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stags are used against pain and tension of the nerfre?r and against the ague. Reduced to powder, they assist delivery. Insused in oil, they relieve pain in' the ears. The powder of the dung beetle, spread on the viscera, in a rupture, makes them go back. This insect, boiled in lintseed oil, is good against the haemorrhoids, and pains in the ear. Cotton is dipped in this oil, and applied warm to the park Cockchasers are nearly of the fame nature with cantharides. Taken in powder, they promote the secretion of urine and blood, cure the bite of a mad dog, and relieve the rheumatism. Some persons apply, externally, the juice of this insect to wounds; It is likewise put into plaisters* to be used against carbuncles and tumours. By insusing this animal alive in common oil, the liquor serves the same purpose with oil of scorpions.
Cantharides are rarely taken internally, but gre?* 'use is made of them in external applications, in the form of blisters^ They are serviceable in head-achs and megrim -f in diseases of- the eyes, and in blindness, occasioned by mercury, or other remedies, that repell the humours; in singing of the ears, they are applied as blisters behind the ear: in deafness, caused by external violence, m the falling sickness, in tooth-ach. Cantharides are also a good remedy in* the sciatica, when applied to the calf of the leg; inintermittent, as well as in malignant'severs, but they are a remedy to be used with the greatest caution. The smoke of locusts is good in retention of urine* particularly in women. Some hang them round the neck in agues. They provoke urine, dissolve the stone, when eaten, or when taken in powder.
Ants likewise are much in use. They are warm, dry, and aphrodisiac, and their acid smell wondersully enlivens the vital spirits. Th« large ants are a remedy medy against the tænia, the itch, and the leprosy. To use them, they must be dissolved with a little salt, and the diseased part anointed with the liquor. The spirit of ants is an excellent remedy against diseases of ihe ear, such as deafness or ringing. Cotton dipt in this spirit is put in the ears. It fits also easy on the stomach. It fortifies all the fenses and the memory. It re-animates the strength, and gives vigour. It is preferable to all forts of apoplectic and strengthening waters, particularly in the cure of catarrhs It is externally of great use in sprains, in apoplexy and ia atrophy, caused by a wound. It is mixed with waters agreeable to the nerves, or with arthritic spirits. The eggs of ants are efficacious in deafness. If the cheeks of children are rubbed with them, the down falls off. The quantity of wind they excite, when a single dram of them is taken, is very remarkable^ If an ant nest is boiled in water, and one washes in it, it dries, warms, and fortifies the nerves. Accordingly, it is used in the gout, palsy, diseases of the matrix, and cachexy. In the nests of ants are found small bits of matter, having the smell of amber or incense. These are formed by the insects from the re« sin of pines. In Norway and in Germany, they ar« used in perfumery.
Of The Use Of Insects With Respect To Other.
I Have sufficiently proved, in the last chapter, that insects are useful to man. I shall now shew, that Dd 8 - they they are no less benessicial to the other animals. They serve them for food and physic: one insect .even is. used as food by others. Mr de Reaumur found, that some caterpillars devoured one another. But, as he observes, that they do not come to this extremity, till their proper food is withered, it is probable that these insects are driven to it by necessity, Perhaps those insects were of a species that require a deal of fluid for their subsistance. The minute pulices aquatici, which discolour the surface of waters, serve for food to the aquatic insects, which change into gnats. A most admirable ordination of Providence! Small as they are, the Author of Nature has created animals, fmajl enough to be swallowed whole by them. Of insects that live on land, spiders devour flies, wasps destroy bees, and grasshoppers anrs. Serpents often make an excellent repast of caterpillars, chasers, &c. There is a species of snail, which devours the entrails of certain insects.
The avidiry which sishes discover for certain species of insects, does not permit us to doubt, that they are to them a desirable food. The monstrous whale seeds on small sea insects. How astonishing is, it that such food can satisfy an animal of such enormous size! In rivers, gnats are almost the only food of the ihad-sisli; and the pulices aquatici are the favourite food of the tench.
Insects it is well known are the most common food of a great number of birds which seed their young with them. This is therefore the reason why ihje greater part breed only- in the spring, when there is plenty ot caterpillars on the hedges and trees. Even those of them which when old eat grain or seeds, nevertheless nourish their young with insects, birds are naturally warm, therefore they must always havje something to digest. We cannot here cease to ad
'mire nitre the wisdom of the Creator who, that birds mayriot want nourishment, has created such a prodigious multitude of insects. This wisdom is particularly remarkable in this, that ants are of all insects the most numerous, because no species is so much preyed upon by birds. Insects therefore may be said to be a sort of game after which birds are perpetually in chace. The wagtail and blackbird eat worms. Crows and starlings light upon sheep newly siv.rn, to feed on a sort of blue lice which are then visible at some distance on their skin. Ducks diving under water, devour the pulices aquatici. The little tit-mouse and red-throat very dextrously catch flies on the wing, and thin the air of them. The woodcock arid the snipe setk for small worms in the marflies. The large tom-tit will kill from ten to twelve bees, and tearing out the entrails and honey bag, convey them to its young. The eggs of the ant are the food of' the young nightingales. Swallows livq entirely on bees, and other infects which they carry to their brood. Woodpeckers seize with their tongues, the insects which live in holes of trees and in clefts in the bark. This nourishment fattens many species of birds. It is at least certain that poultry lay oftener, when they have an opportunity of feeding on beetles and earth worms.
I must here remark the wisdom and goodness of the Creator. "While he has given to birds a desire for certain insects he has also bestowed on them the necessary members and qualities for seizing them. Snipes, herons, and other water birds which are obr liged to seek for insects under water, have their bills long enough for this purpose. Ducks which are obliged for the fame purpose to remove the mud have their billj broad. The wood-peckers which penetrate tke bark of trees, have their bill hard, sharp, an,d fit for boring. The upper part of it is the most
raised, taised, and seems to be applied to the under to give more strength to the whole bill as well as to serve for ornament. When we view it, we cannot help admiring the art with which it is laboured. Besides this advantage, this bird has the tongue slender like an awl, and uses it very adroitly in catching the insects: the point of the tongue therefore is endowed with a certain hardness, and on both sides it is furnished with small curved hooks which prevent the insects from disengaging themselves when the bird draws its tongue into its mouth.
Insects likewise serve as food for quadrupeds. Ia the Indies is found an animal which hunts for insects, and devours them with avidity. The young armadillos seed on a species of locust which, because they have on their neck a sort of hood, have been called Monkt. Bears are fond of ants and honey, and they go in search with great eagerness of the rests of wild bees. The Chameleon, and some other species of lizards eat flies. The principal food of the badger is the dung beetle, worms, and other insects of that kind. If we may believeJ£liar., foxes are not only greedy of poultry, but also fond of honey, and for this purpose seek the nests of wasps. Frogs lie in wait to seize upon bees when they come to drink. Dogs dip up the Cicadas and eat them. The mole which lives in the earth, seeds on worms and millepieds.
The members of those quadrupeds that seed on insects, are provided with the necessary qualities for seizing their prey. The tongue ot that animal of the Indies, which lives on ants, is long and limber. He thrusts it out, far fiom his mouth, and darts it into an ant hill, whence, after the ants have got upon it, he withdraws it again into his mouth. The tongue of the chameleon is likewise lpng, pointed,