every

man ; all in whose nostrils was the breath of life, “ of all that was in the dry land died.” Gen, vii. 21,22. David also expresses himself in the fame manner, {peaking of the death of animals ; " if thou takest away their breath, they die and re. “ turn to their dust.” Psal. civ. 29. St Paul,

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