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trees from the ravages of caterpillars, better than by carefully pruning them. By this they acquire much more fap; and, as these insects are not fond of a too abundant juice, they seek ellewhere a food more to their taste. If the approach of winter obliges them to gather together in the nests which they form at the extremities of the branches, they mult be taken off, before the spring has made any progress.

It is poslible that these means may not be practi. cable at all times ; but then, other stratagems must be fallen upon, to stifle the evil in its birth. If caterpillars, ants, and other insects roam over the ground, and have not yet got upon the trees they are in search of, a stratum of ashes or of chalk must be said at the bottom, which will obstruct their paffage. I believe this to be infallible; for besides, that they are enemies to all constraint, they would be so embarrassed by these substances, that they would not be able to disengage themselves. Twisted firaw, clay, wool and cotton, are likewise successful obstacles to their ascent. Circles of them are put round the stem of the tree, and, if a little refinous substance is added to them, the tree will be out of danger. Let us change the case, and suppose that insects have already got upon the trees, plants, and bushes, the hand must then be employed. But, there are some times when this is done with greater success than at others, as in the morning, the evening, and during rain. These times are preferable to any other part of the day, because coolness and humidity cause insects ta collect together, and then thcy form heaps, which may be crushed at once. If, moreover, they have gained the top, and that the height prevents their being reached with the hand, the tree must be shaken, or a pole, with rags at the end of it, employed to sweep them off. But expedients must be suggest. ed by circumstances. There is not a case, in which

the the industry of man may not remedy, in whole, or in part, the injuries sustained from infects. Some put honey in water, and place bottles, filled with the mixture, in different places : others put hollow vefsels, smooth, and varnished on the inside, among their heaps of fruit and corn. These baits have the happielt eilects; the first leads insects to drown them. felves; the second entices them to a precipice, over which they fall into the vessel, and then may be thrown into the fire, or into boiling water. Another snare, the success of which is not less happy, for securing fruit-trees, is, to lay the trunk over with glue. The most common artifice, made use of against lo. custs, is to dig a ditch in the ground, a yard in breadth, and as much in depth. A number of per, fons are then set to strike the ground from righi to left, and continue to drive them, till they fall into · the ditch, which is then filled up. The most proper time for this experiment, is the period before they have got wings, or when these are too much wetted with the dew to be uled; otherwise, they would take fight and render the labour ineffectual.

· Fresh straw, often renewed in a bed, is another secret again it feas, which every body knows, and has an interest in practising for their own repose: how. ever, it is right to mention, that no perfect tranquil, lity can be expected, while these are allowed to conceal themselves in rough boards. The aversion they have for certain things, is a circumstance which betrays them, and furnishes us with arms for their ruin, as for that of other insects. The greater part hate {moke; and therefore, no sooner feel it, than they fly, or are suffocated, when they cannot avoid it in time. It is therefore probale, that fumigation is noxious to them, especially, if, among the burnt matters, there are any substances whose (mell is disagrceable to them ; such as amber, orpiment, sulph

ur,

ur, coriander, black cumin, scabious, garlick, wormwood, bdellium, galbanum, myrrh, storax, incense, owls feathers, bats dung, hair, horns of quadrupeds, and a number of other things of this nature. We can also destroy or drive away insects, by watering the places where they are found, with quick-lime, falt dissolved in water, with dwarf elder, coloquintida, cumin, rue, and other bitter plants boiled ; or, with the gall of an ox, diffolved in water. Besides fumigation and watering, there are poisons which kill insects, such as arsenic, orpinent, hellebore and pepper prepared with common water or milk. Fire and water are of themselves aftistances as speedy as infallible. To inundate meadows for eight and forty hours, will certainly destroy the ants that infelt it. Boiling water, poured into their holes, not only destroys their niagazines, but their young. Fire must be applied at the proper time, that is, when locusts and other insects are still in their unwinged state ; then straw laid on the ground, and set on fire, will effectually destroy them. Gun powder may be used against flies, by being put into a pistol, without ramming it, and discharging the pistol, when the flies are collected on some sugar, spread on purpose, or it may be mixed with bruised sugar, and strowed in a line, and then set fire to ; but as these methods may be attended with some danger, they are to be used with caution.

We have mentioned above, the wounds inflicted on mani and other animals, by different forts of insects; we come now to the proper means of curing them. It often happens, that what causes the disease, assords the remedy, and thus, one insect sometimes cures the wound made by another, cither by crushing it, and ap. plying it to the part affected, or by anointing the part with olive oil, in which a number of the saine species has been infused. Mud may also be used as a cata.

plasm

plasm, especially when the wound is recent; and, though it may not have the power of effecting a ra. dical cure, yet it may moderate the heat of the part, and fo prevent inflamination. Some rather chule bruised herbs, such as laurel leaves, thyme, savory, marjoram, rue, and other aromatic plants; others prefer urine, with which they carefully bathe the wound.

Mercury is of fingular effect, not only for perfons troubled with vermin, but for those whose skin, flesh and bowels are affected. This metal is prepared in three different ways; boiled in water, it serves as an apozem ; mised with topical remedies, as an unguent; with purgatives, it becomes physic; and in whatever way it is wed, it always produces the desired effect. Another way of curing the same disease, is, to make a decoction of garlic, fcordium, lavender, laurel berries, and tamarind leaves, in which the body or parts affected are bathed. A balsam, compo: sed of oil of spikenard and laurel, of hellebore and flowers of sulphur may be substituted for the former. To give them additional strength, little bags, filled with saffron, may be worn under the arınpits, or camphor may be applied to the pit of the stomach, not forgetting a frequent change of linen, which has passed through a solution of salt or sea-water. For vermin, which intest those parts which it is indecent to name, the shortest and most tolerable way is, to to use a balsam, made of the juice of wormwood, of scabious, aloes, quick silver, sulphur, oil of tobacco, and dulcified mercury. For internal remedies, I ad. vise the essence of myrrh, or the tincture of antimony, corrected with the cream of tartar, spirit of hartshorn, elixir proprietatis, efsence of centaury, and in short, all those medecines, in which mercury is an ingredient. There are other insects, which are very troublufome, because they appear under the skin of

children, children, in the 'form of thick and short hairs or þristles, and so cannot be got out, without irritating them. They are discovered, and the child cured, by rubbing his back opposite to a warm stove, or in a bath of honey and garlic. The insects come forth along with the sweat, and it is then easy to scrape them off with a knife, or a crust of bread, as soon as they shew their head. Some, instead of this bath, put the children as far as the neck into a lee, in which the dung of fowls has been boiled,and allowing them to sweat, while they excite the insects to come out, by rubbing them with their hand dipt in honey. As soon as they are seen, they are scraped off as be. fore, and this must be continued two or three days, till'no more appear. During this process, it is advantageous to give the patient a dose of tincture of antimony, or essence of myrrh, and to wash him in water, in which wormwood has been steeped, and a suitable quantity of aloes.

It is customary to extirpate worms from the intestines, by various forts of bitter herbs. The most ! in use are the lefser centaury, camomile, marsh tre. foil, feverfew and rue ;, these are boiled in water, and the decoction drunk for some time. Things that are sweet, prove equally efficacious with those that are þitter, provided they be accompanied with wormseed, or infused in hydromel, or enclosed in an apple, a pear, a peach, in prunes, or any thing else that children are fond of. If they discover repugnance or disgust, and refuse to swallow these, they are fubbed on them about the navel, and the friction serves for what ought to have been taken internally. All sorts of oil, however, do not answer this purpose; they must be such as have a strong linell, and are of a glutinous and bituminous quality, for ex:mple, petroleum, oil of amber, and all those which exude from the juniper, the birch, the box, or the hazel Ii

tree.

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