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sons would not hesitate, to declare him deprived of all regal authority; but old prejudices are not lo easily given up; these iueas ot monarchical government have remained } not being able to make a king of this bee, they have made it a queen; and thus, this empire, which had been governed, for Ib many ages, by an uninterrupted succession of kings, has at last had the misfortune, to fall irretrievably under the distaff. After this disaster, 1 am afraid, that the monarchy of bees is hastening to its period, and that soon, when the royal authority shall have declined, the queen will be considered merely as a mother, her subjects, merely as a free people, and this well governed state, as nothing but a hive of bers and drones, which, constrained by instinct, attach themselves to one, two, or three females, according to the number of the swarm, tor the preservation of their species; and who labour in concert, each according to its destination, some to generate their like, and to bring them into the world, others to preserve them. This, at least, is the state, to which the celebrated Swammerdam reduces them, who studied them, with great application, and has treated largely on the subject, in his Biblia Naturae. There is reason to believe, that he thinks jullly in this cafe.
I must observe, that it does not appear, by the passages which the author refers to from Aristotle, that this ancient philosopher knew, that what is commonly called the queen bee, was a female: the generative faculty, which lie attributes to her, is no proof of this, as it depends, as much 011 the male, as on the female. Besides, he always gives her the name of king, and not of queen, which be probably would not have none, had he known that she was the mother of the bees.
Page 132,1. 7.
They expcll the drones. There are three sorts of bees in a hive; the mother-bee, the drones, which are the males, and the common or working bees, which are of no sex. It has not been hitherto ascertained, that I know of, if the drones couple with the mother-bee, or whether they merely deposite their semen on the eggs she has laid. Swammerdam was inclined to think, that they render her fertile, by the mere odour of their semen, which is by no means probable. At any rate, these drones, after having been well fed, without having wrought any, during a considerable part of the spring and summer, become, towards the end of tlie season, objects os persecution to the common bees, which pursue and kill, even those which have not undergone their transformations, and which are still in the state of worm or nymph. It is believed, with some probability, that the reason of so extraordinary a change in their behaviour, is, that the mother bee, ceasing then to lay eggs, till tjie sollowing spring, the drones become ulcless, and the common bees dispatch them, to save their provision of honey.
Page 133,1. 14.
The respect they Jhetu their dead. It is much more natural to believe, that the bees do not carry their dead out of the hives, for any other reason, than to be rid of the putrid i'mell which the carcases would occasion; and it is probably, likewise for the same reason, that they cover with wax those animals which die in their hives, and which are too large to be removed.
Page 134,1. 21.
The art of fixing it. This art is not difficult, when the object is merely to six the threads to places within the spider's reach. But, how does it contrive to six them on places, which one would think it could not easily come at? How, sor instance, does it six them to the top of two large trees, whose branches do not touch? or to two bodies, separated by a rivulet? This question would perhaps embarrass a philosopher, but it is by no means difficult to a spider.: in this case, it has recourse to a very simple and natural expedient. It suspends itself to the end of a thread, and draws with its seer, from the extremity of its abdomen, several long threads, which it allows to be carried away by the wind; these threads which are siill connected with its trunk, adhere to the bodies they meet with; and thus, having encountered another tree, or the other bank of a rivulet, they sorve for a bridge to the spider, in order to transport itself, and to six the thread to which it was suspended.
Pace 134,1. 27.
In the catching of ether insccls. This is not the only use which spiders make of their webs. I have already said, that they make coques of them round their eggs. But a much more singular use, which some sorts of spiders turn them
to t o, is, that they make a sort of carriages of them, in which they make long journies, and transport themselves from one region to another. We often see, when the Iky is clear, at certain seasons of the year, quantities of gross silaments, and pieces of the webs of those insects: if these are examined, we will always sind spiders in them, which have contrived this method of flying without wings, and of transporting themselves easily to another climate.
Page 139,1. lost.
Destitute os nil senses but feeling. The author certainly does not recollect, that as all insects eat, at least; during a certain period of their existence, and that as they do not eat, indifferently, every sort of food, but attach themselves solely to a particular kind, it is evident, they must all have the sense ot taste, to discern what is sit for their purpose.
Page 140,1. 16.
I know none that have ears. It cannot be doubted, that those insects, on which Nature hath bestowed a kind of voice, or to speak more properly, the faculty of forming certain sounds, as the crickets, the gralshoppers, some beetles, &c. must also have received the sense of hearing, to perceive those sounds. We do not observe in them, it is true, any external ear; but we cannot inser, for that reason, that they have none. They may be disguised and rendered obscure, by their form 3nd situation, Animals, whose voice is not produced by the throat, whose respiration is performed through the thorax, the sides, or the abdomen, some of which have their eyes on the back, and the genital organs at the head, animals of this kind, may well nave the ears in a place, where we would least expect to sind them. The uses of all the parts in insects, are not known to us j perhaps, there may be among those we are ignorant of, some which are given to them for the purpose of receiving the impreffion of sounds. Still less can we fay, that insects have no internal ear. This organ, if they possess it, must in them be so small and delicate, that though it we^e before our eyes, we might even sind it impossible to' discern it.— We are not, therefore, so well acquainted with the anatomy of insects, as to take upon us to assert, that they are deprived of the organ of hearing, and still less ought we to maintain, that they hear, without being possessed of that organ. • •
3 C *Th<.
•The late Professor Fabricius discovered the ears of infects. He published an account, with figures of those organs in the crab and lobster, in the New Copenhagen Trans. actions, Vol. II. p. 375. This eminent entomologist found the external orifice of the organ in these animals, to be placed between the long and short antennæ; the cochlea, &c. being lodged in the upper part of what Linnæus calls the thorax; near the base of the serrated projection at its apex.
Page 141,1. iS. *
Their trunk and their palpi. If the palpi of insects be the organ of any f :nse known to us, we would rather suppose them to be the organ of smell, than of taste. Without, however, attempting to decide on this point, I shall only remark, that it seems to be by their means, that insects distinguish the quality of their food. Those which have these parts, never fail, before they begin to eat any thing, to feel it, us it were with their palpi, and if the substance does not please them, they abandon it, without touching it with their teeth, a circumstance, which pretty clearly proves, that, by the mere application of those palpi, they are able to know, what sorts of food are useful, and what improper for them.
Page 141, L 31.
Some prefer the blood of man, others of quadrupeds. There arc even some, whole delicacy goes still farther, and which will not touch the blood of certain persons, while they continually attack that of others. This is known to be the cafe with gnats and fleas. As to the last, it cannot be said, that the skin of certain persons is too hard for them to penetrate, since they are able to pierce the skin of quadrupeds, which is certainly much stronger.
Page 145,1. 14.
Some change their skin four times a year. As the author 3s speaking in this place, of caterpillars, before they change into butterflies, &c. it is proper to observe, that his expression is not very accurate, when he fays, they change their skin four times in a year. From this, one might be led to infer, that they live more than a year, although it be a general rule, and one, to which I have hitherto found only a single exception, that all caterpillars finish that stage of their existence, in less than a year; there are even some that accomplish it, in less than a month. He would, therefore, have
expressed expressed himself better, had he said, simply, that they change their skin Four times; but that, however, would not have been a general cafe, for I have already said, elsewhere, that I have known some caterpillars change their (kin, seven, and even nine times, before entering into the chrysalis state.
Page 146,1. 6.
Others have the head very large. The proportion between the head and the body, is not always the fame, in the fame insect; in those that have it horny, it is small, when they are about to change their skin, and increases in size, every time the change is made. The reason is evident j the horny shell prevents it from growing, while the body increases in bulk, and thus its size, in proportion to the body, continually diminishes. When insects prepare to divest themselves of their Ikin, the substance of the head, in a great number os them, retires within the neck, and into the first articulation: there, having generally no hard or horny matter to confine it, it extends and enlarges, and when the animal has quitted its old Ikin, we are surprised to see it with a head twice as large as it had before. And, as the insect neither eats nor grows while its head is forming, we may Observe this singularity with regard to it, that the body and the head have alternately their turn for enlarging; that, while the body does not increase, the head grows, and that, when the head does not grow, the body grows.
Page 146,1. 12.
It is not easy to discover the head in some inseBs. There are even some species, that can draw the head entirely within" the body, so that no part whatever of it appears: such are those larvæ which change into flies, and also, snails and slugs. It is singular, that in these insects, the head !ias no determinate shape, and in this particular, they differ from all other animals.
Page 146,1. 18.
Winged insetls, -which have feet. All winged insects, hitherto discovered, have feet, without exception.
Page 146,1. 30.
Ichneumons, that Ir:ed in the body of the caterpillar with seventy-two folds. Ichneumons cannot be properly discrimi3 C 2 ,nat«4