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trees from the Tavages of caterpillars, better than by caresully pruning them. By this they acquire much more sap; and, as these insects are not fond of a too abundant juice, they seek, elsewhere a food more to their taste. If the approach of winter obliges them to gather together in the nests which they form at the extremities of the branches, they must be taken off, before the spring has made any progress.

It is possible that these means may not be practicable at all times; but then, other stratagems must be fallen upon, to stifle the evil in its birth. If caterpillars, ants, and other insects roam over the ground, and have not yet got upon the trees they are in search of, a stratum of ashes or of chalk must be laid at the bottom, which will obstruct their passage. I believe this to be insallible; for besides, that they are enemies to all constraint, they would be so embarrassed by these substances, that they would not be able to disengage themselves. Twisted straw, clay, wool and cotton, are likewise successsul obstacles to their ascent. Circles of them are put round the stem of the tree, and, if a little resinous substance i$ added to them, the tree will be out of danger. Let us" change the case, and suppose that insects have already got upon the trees, plants, and bustles, the hantl must then be employed. But, there are some times when this is done with greater success than at others, as in the morning, the evening, and during rain. These times are preserable to any other part of the day, because coolness and humidity cause insects tc* collect together, and then they form heaps, which may be crushed at once. If, moreover, they have gained the top, and that the height prevents their being reached with the hand, the tree must be shaken, or a pole, with rags at the end of it, employed to sweep them off. But expedients must be suggested by circumstances. There is not a case, in which "• the

the industry of man may not remedy, In whole, or in parr, the injuries sustained from insects. Some put honey in water, and place bottles, silled with the mixture, in different places: others put hollow vesfels, smooth, and varnished on the inside, among their heaps of fruit and com. These baits have the happiest effects; the sirst leads insects to drown themselves; the second entices them to a precipice, over which they fall into the vessel, and then may be thrown into the sire, or into boiling water. Another snare, the success of which is not less happy, for securing fruit-trees, is, to lay the trunk over with glue. The most common artisice, maJe use of against locusts, is to dig a ditch in the ground, a yard in breadth, and as much in depth. A number of persons are then set to strike the ground from right to left, and continue to drive them, till they fall into the ditch, which is then silled up. The most proper time for this experiment, is the period before they have got wings, or when these are too much wetted with the dew to be uled; otherwise, they would take, fiight and render the labour ineffectual.

Fresh straw, often renewed in a bed, is another secret against fleas, which every body knows, and ha? an interest in practising for their own repose: however, it is right to mention, that no persect tranquil* Jjty can be expected, while these are allowed to conceal themselves in rough boards. The aversion they have for certain things, is a circumstance which betrays them, and furnishes us with arms for their ruin, as for that of other insects. The greater part hate smoke; and therefore, no sooner seel it, than they fly, or are suffocated, when they cannot avoid it in time. It is therefore proba.de, that fumigation is noxious to them, especially, if, among the burnt matters, there are any substances whose smell is disagreeable to them; such as amber, orpiment, sulphur, ur, coriander, black cumin, scabious, garlick, wormwood, bdellium, galbanum, myrrh, ftorax, incense, owls feathers, bats dung, hair, horns of quadrupeds, and a number of other things of this nature. We can also destroy or drive away insects, by watering the places where they are found, with quick-lime, salt dissolved in water, with dwarf elder, coloquintida, cumin, rue, and other bitter plants boiled; or, with the gall of an ox, dissolved in water. Besides fumigation and watering, there are poisons which kill insects, such as arsenic, orpiaient, hellebore and pepper prepared with common water or milk. Fire and water are of themselves assistances as speedy as infallible. To inundate meadows for eight and fortyhours, will certainly destroy the ants that infest it. Boiling water, poured into their holes, not only destroys their magazines, but their young. Fire must be applied ar the proper time, that is, when locusts and other insects are still in their unvvinged state; then straw laid on the ground, and set on fire, will effectually destroy them. Gun powder may be used against flies, by being put into a pistol, without Tamming it, and discharging the pistol, when the flies are collected on some sugar, spread on purpose, or it may be mixed with bruised sugar, and strovved in a line, and then set fire to; but as these methods may be attended with some danger, they are to be uled with caution.

We have mentioned above, the wounds inflicted on mart and other animals, by different forts of insects j We come now to the proper means of curing them. It often happens, that what causes the disease, affords the remedy, and thus, one insect sometimes cures the wound made by another, either by crushing it, and applying it to the part affected, or by anointing the part with olive oil, in which a number of the fame species has been infused. Mud may also be used as a cataplasm

plasm, especially ivhen the wound is recent; afid^ though it may not have the power of essecting a radical cure, yet it may moderate the heat of the part, and so prevent inflammation. Some rather chuse bruised herbs, such as laurel leaves, thyme, savory, marjoram, rue, and other aromatic plants; others preser urine, with which they carefully bathe the wound.

Mercury is of singular essect, not only for persons troubled with vermin, but for those whose skin, flesh and bowels are afsected. This metal is prepared in three difserent ways; boiled in water, it serves as an apozem; mixed with topical remedies, as an unguent; with purgatives, it becomes physic; and in whatever waj it is uied, it always produces the desired efsect. Another way of curing the fame disease, is, to make a decoction of garlic, scoi dium, lavender4 laurel berries, and tamarind leaves, in which the body or parts afsected are bathed. A balsam, composed of oil of spikenard and laurel, of hellebore and flowers of sulphur may be substituted for the former. To g*. ve them additional strength, little bags, silled with saffron, may be worn under the armpits, or camphor may be applied to the pit of the stomach, not forgetting a frequent change of linen, which has passed through a solution of salt or sea-water. For vermin, which insest those parts which it is indecent to name, the shortest and most tolerable way is, to to use a balsam, made of the juice of wormwoods of scabious, aloes, quick silver, sulphur, oil of tobacco, and dulcisied mercury. For internal remedies, I advise the tfsence of myrrh, or the tincture of antimony, corrected with the cream of tartar, spirit of hartshorn, elixir proprieratis, essence of centaury, and in ihort, all those medecines, in which mercury is an .ingredient. There are other insects, which are very troublesome, because they appear under the skin of

children, ehildren, in the 'fcrm of thick and short hairs or bridles, and so cannot be got out, without irritating them. They are discovered, and the child cured, by rubbing his back opposite to a warm stove, or in a bath of honey and garlic. The insects come forth along with the sweat, and it is then easy to scrape them off with a krufe, or a crust of bread, as soon, as they shew their head. Some, instead of this bath, put che children as far as the neck into a lee, in which the dung of fowls has been boiled,and allowing them to sweat.while they excite the insects to come out, by rubbing them with their hand dipt in honey. As soon as they are seen, they are scraped off as before, and this must be continued two or three days, till 110 more appear. During this process, it is advantageous to give the patient a dose of tincture of antimony, or essence of myrrh, and to wash him in water, in which wormwood has been steeped, and a suitable quantity of aloes.

It is customary to extirpate worms from the intestines, by various forts of bitter herbs. The molt in use are the lesser centaury, camomile, marsh trefoil, feverfew and rue ;, these are boiled in water, and the decoction drunk for some time. Things that are sweet, prove equally efficacious with those that are bitter, provided they be accompanied with wormseed, or infused in hydromel, or enclosed in an apple, a pear, a peach, in piunes, or any thing else that children are fond of. If they discover repugnance or disgust, and refuse to swallow these, they are rubbed on them about the navel, and the friction serves for what ought to have been taken internally. All forts of oil, however, do not answer this purpose; {hey must be such as have a strong smell, and are of

the juniper, the birch, the box, or the hazel




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