« 上一頁繼續 »
caules violent pain, if care is not taken to have it rè. moved. For this purpose, the Indians pals, with the greatest circumfpection, a sharp pointed and fine neejle, through the pores of the skin, at the place where this enemy lies hid. Then they turn it in every direction round the tumour, in the midft of which he resides, that they may detach it from the test of the body, and get it away with the animal himself. When this tumour is examined with a glass, the infeét is seen inclosed in a fort of transparent pearl. There are likewise observed in it, two of three fmall red points, which are the extremities of arteries. Now, if the blood pafled into the veins, by the extremities of the arteries, it would follow, that these red points, so distinciły separated, ought to unite, or at least to have fome communication with them. I do not deny all communication between the veins and arteries, but that sort only, which anatomists suppose to be made by anastomosis. There is another kind, which is made by the ramifications of the arteries and veins, and this I admit.
pins and arterne made by and the ramificante
Insects are likewise useful in the cure of difeafes. Experience testifies, that they may be employed ad. vantageously, not only for external wounds, but internal disorders. Phylicians dry these little animals in the air, or some of their parts, reduce them to powder, and give them to their parients in a conyenient vehicle, or made into the form of confection, or conserve. Some digest them in oil, and make à ballam of them ; others kill them in oil of olives, and use the oil. Some distill them while recent, which extracts a water from them, and reduces the sest to ashes, from which last is drawn, by means of the first water, a fixed falt. Different reasons may be given for the virtues contained in these little ani. mals. One, that the falt shey yield, is more pene. trating, and more volatile than that of others; that
they possess a natural oil, which produces good effects; and lastly, that they are endowed with a more efficacious sulphur.
I shall not, I think, wander from my subject, if I here mention those insects, that have hitherto been used in medicine. I begin with leeches, which, when applied externally, have the same effect with cupping glasses. The kind chosen for this operation is a small one, having its back marked with streaks, (Hi. rudo medicinalis.) They are not so hurtful as the others. Before employing them, they must be kept some time in pure water, to purge them. The place they are to be applied to must be previously rubbed with nitre, blood or clay. When they are to be rea moved, let them be sprinkled with a little falt or ashes. No external use is made of them, but for fucking the blood. In severe head-aches, they are applied to the temples ; for gentle evacuations, they are fixed on the arms or feet; they are likewise apo plied to the hæmorrhoids, to open those that are close. Sometimes they are made use of for obstructions, in female cases.
Earth worms are said to produce excellent effects in medecine. They promote perspiration, provoke urine, allay pain, soften, resolve, and dissipate conftia pations, increase milk, and cure wounds. They are often used in cases of apoplexy, in contractions of the limbs, and other accidents of the nerves and. muscles ; in jaundice, dropsy and cholic, and partia cularly in rheumatism. They are employed both in ternally and externally. When taken internally; they are bruised while fresh, mixed with wine; and strained ihrough a cloch. Others dry them, and rem , duce them to powder. For external use, they are kept either alive, or aster they are dead. Applications of living worms are good against the cramp or
, worms, when laid on the part affected. Dead worms are taken to assuage the pain, occasioned by a carious tooth, or the gout. In the first case, the hollow of the spoilt tooth is filled with their powder ; and in the last, that powder is mixed with a quantity of meal, and applied to the part affected.
Of those insects which have feet without wings, fpiders are said to be of great use in medicine. The great spider, with the cross, (Aranea diadema,) has been particularly recommended in intermitting fevers. For this purpose, it is inclosed in a nut shell, tied round the neck, or applied to the pulle, which, it is said, carries off the fever. Some persons have advised as a cure for the ague, a spider's web, mixed with the white of an egg and foot, which they apply to the pulse. A spider's web is advantageously used in hæmorrhages. • The Onisci are not less useful. These insects allt digestion, are a good attenuant and aperient; with these qualities, it is not surprising that they should . serve to dissolve viscidities, to open the vital organs in jaundice, gravel, retention of urine, and cholic; and to restore lost appetite, arising from foulness of the stomach. External applications are also made of them for diseases of the eyes, pain of the ears, and inflammation of the throat. The powder of them is mixed with honey, and rubbed on the diseased part. They are applied living, for the cure of that species of ulcer, called Phadagæna, which eats like a . cancer,
The filk-worm also deserves a place here. After being dried, and reduced to powder, they are sprink. led on the crown of the head, to defend it against vertigos and convulsions. Their web or filk produces the same effect; for, if velvet is reduced to powder,
and given to those troubled with the falling sickness, they are relieved. The smoke of silk ituffs burnt, is likewise of service to women subject to diseases of the matrix. The power of burnt caterpillars, taken like tobacco, stops bleeding at the nose. Earwigs forrify the nerves, and are good against convulsions. They may be infu.ed in oil, and after being left there far lome time, they must be boiled, and laid upon the diseased parts. The powder of this infect, mixed with the urine of a hare, and put into the ears, is good for deafness.
Those who have no repugnance at swallowing lice, will find them a specific against the jaundice. But this remedy proved fatal in one instance, to a youth, in whose stomach,when he was opened a great quantity of this loathsome infect was found. Some use them in agues; swallowing four or five of them during the fit. It is certain, chat these insects fuck the bad humours from the bodies of children. Scorpions,reduced to ashes by fire, and taken in powder, promote the discharge of urine, retained by the gravel or stone.' They furDish likewife a remedy against their own bite. It is only necessary to crush them upon the wound, or to anoint the place with oil of almonds, in which these animals have been infused. The tick burnt to pow. der, and spread on the head, makes the hair fall off. It cures the Erysipelas and itch. Bugs burnt and taken in powder, expell the after-birth. If the head is anointed with oil, in which the sea polypus is boil. ed, the hair falls off.
. Winged inseats, with membranous wings, are also of various uses in medecine. The powder of dried bees makes the hair grow, if the place they have fallen from is rubbed with it. Honey, on account of its balsamic quality, is agreeable to the breast, to the lungs and reins. Wax, applied to wounds, cleanses
them, affuapes the pain and cures them; and this is the reason, why it is an ingredient in plaisters. IC foftens corns on the feet, so that they are easily taken out. For this end, it is mixed with turpentine, in which has been put a portion of bruised verdigrease; of this is made a plailler to be applied to the corn.
• Crickets are used to fortify weak fight, the liquid substance being expressed and put into the eyes. They likewise soften the glands, when the same substance is rubbed on them. Common flies are emollient, ab. fiergent, and make the hair grow, when, after being bruised, they are applied to the bald part. The water distilled from them, is good against diseafes of the eyes. When used, it must be made into a plaister with the yolk of an egg. Galen approves this remedy. It likewise makes the hair to grow, re. moves freckles, and restores hearing. One person, sure that no purgative could have produced the effect, swallowed four or five gnars, and was effectual. ly purged. It is likewise said, that the red gnats, taken in infusion, are an excellent remedy against the falling fickness. Oil from the aphides was much ea steemed formerly. Wasps have the same qualities as · millepieds ; that is, they provoke urine, and bring away gravel. The spongy excrescences, which are seen on wild roses, are good against the gravel, but have that properly, merely because they serve as a neft to a species of ichneumon. If, like tobacco, one smokes the nest of wasps, it will appease the pain of the tooth-ach.
away grawild roles, merely bent. If, like
The other kind of infects with hard wing-cafes, are not less useful in medicine. The cochineal in: sects provoke urine, like the millepieds, because like them, they contain a deal of volatile falt. The powder of this infect, mixed with sugar, is also useful against the cholic, the stone, and the measles. Flying
, D d