網頁圖片
PDF
ePub 版

hills, are not attacked by Scolopendræ alone; they likewise serve for food to many sens of larvæ with six feet.

Page 98,1. 21.

The hairy caterpillars. The tree bugs attack indifferently all sorts of caterpillars ; and I have even seen some of them seize upon butterflies, and fuck their fluids.

Page 98, 1. 26.

Flies are c'f found. That a large fly should kill and eat a small one is not very siugutar; but it is more surprising to see flies, that are apparently very weak, attack and overcome voracious flies much larger than themselves. This however is done by a fly which in size, antl form, resembles the, Panorpa. I have seen it in the air dart upon a dragonfly ten times larger than itIVlf, and bring it to the ground. The success of the combat was not doubtful. The dragon-" fly thought of nothing but escape, wh;le the other thing it so forcibly, that it would soon have been smithed, had not the desire of possessing them both made me interfere. 1 loft them both, but it was ealy to see by the flight of the dr;'gon-fly, that it had been very rudely treated in the encounter.

Pace 98, 1. 28.

The ichneumons kill spiders. I do not know that there is more than one species of Ichneumon th.it kills spiders. But I know for certain, and 1 believe I have already mentioned it, that there are many kinds- of them which prey on o^ Other infects.

Page 98, 1. penult. .

Beetles feed on the aphides. These have three sorts of enemies still more formidable, to wit, the small ichneumon?, the larvæ that seed on the aphides, and the Memcrobius. These two last, of which there are many species, dellroy a~ prodigious number of jphides.

Page 99,1. 23,

* No other nourishment than the fluids they fuci. It has been thought that spiders only fuck the juices of the insects they kill, because they do not eat them entirely; but Lister thinks . that they also eat the solid parts. Dc Aran. P. 44.—Inli

quido,.

quido. Sec. "In the liquid and whitish excrement of this spider, there were several hl.ick particles to he observed, wh'ch were the useless and indigestible ikins of beetles and flies i it is not therefuie probabic that these animals live bymere suction, but thai they also devour a great part of their prey."

Page 99,1. 33.

* Some drink, as grasshoppers. This fact was known to the antients Grassnopp_"-s drink the drops of dew that adhere to leaves, after having first examined them with their antennae.

Page Ioo, 1. 20.

Continue at reji during the day. This state of rest is carried to such a degree, that many species of Phaiienx give no signs of life, even when they are touched in the day. But the evening no sooner arrives, than they are almost in perpetual motion.

Page 100, 1. last.

They spring upon it with amazing velocity. I have seen a species us spider do this. It forms a I mall cavity in the sand which it lines internally with a kind of lilk to prevent: sand from sailing in. It lies in wait at the mouth of this hole, and when ?. fly lights nc.ir it, even at the distance cf three feet, it runs out upon it with astonishing velocity, seiz.-s it, and drags it to its den.

Page 101,1. 7.

* The manner in which they hill. The large hornets lay hold of spiders and caterpillars by the n<-ck, and grasp them in such a manner as to prevent them from being able to defend themselves, and so transport them to their ho'es: if the insect seized makes (till too much resistance, a second application of the hornet's maxillx soon finishes the combat. The Attrhor. 1

Wasps, and especially hornets, do not content themselves with wounding spiders with their teeth before carrying them away. I Iwve often seen them dart into the webs of the largest •Riders, and after having thrown them on the ground tear away their legs, and f!y off with the mutilated trunk. Lyonet.

Aaa2 Page Page Icj, 1. 15.

Srcure them as in a granary. Among the insects which ■ feed in winter, those only which live on substances not to be found in that season, use the precaution mentioned by the author. It is ealy to believe that those which feed on rotten straw, or dead leaves and grafs, make no magazines, but eat those substances where they find them.

Page 191,1. 32.

The proportion is so -well preserved. This proportion however is not always constant. Circumstances favourable to certain forts of insects, make them sometimes appear in such multitudes, that after having devoured all the verdure fitted for their nouristiment, the greater' part die for wapt. Those only which have been first hatched escape and preserve the species for the coming year; this is what makes it yery uncommon to fee a too great quantity of infects of the fame species for two years running. 1

Page Ic2, I. penult.

Have received a sort of pump. There are many kinds of voracious insects, that have at first sight neither mouth nor proboscis, nor any apparent opening through which it can be supposed that they can draw their nourifliment. One would almost imagine that they live on air, if two large pincers in the form pf a crooked horn, which they have on their head, did not indicate that they feed on something more solid. These pincers serve them for both mouth and trunk; they are hollow,' and pierced or cleft at their extremity. They plunge these into the bodies of those animals they live on, and fuck through them the whole substance pf their prey.

Page 103,1.

Seal Epicures, I know caterpillars that in less than four and twenty hours eat double their own weight.

But an example of gluttony much more remarkable is in those drones, which even wlien cut through the middle do pot cease to gorge themselves with honied liquors if set before them, although what they swallow runs out at the - ound.

*The Dermestes larcUrius is so voracious, that though sometimes there is seen hanging from liim a string of ev

cremcDC

crernent, a yard long, he does not give over eating— Vriich.

Page 103,1. penult.

Dispense with food. Add, or to live on what they can find, during winter.

Page 107,1. 28.

Disgusts thtir enemy. *A few years ago, as I was touching the horn of a certain caterpillar, which has one on it« back, it turned about its head suddenly, and discharged upon my hand a quantity of a green liquor, viscid, and so fetid, that though I several times washed my hand with soap, and rubbed it with sulphur, I could not get rid of the smell for two days.—The Author.

That infects, in prder to rid themselves of an enemy, should discharge, either by the mouth, or their posterior extremity, a fluid of an offensive smell, is not surprising. Nature furnishes us with examples of the fame kind, in some of the larger animals, and the food used by insects, procures them the matter ready formed. But to find, that Nature has likewise taken care to provide, in many insects, a great number of reservoirs, having their orifices on the upper part of their.bodies, and which contain a fetid liquor, \eady to be discharged on all assailants, one would not so readily expect. I knew large caterpillars, producing Tenthredos, which, when they are teazed, eject to a good distance, from different parts of their body, a disagreeable fluid, sit to put to flight their aggressors. Various sorts of latvæ which produce beetles have, upon their body, many different rows of tubtrcules, open at the extremity, and when they are touched, there appears at the end of these tubercles,-a drop of milky juice, of the most insupportable smell. These drops, however, seem to be very precious to them; no sooner does the danger disappear, than they take care to draw it in again, by the same channtls through which it issued. What a llrange method of defence! But, it is not altogether peculiar to insects, for we find an instance of it in those lizards which have been called Salamanders, though they are by no means able to live in fire. These reptiles, when they are pressed somewhat rudely, or when they are brought

near near a fire, suddenly contract their skin, and a white viscid! liquor issues through its pores, by which they endeavour to drive off their enemy, or to defend themselves from the heat—Lyonet. i

Page Hi, 1. 35.

mWrap them up, ttt in a cloak. There are little yetlow caterpillars, with a red band, which live on the hundred leaved rose, that weave a web round their eggs, and then die. •The Author.

• What M. Lesser takes here for the eggs of caterpillars, are coques made by the larvæ of an ichneumon. Caterpillars never lay egos, till they are metamorphosed into, perfect insects.—Lyonet.

Face 112,1. to.

* Defend them by various ways. The Grillo-talpa deposits its eggs in a hole it# makes in the midUle of a pretty hard hillock of earth. It surrounds this hillock with a kind of ditch, to make the approach to its nelt the more difficult.— There it watches continually, and from time to time takes a circuit round, to fee that all is safe. Reaumur Tom 1. Mem. I. The Author.

Although the facts mentioned here, are to be found in Reaumur, they are not confirmed by that illustrious author. He only cites them from Goedart, and considers them merely 3s a pretty fable.—Lyonet.

Page 112,1. 15.

Cannot come from the animal. As we dotiot know, whether God has not bestowed some degree of knowledge and reason on brutes, and as the affirmative is at least probable, it seems wrong, so positively to assert the contrary. But whether we suppose, that insects act from reason, or that they are constrained to act as they do, by a blind instinct, the glory of God is not the less conspicuous in either cafe. In the first, we cannot but admire the wisdom of the Creator, who has made machines which, without reason, can act as consequentially as if they were endowed with it; in the other, vr: must admire the fame Wisdom, that c»uld create so many different sorts of be;ngs, of more limhvd knowledge than we are, but, nevertheless, sufficiently intelligent to provide for their own preservation, and that of their race. In

the

« 上一頁繼續 »